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Vestiges of the historic Anglo-Hebrews in East Anglia. With appendices and an apropos essay online

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whether there was anything in when found ? Whether it had
any cover ? The name of the place where it was found ? If you
can satisfy me thereof, may be will conduce much toward the
finding out something. In the meantime I have set down as I
can. I do not know of any vessel that is used at present in
our synagogue but these : a vessel for the priests, or of the
seed of Aaron, to wash their hands, when they go to bless the
people ; secondly, a vessel to go about the synagogue to
collect alms. There is sometimes made such a vessel to preserve
the ashes of some eminent man that died a martyr for his religion,
and so it is difficult to know for which of these uses it was
intended. I leave you to conjecture the most probable of the
two last," &c., &c. [Here follows a poor attempt at an analysis
of a nondescript inscription.]


L. See page 51.

The Latin interpretation of the inscription, by Mr. Gagnier:


Josephi filii Totyta/c/Vou Kabbi Jechielis,
Memoria Justi -rovfiaicap^ov fit in Benedictionem,
Qui reddit id, quod cominodato acceperat,*

Synagogso ^ahwelensi ;

Quatenus mereatur videre faciem 2 Arielis,

In coetu,f in Lege 3 Jekutielis ;

Et Justitia I'ib&rdbit d Morte.

l Kahwel, nomen urbis Provinciee Volhyniee, in Polonise.J
2 'Ariel, i.e., Leo Dei, nomen Altaris Templi Hierosolymitani.
3 Jekutiel, i.e., Expectatio Dei, sic appelatur populus Judaiicus

adventum Messiso, de quo in precibus suis quotidie dicunt :

Venial cito in diebus nostris.

M. See page 56.

The following brief account of De Lyra is given by Bishop
Bale in his " Illustrium Majoris Brittanise Catalogue. "

Nicolaus Lyranus ex Judsoorum genere Anglus ; atque
Hebrseorum Rabbinos in literis Hebraicis ab ipsa pueritia

* Ignorance of the technical phrase for Rabbinical expositions and disqui-
sitions dictated the above translation.

t The interpreter had here mistaken the grouping of the letters;
instead of reading, as he ought to have done, m 2TO3> he read
m^ r\D2> hence the eccentric translation.

J This is an ingenious invention, in the absence of a better knowledge of the
Hebrew language ; else the otherwise learned Frenchman would have trans-
lated the word vSin2> according to its import.

Nor was Mr. Gagnier more successful here ; the information respecting
the Jews calling the coming of the Messiah Jekutiel, is by no means reliable.


nutritus, illud idioma sanctum ad unguem, ut loquuntur, novit.
Qui mox ut frequentasset scholas publicas, ac minoritarum
quorundam sincerioris judicii audisset conciones ; abhorrere
coepit a Talmudicis doctrinis, atque ita a tota sua gentis insania
stultissima. Conversus ergo ad Christ! fidem, ac regenerationis
lav aero lotus, Franciscan orum families, se statim adjunxit. Inter
quos scripturis sanctis studiosissimus ac longa exercitatione
peritus, Oxonii et Parisiis, cum insulsissimis Rabbinis, qui
plebem Judaicum vana Messise adventuri pollicitatione lactave-
rant disputationibus et scriptis, mirifice conflictavit. Denique
contra eorum apertiseimas blasphemias, utrumque Dei testamen-
tum diligentiori examine et elucidatione explanavit. Si in
plerisque, ut ei a multis imponitur, deliravit, tempori est impu-
tandum, in quo fere omnia erant hypocritarum nebulis obscurata.
Meliorem certe cseteris omnibus per earn setatem navavit in
scripturis operam. De verborum simplicitate non est quod con-
queritentur homines, cum a vocabulis eestimanda non sit seterni
patris veritas. Prseclara scripsit opuscula, ut prsedictus Tritemius
habet, quibus nomen suum celebriter devenit ad posteritatis no-
titiam. Doctor Martinus Lutherus, in secundo et nono capitibus
in Grenesim, se ideo dicit amavisse Lyranum atque inter optimos
posuisse quod pree cseteris interpretibus diligente fuerit historiam
prosecutus. Claruit A.C. 1337, quo Danielem exposuit, ac
Parieiis demum obiisse fertur.



