Moses Stuart.

Critical history and defence of the Old Testament canon online

. (page 37 of 38)
Online LibraryMoses StuartCritical history and defence of the Old Testament canon → online text (page 37 of 38)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


ft^g yspeaetog 'lovdaioig, to PoiAi^aiP avtd '&bov doyfiata, xfci
tovjoig i^fispeip, xal vnsQ avt^p si dioi '&ii6H6ip tjdmg.

• Translation. We have sot a countless number of booka,
fLiscordant and arrayed against each other ; but only tuH^ mid
twenty booksy containing the history of every age, which are justr*
ly accredited as divine [old editions of Josephus read merely :
" w^hich are justly accredited" — &sia comes from Eusebius' tran-
script of Josephus in Ecc. Hist. HI. 10] ; and of tiiese, Jtvt be-
long to Moses, which contain both the laws and the history of
the generaticms of men until his death. This period lacks but
little of 3000 years. From the death of Mpsps, moreover, until
the reign of Artaxerxes, [Euseb.-r— * from the death of Moses to
that of Artaxerxes' — and so most of the Codices omitting OQX^Sf
reign]y king of the Persians after Xerxes, the prophets who fol-
lowed Moses have described the things which were done during
the age of each one respectively, in tkirieen books. The remain-
vagfotar contain hymns to God, and rules of life for men. From
the time of Artaxerxes, moreover, until our present period, all
occurrences have been written down ; but they are not regarded
as entitled to the like credit with those which precede them, because
there was ns' certain succession of prophets. Fact has shown what
confidence we place in our own writings. For although so ma-
iiy ages have passed away, no one has dared to add to them, nor



Digitized



by Google



A^TEmyix: JOSEFH^S. 481

to take anything fit>m tbem, nor to make alterations. In d) Jewi
it is implanted, even fh>m thek Mrdi, to regard lliem as being
tke instructions of God, and to abide steadftody l^ tbem^ a|id i
it be necessary to die j^adly for them.

Bemarks on this passage are unnecessary, as they are so
fully made in the preceding pages, viz. p. 223 seq. Of aH
the testimony among ancient writers about the Old Testar-
ment, this is unquestionably the most important The intd-
Bgence, the connections, the official character, and the integ-
rity of Josephus, all consph-e to render him worthy of the most
Entire credit The matter is not one about which he could
be in doubt, when he speaks the views and feelings of his
countrymen. The latter part of his testimony makes it quite
certain, that he did so speak ; for he tells us explidtly what
the views and feelings of the Jews had always been, in refer*
ence to their sacred books. To say as Herbst, many other
Bomanists, and some of the Geologists do, that Josephus only
gives us his own private opinion, is saying what is contra-
dicted by his own explicit statement The appeal to the
Talmud, rather than to him, to determine the ancient number
of the sacred books, respectively contained in the division of
the Prophets and of the Hagiography, is altogether uncritical
and inadmissible. The admission of such an appeal by Neo-
logists, in order to maintain their favourite views about the
lateness of Daniel and the Chronicles, shows fully that the
spirit of party and of prejudice is not bj any means confined
to the so-^led Orthodox.



No. IV.

Testimony of Melito, bishop of Sardis, (flor. A. D, 170), presented by
Eusebius in Ms Historia Ecc. Lib. IV. c 26.

itoaa^ OTzovd^ t'q nqog tov Xoyov iqcltiievog yBvia&ai aot «x>lo-
yccff, Ix rs tov vifiov xal toiv TtQOCpf^iav negl tov contriQog xai
ndarig trig nictttog ^fidip • in ds luu fia&eip %ij9 wr naXauSr



