Mrs. (Barbara) Hofland.

The young pilgrim, or, Alfred Campbell's return to the East : and his travels in Egypt, Nubia, Asia Minor, Arabia Petræa, &c. &c. online

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Online LibraryMrs. (Barbara) HoflandThe young pilgrim, or, Alfred Campbell's return to the East : and his travels in Egypt, Nubia, Asia Minor, Arabia Petræa, &c. &c. → online text (page 1 of 9)
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Boston Public Library

Do not write in tin's book or mark it with pen or
pencil. Penalties for so doin^r are imposed by the
Revised Laws of the Commonwealth of Massnchusetts.

Thh hook teas issued io the borr
last stamped heloiv.

o-u-er on the date

FORM NO. 609: 9,20,38: lOOM.

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ARABIA PETR^A, &c. &c.



" THE SON OF A GENIUS," &c. Sec.

•' Let us pass, I pray thee, through thy country, &c.— And Edora said
10 him. Thou shall not pass by me, lest I come out against thee with ^ . j
sword." A'umJcrs, XX. '"


\V. E. Dean, Printer.








My dear young Friend,

I HAVE great pleasure in dedicating to you,
this and the preceding volume of Alfred Camp-
bell's Travels, because you manifest an ardent
desire for improvement, and are at an age when
the mind, unburthened by other cares, may im-
bibe the most happy (because pious and moral)
impressions, and commit to memory with good
effect every species of knowledge. You will


perceive, from the perusal of these pages, that
notliing in itself valuable is achieved without
labour, and enter on the increasing toils of your
own education, I hope in the same disposi-
tion that my young traveller exhibits, with a
resolute heart and manly mind, assured that,
whether his fatigues were recompensed or not,
your own will certainly be so. The sense of
conquering difficulties is itself a reward to a
noble spirit, and the acquisition of knowledge
is that of the best treasure man can possess on
earth next to piety, which it resembles in being
also one which " moth doth not corrupt, nor
thieves break through and steal ;'' and, unlike
to riches, doth not " make itself wings and flee

To you, my dear Boy, this treasure will also
become the more sweet from being gathered
under the eye, and with the aid of your beloved
parents, with your brothers and sisters as com-
]>anions. More happy 1 han Alfred , you may bask


in the sunshine of a mother's smile, in the bleak-
est deserts of your arduous path, and rejoice
the heart of a father as you gaze from the emi-
nence to which he has conducted you.

With every sincere wish for your improve-
ment and happiness, I remain your affectionate

Barb.\ra Hofland.

23, Newman Street,
March 25th, 1826.



The Compiler of Alfred CampbelPs Pilgrim-
age, being encouraged by its great success,
and honoured by the permission of Captain
Mangles to extract from his excellent and
unique work, descriptions for a second tour,
\vhich could not fail to inform and interest her
young readers, now presents them her promised

The present volume is indebted to the over-
land journey to India of Major Campbell,*

* It will be evident to those conversant with such sub-
jects, that the name of this celebrated Eastern traveller sug-
gested that of her imaginary hero to Mrs. Hofland — a cir-
cumstance she should not have thought it necessary to men-
tion, if she had not learnt that, in one instance, her book was
reprobated, for having a name like a novel, and deemed im-
proper as a school-book. Happily for her, those who read
know its truth, and those who observe are aware of the in-
terest and the utility of narratives so given to children.


Sir F. Henniker's work, and that of Captain
Mangles, who was travelling at the same period
with the Baronet. The account of Petra is an
abridged narrative of a journey, which, al-
though displaying alike the scientific research
of an antiquary, the classical taste of a scho-
lar, the frank simpHcity and untamed hardi-
hood of a British sailor, has not yet been offered
to the public ; and will therefore, it is hoped,
be duly estimated by the class of readers to
whom it is so kindly conceded by the original
writer from the most amiable motives.



Introduction — Necessity of study — Alfred's friend — Voyage
resolved on — The young Greek — Sail for the Ionian
Islands — Arrive at Corfu — Family of Aliakes — The Par-
guinotes — Their former home taken by Ali Pacha — Ge-
ueral view of the Island — Departure for Arcos — Sail to
Aleppo 1


v^oyage in the Levant — Touch at Cyprus — The wine of
Olympus — Review of history connected with the Archi-
pelago — Interest of the Bible — Arrive at Aleppo — Its
beauty and fruitfulness — Conveniences and merchandize — ■
Privileges of Christians in Aleppo — Dress of chief men — •
Coffee-house — Improvisatore and his great abilities-
Pleasure of the Turks — Caravans — Account of the cere-
monies at Mecca by the Pilgrims — They set out for Dami-
etta — Tedious voyage — Arrive — Disagreeable place — Pe-
licans — Servants — Leave Damietta— Short voyage-
Reach Mansoura 13