WHATEVER opinion the intelligent reader may have
formed touching the manner in which the subject, in
the preceding pages, has been treated ; he must have
come to one conclusion only respecting the matter,
which has been brought in bold relief, under
consideration in those pages. Every sober, serious,
thoughtful reader must admit that the subject matter
is prolific of manifold suggestions. It suggests an
indissoluble connexion between sacred and secular
history ; especially as regards the chronicles of the
nation and people of Israel. It suggests that the
best and shortest method by which to put to silence
shallow-minded sceptics, would-be philosophical free-
thinkers the so-called rationalistic neologians of
the present day is to recommend the modern disciples
of Spinoza, or Voltaire, a more critical study of the
annals of Israel ancient and modern than their


masters, just named had ever enjoyed.* It suggests that
Israel is a sort of KOSMOS, that the history of the na-
tion is as peculiar as the people themselves. PECULIAR
in the Bible sense, and in the modern secular sense.
It suggests that in whatever country the scattered seed
of Israel had been sown I use advisedly a prophetic
idiom -\ there it not only took deep root, but
when it sprang up into a tree, with wide spreading
branches, the latter became so entwined with the
branches of the native trees, that to describe the
growth of the one without that of the other, would
prove an imperfect, and therefore unreliable descrip-
tion. It suggests the truth and the applicability of
it to all times of the great apostolic dictum, " Even
so, then, at this present time, there is a remnant
according to the election of grace. " The Jewish
people bitter and intolerant as their national hostility
has hitherto been to the terms of the NEW TESTAMENT,

*The most erudite, philosophical, and masterly exposure of
Voltaire's attacks in his Philosophical Dictionary and other
works upon the Hebrew Scriptures and nation, has been pub-
lished, just a century ago, under the title of " Letters de quelques
Juifs, Portuguais, Allemandes, et Polonais." The work has gone
through many editions, in the original, since it was first pub-
lished. In England, or rather in Ireland, a very indifferent
translation of it appeared soon after the first original edition was
published, and has been out of print a few years short of a hun-
dred. A new translation of the last French edition, edited with
ability, so as to embrace the sceptical lucubrations of recent
years, would prove a most valuable defence of THE FAITH, at this
present day. I am glad to say that Lady Pigot has courageously
undertaken the task of TRANSLATOR and EDITOR.

f Hosea ii. 23. J Eom. xi. 5.


or COVENANT have never been without some of " the
Israel of God."* In the darkest and gloomiest
hours of the Christian Church at Rome, there was a
Saul, or Paul, who could boldly stand up and trium-
phantly ask, " I say, then, Hath God cast away His
people 1 " Answer, " God forbid ! For I also am an
Israelite, of the seed of Abraham," &c., &c.,f i.e.,
" I am a living and moving argument against the
preposterous supposition."

I might contrive to gather in a very large harvest
of suggestions, for the fecundity of the subject matter
is in this respect almost illimitable, but let every
reader be his own reaper. There is only one sugges*
tion more that I wish to name, as the starting-point of
this little Essay ; namely, that the annals of the Anglo-
Hebrews provide as fine a field for a Niebuhr as the
History of Rome ever proved. The Tower, the Chap-
ter-House, Westminster Abbey, the Public Record Of-
fice, &c., &c., ^ abound with materials for such a
literary enterprize. But a stubborn question arises.
"What class of Her Majesty's subjects, in this
country, can present so candid, impartial, and critical
a Niebuhr at once so equal to the task, and disposed
to do justice to every portion of the Jewish nation in
this country 1 The Gentiles, or the Jews themselves "? "
It may be answered by the former :

* See Note* p. 22.

f Rom. xi. 1.

J Mr. J. Burtt, of the Public Record Office, is now engaged
upon a catalogue, for the printer, of the ancient deeds in all the
above-named archives ; he assures me that the Hebrew
Shetars are both numerous and interesting.


" Of course we have the men equal to the task.
Look at our Stanley, our Froude ; they are only repre-
sentatives of large classes, of our able historians,
in Church and State." I reply,

" Neither your Stanley nor your Froude fair repre-
sentatives though they be of large classes of your able
historians in Church and State possess the peculiarly
requisite qualification for writing the history of the
dispersed of Israel, since the dismemberment of the
nation. To write such a history, it is necessary to be
conversant with the whole range of Hebrew literature,
since the close of the canon of Scripture. Very often
a single sentence only, may be detected in a scarce
Hebrew volume, which gives the clue to the solving
of a perplexing historical problem. Such an ac-
quaintance neither a Gentile Stanley, nor a Gentile
Froude possess."