Digitized



by Google



433 APPKNDIX: KKLITO.

^lia^ i^l^^g axQi^uxt^, noca tcv iQt^fbv x«m onoXa r^
7a^iv ihvf ianovdaaa 90 touwto TiQa^oUf imcrcifiBrog ffov to
anaudcuo9 fteQi t^t niiJtiVf xal gfdofiCD&ig tibqI rot X6yo>p •
or* re fidhara nartav Ttod'tp t<5 ngog 0eov tavta nqoKQiveig^
mqi Trig aiG)viov Cfarriqiag ayaaviCoiuvog • aveXd'^v ow eig
trjv dvatoX^p, xal eaig tov zonov yevofASPog iv&a iHtj^x^
xou in^x&ri^ xo* dxQi^^g (jia'&tov rd r^g naXcuag diad-i^xt^
^i^Xia, VTtord^ag inefjixpd aoi * cJy iau tu ovofiata * Maiv-
aifog Ttivta ' ysvsatgy e^odogy Xeviuxov, dQid^fiol, devtegovo^
luov . 'Irjawg Navij, KQitaiy !Pov^, BcunXemv tsadOQiZj na-
QoXeinofiivoov dvo, WaXfio^ Ja^ld, sSoXofJuavog nccQOifilcu
ij xou aoq)iot, ixxXriautctyg, ^Cfxa dafidzofv, '/wj? • IlQoqii^^Vy
^Hadiov, ^leQEfuov, t<Sp doidsxa iv fAoyo^t§X(p, JaviijX, jTcffi-
HnyX, ""Eadqag • i| cav xcu tag ixXoydg inotrjadfMtjv, eig IJ ^t^-
Xia disXoip.

Translation. Mefito to ODesimus his brother, greeting,
^oce you have often requested, through the earnest desire that
you cherish for the word [of God], that you might have a selec-
tion made for you from the Law and the Prophets, which has
respect to our Saviour and the whole of our faith ; and since
moreover you have been desirous to obtain an accurate account
of the ancient hooks, both as to their number and their order ; I
have taken pains to accomplish this, knowing your earnestness
in respect to the faith, and your desire for instruction in regard
to the word; and most of all, that you, while striving after eter-
nal salvation, through desires after God, give a preference to
these things. Making a journey therefore into the east [Pales-
tine], and having arrived at the place where these things [i. e.
scriptural events] were proclaimed and transacted, I there learn-
ed accurately the books of the Old Testament, which I here ar-
range and transmit to you. The names are as follows : The five
books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuter-
onomy. Then Joshua of Nun, Judges, Ruth, fbur books of
Kings, two of Chronicles. The Psalms of David, the Proverbs
of Solomon (also called Wisdom), Ecclesiastes, the Song of
Songs, Job. Prophets : Isaiah, Jeremiah, the Twelve in one
book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Ezra. From these I have made selections,
distributing them into six books.

Bemarks on this passage, sufficientlj copious, the reader
will find on pp. 258 seq. above. As the earliest Chnstiaii



Digitized



by Google



wrker who has given us a list of the €M Test, books^ and ad
a man of moch learning and distinguished piety, his testimony



Digitized



by Google



4M AmuiDix: OKiasK«.

tbdir alphabet'' Then, after some remarks, he adds: ^Mareo^
ver the ttveniy^wo 6odb of the Hebrews are these ; the book en-
titled Genesis by us, but by the Hebrews BresUhj from the be-
ginning of the book, for this means in the heginning ; Exodus,
Oualesmoihj i. e. these are the names ; Leviticus, Ouxkra^ i. e.
and he called ; Numbers, Ammesphekodim ; Deuteronomy, EUe
Httddthctrim^ i. e. these- are the words; Joshua the son of Nun,
Joiut hen Noun ; Judges, Ruth, with them [the Hebrews] in
one, Sophetim ; Kings first and second, among them one, Sam-
ottdy the caUed of God ; Kings third and fourth in one, Ouamme-
lech Davidy i. e. the reign of David ; Chronicles {or Supplement)
first and second, in one, Dibre Atamtnty i. e. accounts of the
times; Ezra first and s^ond, in one^ Ezra, which means hdper;
the book of Psalms, Sepher ThUlim ; the Proverbs of Solonooa,
MidoA; Ecclesiastes, Kodeik; the Song of Songs, Sir Hamr-
vn ; Isaiah, Jesata ; Jereniiah with Lamentations and the epis-
tle, in one, Jeremia ; Daniel, Daniel ; Ezekiel, leezkel ; Job, Job ;
Esther, Esther. Besides these, there are the Maccabees, which
are inscribed Sarbeih Stcrhene EL

. The names in litdic, are the representatives of the Hebrew
names of the books. Of the twenty-two books, said by Ori'-
gen to belong to Hebrew Scriptures, he prodaees (as related
by Eusebius), only twenty-on«. But there can be no doubt
that this is an error either in the copy of Eusebius, or.of some
of his transcribers. (See on this subject p. 260 above). The
fact that Bafinus, in his translation of Origen, specifies the
Twelve Minor Prophets (in one book, as always in ancient
times), which are omitted in the catalogue above, and also the
nature of the case, (since Origen has said that there are twen-
ty-two books), make it entirely clear that Origen's catalogue
originally contained, or was intended to contain, the Prophets
in question.