Arrive at Grand Cairo — Funeral Ululahs — The Pacha-
Death of the Mamelukes by treachery — Military proces-
sion — Arrival of the Caravan — Interesting spectacle — Sa-
cred Camel — Visit the Pyramids — The Sphinx — Alfred
ascends the Pyramid of Chephrenes — Magnificent Temple
of Dendera — Fine engravings on the walls — The head of
Isis — Go to Kenneh — To Goos — Company of Arabs —
Depart for Thebes ,24


Thebes — Grandeur of its Ruins — Fine Prospect thence—
Freshness of Paintings — Memnonium — Colossal Statues
—Fine Ornaments — Statue of Memnon — Dogs and Filth —
Proceed to Esneh~To Eleithias— To Edfou — Fine Ruin at
Koam Ombos — Arrive at Elephantine — Women pleasing —
Set out for the Cataracts of the Nile — Song of the Nu-
bian Boatmen— Pass the Cataracts— Egyptian moonlight-
Reach Philoe — Astonishing number of fine Ruins — In-
scription of Buonaparte — Debord, Kardassy, Kaleksky —
Ebsambal most magnificent — Prodigious Statues . 4."}


Return to Philoe — The Desert — Arrive at Suez — Sail to
Tor— Beauty of the Red Sea— The Narkous— Setoutfor
Mount Sinai — Arabs and Camels — Desert Breakfast —
Contuiue to travel by night — Sleep in Cave — Conversa-
tion — Reach Mount Sinai — The Convent — The Church-
Camp of St. Catherine— The Pilgrimage performed—
Leave the Convent — Arab's vow — Journey to Palestine —
Vale of Ascalon — Jaffa — Jerusalem ... 56



Received with joy at the Convent — Dissuade them from
travelling to Petra — Bethlehem, the Women there-
Kindness to the Fathers — Depart for Hebron in their way
to the Dead Sea — Final farewell to Jerusalem , 78


Dress of the Travellers — Hebron — Its great antiquity —
The Sheikh's Civility and Irresolution — Set out for Jella-
heen — The Arabs — Approach to the Dead Sea — Sleep in
a Cavern — Goahnays' Kindness — Melancholy Road —
Castle of Kerek — Agree with Sheikh Yousouf— Dine
with a Turk — Mode of Cookery ... .87


Leave Kerek — Pass Medin, Imriega, 6zc. — Proceed towards
Shobek-Engage Sheikh Sahlera— Pass Gharandel— Reach
Shobek — Well received there — Meet Abou Raschid —
Menaced by the Men of Wady Moussa — Abou's noble
spirit — Large Encampment — Continued Opposition —
Peace effected with the Men of Wady Moussa . 104


Set out for Petra — Pass the Boundaries of Wady Moussa—
Enter the Necropolis — Immense Tombs excavated — Long
Ravine — Towers and Temple — Paucity of Inscriptions— =
Wild flowers — Murder of Pilgrims — Magnificent winged
Statue—Surprising Architecture . . . IS.S



Theatre at Petra — Visit Aaron's Tomb on a Pinnacle of
Mount Hor — Beauty of Colour in the Rocks — Reach
the Tomb — Its Authenticity — Its Form, &c. — Magnifi-
cent Temple seen from the Mountain — Inaccessible — Re-
turn safe in the Ruins — Departure from Petra — Bid
Adieu to Abou Raschid — Accompany Yousouf — Treat-
ment of the Sick — The Dead Sea — Its false Apples —
Adders where they sleep — Tiberias — Inhumanity af the
Turkish Consul 153


Set out for Constantinople — Enter the Sea of Marmora —
Dardanelles — Beautiful Prospect of the City, Shores, and
Vessels— The Grand Signiorgoes to Mosque — Use of Im-
perial Turbans — Presentation of the British Ambassador
— Confused Procession — Janissaries — Dinner — Pelisses-
Audience Chamber — Throne of the Grand Signior — Pay
of Soldiers, &c. 175


They quit Constantinople — Put in at Basilikos — Visit of
pompous Governor — Reach Varna — Proceed towards
Bucharest — Wretched Accommodation — Bad Roads-
Bucharest, the Carriages, &c. — Reach Vienna — Comforts
of CiviUzation and Religion — Fine City — Travel through
Tyrol and Grisons — Honesty of Native* — Advantages of
Christianity — Conclusion . . . . 191



Introduction—Necessity of Study— Alfred's Friend— Voy-
age resolved on — The Young Greek — They sail for the
Ionian Islands — Arrive at Corfu — Family of Aliakes —
The Parguinotes — Their former Home taken by Ali
Pacha — General View of the Islands — Departure for
Arcos — Sail to Aleppo.