" Not a Stanley ! Did he not publish a sparkling
* History of the Jewish Church ! '

" Yes, yes ; that was the Jewish Church of the Old
Testament. His materials for it were made ready to
his hand, in the existing translations of the Hebrew
Scriptures, as well as other auxiliaries, such as
Ewald's productions, &c. Even with all those acces-
sories, he fell into many grave errors, by reason of not
possessing a critical knowledge of the original. A
specimen error I pointed out in a note to an article
which I wrote for the ' Scattered Nation,' for January

"Cannot the Anglo-Hebrews themselves, who,
undoubtedly, have many learned men amongst them,


produce a historian equal to the task of writing the
annals of the Jews in this country 1 "

Hitherto, whilst the English Jews have distin-
guished themselves in various literary and scientific
pursuits, they have not attempted a history of their
people in this country. I cannot conceal my convic-
tion that a Niebuhr- Jewish historian cannot be found
in any of the synagogues of Europe. The Jewish
people of the present day may be thus classified, (1)
Talmudical, (2) " Reformed," and (3) Christian. The
antipathy which exists between the two former, to-
wards one another, is almost as virulent as that be-
tween Ultramontane Roman Catholics and Hibernian
Orangemen. They cannot speak of one another with im-
partiality, much less write so. They brand each other
with the most disparaging stigmas. Such persons
as are in the habit of reading the Jewish newspapers
and periodicals, published at home and abroad, will
endorse the truth of my statement. Let me be
thoroughly understood, I am speaking of the writing
members of those two sections. There are many
noble exceptions, in either body, to specimens ot
which I shall presently allude ; but those exceptions
for reasons that I shall anon make plain do not trouble
themselves about controversial subjects, or Jewish

Whilst the former two sections of the " House of
Israel " are at constant feuds amongst themselves,
they invariably coalesce in vilifying the last-named,
and smaller, section of their people, namely, the
Christian Jews. Implacable virulence, and deadly


hate, marks the attitude of the two former towards
the latter. Their organs in this country, as well as on
the continent, breathe uncharitable denunciations
against the " remnant according to the election of
grace." Yet a historian of the annals of the Jewish
nation would have to notice the existence of that
remnant it is on the increase every day ! Would
either the Talmudical Jew, or the " Reformed " Jew,
treat them with candour and justice 1 Certainly not.
Let any one peruse the Jewish Weeklies in this
country, and he will see the gratuitous and frenzied
obloquy heaped, by their penmen, upon the Christian
Jews; those the scribblers repeat, unabashed, over
and over again, after the falsehood of their statements
has been exposed a hundred times. Just like so
many Codruses and Welsteds, whom Pope, the prince
of English satirists, appropriately described in the
following lines :

" Who shames the scribbler ? Break one cobweb through,
He spins the slight, self-pleasing thread anew ;
Destroy his fib or sophistry ; in vain,
The creature's at his dirty work again.
# # # # #

Pull ten years slandered did I e'er reply ?

Three thousand suns went down, on "Welsted'e lie ! "

" The remnant according to the election of grace,"
may change the first three words of the last-quoted
couplet into " Full eighteen hundred years." Such
has been the experience of " Jhe remnant," from the
nation's Scribes, Pharisees, Sadducees, and Priests,
ever since the Redeemer began to call sinners to


repentance. Many a time did the fourfold hostile
element of unbelief coalesce to crush out THE FAITH
from the midst of the nation; but THE FAITH has
been leavening the nation now more, now less ever
since it was promulgated, and never more so than at
this present time. The above-named coalition was
never more rampant, more fierce, more reckless in their
libellous statements against " the remnant," than since
the beginning of this century. The historians which
either the Talmudical, or the " Reformed" Jews have
since produced have proved themselves partial, narrow-
minded, unscrupulous, unjust, and unreliable, when
they spoke or wrote of Christian Jews.* It will be
long ere the virulent attack is forgotten, which the
Jews of London made upon Mr. Samuda, at the late
general election ; simply because he dared to be
obedient to the dictates of his conviction and con-
science, and own the divine claims of Israel's New
Testament as well as the Old. Well might a Gentile
Christian have exclaimed, " Ah ! what a fate for
Christians, if such Israelites as scribble in the Jewish
papers swayed the sceptre of political authority ! M

I have named this Essay APROPOS, for more
reasons than one ; the most apparent one will be found
in the several digressions, which occurred to my mind,
as I was carried along in the train of thought on the
main subject, but I considered them at the same time
apropos to the grand junction. There is an episode in
the life of the late Dr. M'Caul, the most faithful and
true Gen tile-Christian-friend that the Jewish nation has

* As a specimen, see Appendix F.
G 2


ever had, which seems to me to be relevant to the topic
under review.