In respect to the Macg abbes, the Hebrew title which Ori-
gen has given it, (the first book only is meant), shows that he
was acquainted with the work in Hebrew ; in which, no doubt,
it was originally composed. So says Jerome : " Maccabaeo-
rum primum librum Hebrmcum reperi. Secundus Graecus
est ; quod ex ipsa quoque phrasi probari potest ; i. e. The
first book of the Maccabees I found in Hebrew. The second



Digi



tized by Google



APPENBDC: OBI6EN. 4dJ(

» Greek ; which is evident ^m ito phraseology,'' In ProL
Galeato. This is the reason why Origen speaks of it as be-



Digi



tized by Google



separatelj., !s plain fh>m Jer. xkxtL I eanaot bat fed, thstt
gome of the epistles named in the bod^ of Jeremiah were
aided to it, at least in the copj which Origen had, in Hie
waj of aa i^spencbige, instead of being incoiporated wkh die
main body of the work. In the time of Jerome, the apoeryw
phal Epistle of Jereouah, as HeHbst confesses (Einl. p. 14)^
wes inoorpomted wi^ Bttnich, as a »xjth chapter, (and so o(B»
tentimes since) ; and yet of this Jerome says expressly c
** Librum Barnch, qui apud Hebraeos nee legitur nee hahetuTy
praetermisimus, i. e. the book of Baruch, which the Hebrews
neUher read nor possess, we pass by." We most, therefore,
^ther attribute error to Ori^n in respect to the JBpisiU m
f nestkm, or explain it in some soch way as I have done. The
Oouneil of Laodicea, as wiU be seen in the sequel, Hilary^
also CyriU of Jerusalem, Athanasius, and Synopsis Scripturae
(in Of^ Aihanas.), all exhibit the same, or the like difficult
ties, in regard to the component parts of Jeremiah, probably
copying in this rei^ect the representation of Origen. The
disj<Hnted and as it were fragmentary state of Jeremiah in ao^
cient times, (witness the Septuagint Version), is in all proba^
bility the basis of this peculiarity in some of the ancient lists
of the scriptural books. The matter has not yet been fully
cleared up ; but the weight of testimony is altogether against
the supposition of an apocryphal book bdng meant.



No. VL

List of canonical Books as made out by the CouncH of LaocUoea ;
(between A. D. 360—^64.)

Can. 59. '^Ou oi 9u idiomiKovg ipaliAeig Xsyea&cu iv r$ ht*
nliiol^y aide dxapoPMta §i§lia, dkXa iwfa tc^ %avopim t^Q
iMUiP^S Hal nffXoAag du»&i^Ht^, Can. 60. "Oca dsi ^i^Ua ava-
yw^Kt0&m tijs nahuas diad^Htig * a, Fepsmg yo<r/a)v. ^9
^^£^060^ is ^Atytmtov, /, AwiMMov. ^, A^^fwi. i, Jev-^
n^Qvifuoif. ct\ 'I^oUg Nasni. C> Kgitm. 'Pov&. iy, 'Ear



Digitized



by Google



▲PPEKDiX : COUNCIL OF LXODIOBA. '4Sf

ii^j IletQeiiuat HaXoimrtog, iiy 'Ei^f^MUJtijs. ujt% j4iS'

Translation. Canon 59. Private Psalms nriust not be read
Id the church, nor uncanonical. books, bnt only the canonic^
ones of the New and Old Testaments. Canon GO. The books
of the Old Testament which ought to be read : (1) Genesis of
the world. (2) Exodus from Egypt (3) Leviticus. (4) Num-
bers. (5) Deuteronomy. (6) Joshua of Nun. (7) Judges, Ruth,
(8) Esther. (9) I. Kings, first and second [I and IL Samuel].
(10) n. Kings, first and second. (11) Chronicles, first and sec-
ond. (12) Ezra; first and second [i. e. Ezra and Nehemiah].
(13) The book of Psalcns, 150. (14) Proverbs of Solomoa
(15) Ecclesiastes. (16) Song of Songs. (17) Job. (18) Twelve
Prophets. (19) Isaiah. (20) Jeremiah and Baruch, the Lamen-
tations and the Epistles. (21) Ezekiel. (22) Daniel

The Hagiography are here all put in junqtion together ;
Chronicles is joined with the historical books; Esther is
placed before them ; Job after the Hagiography ; the twelve
Prophets before the others ; and Daniel along with them ; as
in our Bibles. But as this Council used the Septuagint, we
cannot saj with certainty that they followed any of the usual
Hebrew copies in arrangement How near they come to Ori-
gen, is plain from the peculiar alleged contents of the book of
Jeremiah. Baruch and the (apocryphal ?) Epistle both are
included. These were probably now joined in one book,
(as in Jerome's time), and so they are here named. The so-
lution of this phenomenon which appears most probable to me,
I have already given in my remarks on the Ibt of Origen. .