The warm interest taken by Alfred Camp-
bell in his visit to the Holy Land, did not die
away on his return to his native country : a
circumstance which frequently happens to young
travellers. It is true, that the cares still requi-
site for the completion of his education, and the
pleasure of society offered by his beloved family, ,


weaned him from any regret of the places
which he had visited ; but lie retained a great
desire to explore those parts which were still
imknown to him in the same direction ; and in
the course of a few years he could not forbear
to lament, that a journey of so much interest
and importance had been taken by him at so
early a period of his life.

When his father sent him to the University
of Cambridge, he was introduced to a young
gentleman of the name of Clayfield, with whom
he contracted a close intimacy, and who, being
already acquainted with a young Greek who
was residing there, named Aliakes, who had
inspired him with a great desire to travel, they
were frequently led to talk much on the sub-
ject. This was rendered the more interesting
to young Clayfield, because he was already a
great proficient in the Arabic language, and
was extremely desirous of speaking it with
fluency. In this pursuit he found a little


assistance from our young friend, who possessed
a good memory, and a quick ear ; but the little
he could remember, eventually was found rather
to stimulate curiosity than satisfy it.

Under the influence of this desire, which was
connected with that of improvement in all the
parties, the fathers of both the young men
agreed, that, when they had obtained their de-
grees, they should be permitted to make a tour
through the countries now so much the object of
attention to enlightened travellers ; and, in par-
ticular, that they should, in the first place,
visit the Ionian Isles with the young Greek,
who undertook to be their guide in this new
acquisition to British sovereignty.

Mr. Campbell was particularly desirous to
impress upon his son, at this juncture, the ne-
cessity of withdrawing his mind from the con-
templation of this scheme farther than as an
incitement to present exertion. He told him, |
tliat even the most lawful and innocent wishes


must not be indulged at the expense of higher
views and more important duties ; that the
advantages he now possessed in prosecuting
his studies, could never be enjoyed again ; and
that if he did not use them aright, he would be
unjust alike to his father and himself.

It will be "readily beheved, that Alfred at-
tended fully to these suggestions, because his
affection for his dear and only parent remained
in full force, and his understanding, matured
by time, and improved by knowledge, showed
him the truth and justness of these observa-
tions. He therefore wisely laboured inces-
santly, and cheerfully, never thinking of the
journey in any other light than as the reward of
his toils in due season.

The time at length arrived, when, dignified
with University honours, and rich in the esteem
and affection of all who knew him, he could
claim from his father permission to prosecute a
plan, which was to prolong his absence, and to


expose him to some danger of course, and was
so far painful. Mr. Campbell was sorry to part
again with a son of whom he was so justly
proud, but he gave him leave to go with cheer-
fulness, saying, " that he had well earned his
leisure ;" and united with the father of Mr.
Clayfield in arranging every thing necessary for
the comfort of the young travellers, with the ut-
most facility.

Under these circumstances they left their na-
tive land, and proceeded by sea for Corfu.
Their voyage was rendered extremely pleasant
by the society of their companion Aliakes, who
exhibited by turns every trait they had heard as
characteristic of his country. Full of enthusi-
astic love for Greece, both as she existed in
classic lore, with which he was at this period
deeply imbued, and from that domestic affection
which bound him to his own home, every word
and action displayed his delight in returning.
Some successes against the Turks had. inspired


him with the most ardent hopes for the eman-
cipation of Greece, but in expressing this plea-
sure lie would too frequently show a ferocious
spirit ; and whilst our young Englishmen admired
his transport, yet they often found it their duty
to press upon him their own sense of forbearance
and of integrity.

Alas ! he had suffered much : he had seen his
family driven from their house, injured in their
property, insulted in their pereons, and compel-
led to quit their long-endeared native plains, to
take refuge in the Islands beneath the protection
of Great Britain ; and although his residence in
that country for awhile softened his sense of
injuiy, it revived as he approached the shores
where his family were exiled.

The weather was fine, the air bahny ; and
borne forward with a motion almost impercep-
tible towards Corfu, they saw on either hand the
Ionian Isles, so much the object of attention in
Great Britain witliin the last ten years, and so


celebrated in Grecian story, as to cast around
them a lustre beyond their present interest. It
is true the Islands are all fruitful, but they have
been so long injured by the base governments
under which they have groaned, that the moral
character of the natives has deteriorated, in de-
spite of the natural abilities they evidently pos-
sess, and it will be only a course of years under
the beneficent laws now promulgated for their
benefit, that can restore to them, or rather be-
stozo on them, virtue and happiness.

Arrived at Corfu, which is the seat of govern-
ment, and the most gay and agreeable of these
Islands as a place of residence, they were af-
fectionately received by several of their own
countrymen ; and young Clayfield was particular-
ly delighted with the novelty of all around him.