Whilst Dr. M'Caul resided at Warsaw, a very
learned chief rabbi, upwards of fifty years of age,
from, a neighbouring town, called upon him, and
solicited further instruction in the Christian religion ;
as he was convinced that Judaism without Christianity
was only " the shadow of death." On entering into
conversation with the enquirer, Dr. M'Caul found
him a man of great learning, having a soul deeply
solemnized, a spirit profoundly devout, and a heart
breaking to be at peace with God. No Gentile knew
the Jews better than Dr. M'Caul did, he therefore
said to his visitor :

"My good rabbi, you know the animosity which
your people evince towards one of themselves who
returns to the teaching of the Bible, with regard to
their Redeemer. You know that they will not scruple
to accuse you of the most heinous crimes, and
inconsistencies, the moment that they find out that
you are feeling your way back again to the fold of
Israel's Shepherd."

" Yes," rejoined the sorrow-stricken rabbi, " I
thought of that too. I know that, though to-day I am
esteemed by my people as one of the saints of the
earth, to-morrow when the step which I am deter-
mined to take shall transpire my name shall be cast
out as evil, and all manner of false accusation will be
hurled against me. I have, however, provided against
THE FAITH being sullied on my account. Here is
the means of rebutting any attempt against my charac-


ter. I told my people that I was about to resign
my post, and remove to Warsaw. As I was a stranger
in the Polish metropolis, I asked the heads of the
congregation to testify to my religious and moral cha-
racter, according as they conscientiously thought of
me. Read what they say, and keep the paper by you."

Dr. M'Caul read the testimonial, numerously and
influentially signed; it endorsed the high opinion
which he had formed of his visitor, and Rabbi Abra-
ham Jacob Schwartzenberg became one of his catechu-
mens, preparatory to receiving the sacrament of bap-
tism. When the leading men, of the rabbi's ex-congre-
gation, heard thereof, they came to Warsaw, sought out
Dr. M'Caul, and overwhelmed him with hideous charges
of dishonesty, immorality, and impiety, against their
former pastor. To whom the Christian minister quietly
rejoined, "Possibly Rabbi Abraham Jacob Schwartzen-
berg is as disreputable as ye represent him to be; but in
what repute do ye hold the men who signed THIS
TESTIMONIAL!" He suited the action to the word, and
held up the instrument before the eyes of the accusers,
that they might see their own names. Of course they
left the house covered with shame and confusion of
face. But did the slanderers cease their revilings ]
No; they circulated a report that their late rabbi had
gone mad.

One word more about Schwartzenberg. He lived for
upwards of twenty years after his admission into the
Church by baptism; he never laid aside his long
national dress, he mixed amongst his brethren,
notwithstanding their cruel ill-treatment, and lovingly


preached the Gospel to them. The Jews labour under
a sort of hallucination, that every Hebrew-Christian,
on his death-bed, recants his Christian profession of
faith, by repeating the words, " Hear, O Israel, the
LORD our God is one LORD;" the Jews of Warsaw were
therefore on the qui vive when the vital spark in that
venerable "Israelite indeed " was about to quit the
mortal frame. They crowded the dying saint's cham-
ber. "What were his very last words on earth to be"?
"Brethren, you wish to know in what faith I am
dying! If every drop of blood in me were vocal,
endowed with speech, each such drop would cry aloud
that I am dying full of joy and peace, believing in
the redemption of Israel, through the Lord Jesus
Christ." He spoke no more on earth after that.*

" Blush, Calumny ! and write on his tomb,
If honest eulogy can spare thee room,
Thy deep repentance !"

The Jewish Codruses and Welsteds are very fond of
telling their readers what certain " Christians " think
of " the remnant." Let me put them in possession of
the view of " the remnant " touching this part of the
story. As for the opinion which the spiritually igno-
rant, i.e., the mere nominal Gentile "Christian," forms
of the Hebrew Christians, picked up from some anti-
Christian Jew, it is to the maligned a matter of perfect
indifference. Those "Christians" can as much under-

* A portrait of that Christian Israelite appears as a frontis-
piece to the first edition of my "Fundamental Principles of
Modern Judaism Investigated."


stand the soul's conversion, as the born blind can
comprehend the beauty of the colours of the rainbow,
or as the born deaf can appreciate the melody and
harmony of the " Creation," or as the poor demented
maniac can understand the connexion between the
subject and predicate of a logical syllogism. Those
" Christians " are probably altogether ignorant that

" 'Twas a Jew that shed His blood

Our pardon to procure ;
'Tis a Jew that sits above,
Our blessings to secure."