No. vn.



Cyrill of Jerusalem, (flor. A. D. 350), in Hierosol. Catechesis, IV. No.
33—36. 0pp. p. 69. edit. ToutteL

*4vayiv(aaH6 rag Odag ygaq^g, rag sfxoat dvo §l^Xovg t^g
aaXaidg dia&^^xi^g, rag vno rap i^dofAi^xorra dio SQiifivsvrwp
37*



Digi



tized by Google



$^fi9fpmf^9imcg. .^ ... ^- Tov pifmv ^ /c^ maw m !!•»-

$tm tw K^tdkf fieta t^g *Pm>^ ^i^Uo^ t^dofiop aQ%&fwv§»-
ni9^ tip di lomm icroQix»v ^i^limpy nQ^ttj utu de»tiqa %Af
fiaadeuaPy fua naq 'E^Qoioig iatl ^i^lo^ * (Ua di xm ^ ^Uq
KOi ^ tatoQtii ' Ofioio^ di na^ avtoic hcu toiv nagaXein^fAi'
peap ^ n^Tij xoi ^ devtiga, ^lia tvyxaPBi ^i^log, xai f ov ''Eff"
S^ ^ MQiotfj xcu $1 devriQOy fua XsloyuTtcu * dmSexajtj ^1^X09
1; 'Ec'&iiQ* Kcu ta (tip tat 0Q$ xa tavta. tot di at oixVQ^
tvfiavei TtiptSf 7ca^, not ^l^Xog ^^aXfjKov, xal TlaQomiaiy xoi
*ExxXr^ai{iat^gf hcu ^apia q^fjtdtoip, iTTTaxaidixatap ^i^liop •
im di tovtois tangoiffitixa nipta • t<Sp doidex» ngo^^
teip lua ^f^log, hou 'Haatav fuciy xcu 'leQBfuow fiBta Boqwx
$uu ^q^p(ap xm intatoXijg * ehu 'la^exi^X * xai 17 tai /lami(L
tlxoatfidwttQa ^i^Xog trig naXeuag dia&^xtjg.

Translatioiv. Make yourself well acquainted yvith the divine
Scriptures, the twenty-two books of the Old Testament, whidi
were translated by ^e aeventy-two iBterpreCers. . . . rnie first
five books are of Moses, which is the Law. . . • Then comes
Joshua of Nub ; Judges with Ruth, numbered the seventh bodi^ ;
of the remaining historical books, first and second of Kin^
[L n. Sam.], one book among the Hebrews. One also is the
third and fourth of Kings ; with them also the Chronicles, first
and second, are one book; the first and second of Ezra [Ez.
Neh.] are reckoned as one ; the twelfth book is Esther ; and
tbese are the Jdriorical ones. The poetical books are five ; vi&
Job, the book of Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Soiig
of SongSi the seventeenth book. To these must be added five
prophetifi ones; the twelve Prophets, one book; one also of
'Isaiah ; of Jeremiah with Barucfa, Lamentations, and the epistle ;
then Ezekiel; and Daniel, the iwewh/second book of the OM
Testament

Here is a different arrangement still, which is the same for
the most part as in oar present English Bibles. The only
exception is, that the Minor Prophets are placed before the
others. The books of the Hagiography, as described by Jose-
phus, are here all associated and called atoi%riQaf i. e. mea-
iured^ in metre, or poetic The same difficulty also appears
here, as in the Goaaa of the Laodicean Couneil, in respect



Digitized



by Google



JiFHEirDIX: flWfifihOBT* Itt

to ilxe ctnsdtuent parts of Jeremlak. I have nothing more to
eay conoeming this difficalty, than what I have already said.
The list of books was evidently copied from the like soorco
with the list of the Council, i. e. it was probably made pULt
.from Origen's Catalogue.



Digi



tized by Google



4M JLPncNDCc: essGOsr.

ieufl, then Numbera^ then Deuteronomy* Then Joebiift, and

Judges ; Ruth is the eighth ; the ninth and tenth books are the
acts of Kings^ then Chroniclies ; the last is Ezra. There Atejkfe
books in metre ; the first of which is Job, tlien David fPsalms],
three belong to Solomon, viz., Ecc., Canticles, Proverbs. In like
manner there furefr)e of the prophetic Spirit ; ttvelve of these are
comprised in one, viz. Hoeea, Amos, Micah, then Joel, Jonah,
Obadiah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zeehariah, and
Malachi; these make the first The second is Isaiah, thei) Jer-
emiah who was called from the womb, Ezekiel, and the grace
of Daniel. I have exhibited twenty-two books^ corresponding
vnth the twenty-two letters of the Hebrews.

It will be perceived) that in making out twenty^wo books,
.Gregory has separated Ruth from Judges, and omitted £&-
iher. The same oinission we find in Athanasius, and in some
other cases ; but the testimony of Josephus, and of the feast
of Furim, in behalf of the antiquity of this book, place it be-
yond our reach to call in question its place in the Canon.
We have found the same omission in Melito, (p. 259 seq.),
but have supposed it to belong, in that case, merely to error
in transcribing. In Melito and in Gregory, Ezra no doubt
comprehends Nehemiah ; for such was the usual custom of
the ancients. But in Gregory, there is an evident pwrp^9e
of omitting Esther ; for he has separated Judges and Ruth, in
order to make out the twenty-two book's which are the usual
number. It is difficult to say what was the inducement to
this, unless it was, that the Greek copy of the Scriptures in
his hands, embraced Esther with all the Alexandrine inter-
polations. No wonder he (having no acquaintance with the
Hebrews) rejected it, if such were the case. Not a word in
Gregory about any of the apochrt/phal books ; and yet he en-
titles his Ode : Tteqi tojv yvt^aioov ^i^Xiov r^s d'eonvBvtJtov
Fqacp^g, i. e. concerning the genuine books of the inspired
Scriptures. Of course he regards books not named, as not
belonging to this category ; and Uierefore he must have re-
jected the Apocrypha.

One other thing is worthy of note here, viz., that both Cy-
. rill of Jerusalem and Gregory Nazianzen make a triplex di-



Digitized



by Google



APPEN1>IXX ATHAVASIUS. 441

vkkm of the Scriptures ; bat not on Tafanndic ground. They
divide them into twelve kiitorical, ^ye poetical, and fivejwo-
phetical books ; for, on the ground of their ignorance of the
true nature of Hebrew poetry, they never dreamed that the
prophets were mostly poetic. Their division is not a bad one^
inasmuch as it is built on the matter and maimer of the books s
with the exception of their error about the form of prophetic
composition. It is substantially adopted in our English Bi-
bles. Let the reader note well, in examining all these lists
of the Old Testament Books, that not one of them join Chro-
nicles or Daniel with the Kethubim or Hagiography.



No. rx.

Athanasius of Alexandria (flor. A. D. 326), in an extract from Lis 374
festal Epistle, inserted in Opp. L p. 961.

Athanasius prefaces his list of Sacred Books by the follow-
ksg remarks :

" We fear lest, as Paul wrote to the Corinthians, a few of the
simple may wander away from their simplicity and purity by
Mason of the craftiness of certain men, and finally may begin to
take themsekes to the books called apocryphal^ being deceived
by their likeness to the true books. 1 beseech you to bear with
me, if I write to you remiudiog you of things already known,
on account of the necessity and the edification of the chiuch.
3eing about to do djis, I shall employ, for the support of my
undertaking, the formula of Luke the evangelist, saying be h%
did: Foraflouieh as there are some vrfao have undertaken t*
compose for themselves books called apocryphal^ and to mingle
these with the inspired Scripture, respecting which we hav«
been fully persuaded, as eye-witnesses and ministers of the word
from the beginning have delivered to the fiuhers, it seemed good
10 me also, being exhorted thereto by my genuine brethren, and
having made myself acquainted with the subject, to set forth from
the beginning and in due order the canonical books which have
been delivered to us, and believed to be divine ; so that every
one, if he is led away by deceit, may learn well to know those
who have seduced him, while he who remains pure may rejoice
in having this admonition again repeated.



Digitized



by Google



44S APPBNPIX : ▲THAlTASnTS.