The fact would probably be new to those " Chris-
tians" that Hebrew Christians were moved by the
Spirit of God to pen the sublime records contained in
the New Testament. Such " Christians " may well
sit at the feet of anti-christian Jews, and learn of them
how to revile " the Israel of God."

Those Jewish masters, along with their Gentile dis-
ciples, affect to sneer at Hebrew Christians, because
the latter have renounced the religion which was
invented by the Talmudists, and withal so repugnant
to sound reason, revelation, and common sense in
which they were born.* It is a pet, though a very
silly, phrase, with such sapient philosophers, that a man
ought to die in the religion in which he was born, be
it ever so untenable ; and that, notwithstanding that

* I am revising and enlarging the last edition of my " Funda-
mental Principles of Modern Judaism Investigated." It will
appear under the more comprehensive title, "The Whole Plan of
Post-Biblical Judaism."


revelation has made known ONLY ONE, "Holy, Just,
and Good !" Were the aboriginal Britons wrong in
having given up their hideous and murderous form of
idolatry for " the glorious Gospel of the living God V
In what condition would now the British sages have
been, if all their ancestors had died worshippers of
Odin, or Thor 1 Were Copernicus and Galileo
wrong in accepting a different creed, with respect
to the solar system, from that in which they were
born, bred, and educated 1 No, no ; principles are
not necessarily sound, simply because our forefathers
espoused them ; nor are creeds inevitably tenable, or
orthodox, because they were instilled into our minds
from our cradles.

The goodwill which the Hebrew Christians value
they possess. The spiritually-educated Gentile
Christians know full well that the former were the
founders of the Christian Church. They are well
aware that the " Israel of God " are, at the present
moment, most important witnesses for God's truth in
the midst of a perverse and gainsaying generation,
and they treat them accordingly. Let me just adduce
an illustration. Last year was held a very influential
meeting of the clergy of the deanery of East Chester,
at Gateshead, under the presidency of the Archdeacon
of Durham. There were about thirty clergymen
present; the subject for consideration was the "Con-
vocation of the two Provinces." Who was selected to
draw up a paper on the important question ? We
were informed through the public press, metropolitan
and provincial, that the Rev. Samuel Asher Herbert,


Rector of St. James's, Gateshead, " read an able and
interesting paper upon the defects in the constitution
of Convocation of the Church." The paper was un-
animously adopted by the meeting of learned and
Christian gentlemen ; and those who have read the
Brochure must pronounce it a masterpiece.* Who is the
Rector of St. James's, Gateshead 1 An Anglo-Hebrew
Christian grandson of the founder of the Bedford
synagogue. He was introduced into the Christian
Church, by the sacred ordinance of baptism, in 1836,
at the ripe age of twenty-three; the officiating minister
being the catechumen's uncle, himself a former rabbi
of Bedford. Upwards of twenty persons from that
single family are now consistent members of the
Christian Church.

A worthy relative of mine, at Paris, has published
this year a clever work, entitled " Eighteen Centuries
of Christian Prejudice,"^ being an appeal on the part
of the Jews to the Gentiles, against the long and
deep-rooted hatred which the latter entertain towards
the former ; as well as a protest against the unjust
calumnies with which the Gentiles aspersed the Jews
during those long eighteen hundred years. Mutatis
mutandis, it would be an apposite title for an appeal,
on the part of " the remnant," to the residuary of the
Jewish nation, on the same score which my Jewish
kinsman pleads with Gentile Christians.

* " Convocation : Its present constitution, and its requirements
for the work of the Church."

f " Dix-huit Siecles de Prejuges Chretiens," Par Leon Hol-


Let me now, after this long, though apropos di-
gression, return to the principal topic of the Essay.
Every well-informed scholar must maintain that
neither the representatives of the Talmudical, nor
those of the " Reformed " Jews, are qualified to write
an unprejudiced history of the Anglo-Hebrews, or of
the Hebrew nation anywhere. I would go a step
farther, and maintain that the eighteen centuries of
prejudice has disqualified the representatives of the
residuary I mean the Christ-rejecting Jews, to write
soberly, critically, with a " literary conscience," on
any subject which appertains, directly or indirectly, to
their system of theology. As an illustration, I need
only mention the notoriously highly-coloured and

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