An the books of the Old Testament, then, are twentf-two;
«8 many, accordiog to report, as the ^plmbetic letters of the
Hebrews. In order and name they are thus: First the Genesis,
then Exodus, next Leviticus, after this Numbers, and finally
Deuteronomy. In the sequel of these are Joshua of Nun, and
Judges, and after this Ruth ; and then follow the four books
of Kings, and of these the first and second are numbered as one,
and the third and fourth likewise as one. After these is the
book of Psalms, then Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs ;
then comes Job, and "finally the Prophets. Twelve of these are
reckoned as one book; then comes Isaiah, Jeremiah with Ba-
ruch and Lamentations and the Epistle, after these Ezekiel, and
Daniel Thus far are set forth the books of the Old Testament**

I have deemed it unnecessary to transcribe the original
Greek here, as it is so exactly like the preceding lists, except
in some trifling particulars. One of these is, that Athanasius
places Job after the Kethubim, and next before the Prophets.
He also omits, as has before been remarked, the book of Es-
ther. That it is designed in him will be clear from the pas-
sage which follows, and which he subjoins to his catalogue of
the New Test books that follow those of the Old Testament
as given above. The concluding part runs thus :

" These are the fountains of salvation, so that he who thirds
for these oracles may be filled with them. By these only is the
doctrine of godliness taught Let no one add to these, or take
anything from them. By these our Lord confounded the Sad^
ducees, saying : Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures. To the
Jews he said, in the way of exhortation: Search the Scriptures,
for these are they which testify of me. But for the sake of more
accuracy, I have deemed it necessary also to set forth in this
writing, that there are other books besides these, which are not
canonicaly designated by the fathers to be read by those who have
recently joined us, and are desirous to be instructed in the doc-
trine of piety ; viz. the Wisdom of Solomon, the Wisdom of Si-
rach, and Egthery and Judith, and Tobit, and (as we call it) the
Apostolic Doctrine (didax^ t(op dnoctoi.oav^'snd the Shepherd*
Those then being canonM^ and these being ready let there be no
mention even of any apocryphal book. These are the inventions
of heretics, who compose them at their pleasure, assigning and
adding to them dates, so that they may have the semblance of
ancient books, and that by this means they may find occasion to
lead the simple into error."



Digitized



by Google



APPENDIX : STNOPftIS SCBIFTURAE SACRAE. 448

This remarkable passage places the books which we name



Digitized



by Google



444 APPKHDIX: STVOPSICU

each book, which he subjoins to the name of the b6ok« To
spare room, I omit the Greek original aikl the extracts, »xid
give here the list of books, in his own language.

Translation. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deu-
teronomy, Joshua the son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, L IL Kings
[I. II. Samuel] reckoned as one book, UL IV. Kings numbered
as one book, L II. Chronicles reckoned as one book, L IL Ezra
[Elzra and Nebemiah] reckoned as one book. Psalter of David
having 150 Psalms, Parables of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Song of
Songs, Job, Twelve Prophets, viz. Hosea, Amos, Micha, Joel,
Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniab, Haggai, Zecba'»
riah, Malachi, (these are comprised in one hook), kaiah, Jere*
miah, E^zekiel, DftnieL The canonical books of the Old Testa*
ment are twenty-ttvOy equal in number to the Hebrew letters ;
for they have so many elementary signs.

Besides these are other books of the Old Testament, vohu^ art
iuA canonical [inspired] ; and these are read only by caUchumms ;
tiz. Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus the son of Siracb,
Esther, Judith, Tobit. Thus many are the books of the Old
Testament not canonicaL Some of the ancients have affirmed
Esther to be canonical among the Hebrews; and also that Ruth
is joined with Judges and reckoned as one book. In this man>
ner they make out the complement of twenty-two books.

The books of the Old Testament, canonical and uncanonical,
are so many, and of such a kind.

It is easy to see, that this is Kttle else than an exact copy,
throughout, of the list of Athanasius. But the writer is more
explicit. While he omits Esther in his list, he gives us an ac-
count of a diflferent opinion, viz. in favour of inserting it So
he also notices the usual manner in which Buth was united
with Judges. He also tells us that only the catechumens read
the uncanonical, i. e. uninspired books, which had been i^
pended to the Old Testament This seems of course to ex-
clude the public reading of them, at least in the churches
within his circle of knowledge.

Having completed his list, the writer proceeds to give a



Online LibraryMoses StuartCritical history and defence of the Old Testament canon → online text (page 37 of 38)