Aliakes had in the mean time gone in search
of his family, who had been formerly Parguin-
otes, but were now, like all the exiles from un-
happy Parga, settled at Corfu, and although de-


prived of their former dignity, and nearly all
their property, were somewhat recovered from
their distresses, and looking forward to prospe-
rity through the medium of a son, whose uncom-
mon talents naturally awakened their hopes.
In a short time the young Greek came to re-
quest their presence to sup with his family ;
and it may be supposed they would not refuse
one so long their companion.

They found on their arrival the members of
a numerous family assembled, all eager to pay
them respect, and testify gratitude for their
friendship towards their young relative. The
father and friends of Aliakes were, as they
understood, and afterwards saw, a fair sample
of their country, — being above the middle size,
strong and robust ; their costume was an em-
broidered jacket, full trowsers of blue cloth,
with a small red cap. They wore mustachios,
and were armed with pistols, dagger, and sabre,
adopted as a kind of full dress, in compliment to
their guests.


The sisters of Aliakes were very handsome ;
and their dress, which consisted of cloth, or silk,
jackets embroidered with gold, and a long
plaited petticoat, was very becoming. Their
heads, on the arrival of the strangers, were co-
vered with a large coloured handkerchief, which
they laid aside, thereby showing, to the great
delight of Alfred, the very coiffur^he had so
frequently seen in ancient statues. Long braids
of hair parted at the forehead, were entwined
with double cords of red silk, and fastened
gracefully behind, showing the elegant form of
their heads to the utmost advantage.

The conversation turned upon a description
of their former home, which was a small town
on the coast of Epirus, built on a conical rock,
two hundred and fifty feet above the level of the
sea, and looking over the Ionian sea, as if the
Islands that beautify its surface were subject to
its dominion. Behind it rose the mountains of
Albania, encircling it as if for protection. It


was fertilized by rivers and springs, beautified
by forest trees, enriched by the vine and the
olive, and enjoyed considerable commerce in oil,
oranges, citrons, and cedrats. But alas ! in one
bad neighbour, the Parguinotes, like our first
parents, found a devil, who drove them from
their Paradise.

This was the renowned and infamous AU
Pacha, whose nephew having been killed in a
skirmish with the inhabitants, he devoted them
to destruction, and, being unhappily all-power-
ful, would unquestionably have extirpated them
from the face of the earth, if they had not been
under the protection of Great Britain, which,
having newly obtained the sovereignty of the
Ionian Isles, was intreated by Parga to take her
also. In consequence of some treaty with the
Porte, this protection only extended to the
lives, and a small portion of the property ; and
the whole body of the Parguinotes were com-
pelled to lea\-€ their native soil and their patri-


monial possessions. It is, however, pleasant to
reflect, that the tyrant was disappointed in his
views of vengeance ; that the blood of these in-
jured people did not pollute their altars, nor
slavery to his will torture them with daily
deaths. That many have suffered all the sor-
rows of exile, the miseries of want, and probably
the death of despair, we have too much reason
to suppose ; but it is certain that numbers are
settled in the Islands, and in Italy also, in a state
of considerable comfort and prosperity.

Our young men lost no time in running
about, and afterwards in going from one island
to another, in search of all that was curious to
the naturalist and the antiquary. They
visited Santa Maura, to see the rock from
whence Sappho, the Lesbian poetess, flung her-
self into the sea ; and sailed to Isara del Com-
pare, the ancient Ithaca, because it was the
island of Ulysses; but they found Zante the
best worth seeing of all the Islands, on account


of its fruitfulness in currants and grapes, the
strength of its citadel, and the agreeable man-
ners of the inhabitants, who are mostly Greeks
of lively dispositions, and particularly fond of
strangers, but cannot boast of any other virtue.

Aliakes attended them wherever they went,
and greatly contributed to their pleasure and
their information ; nor could he prevail on him-
self to depart when the time came that they
entered on the more serious part of their jour-
ney ; but having obtained leave to accompany
them through the gulph of Corinth, he did not
quit them till they arrived at Arcos, where they
found a vessel bound direct for Aleppo, in which
they immediately secured a passage.


Voyage In the Levant — Touch at Cyprus — Wine of Olym-
pus — Review of History connected with the Archipelago-
Interest ui the Bible — Arrive at Ah^ppo — Its beauty and
fruitfuhioss — Convenience and Merchandise — Privileges
of Christians — Dress of Chief Men — Coffee-house — Iin-
provisatore — Pleasure of the Turks, kc.

Our young travellers promised themselves
much pleasure in crossing those sea?, and touch-
ing at those island?, so celebrated in ancient
story ; and frequently did they remember, that

Here so oft the Mus^o her harp has strung,
That not a Mountain rears its head unsung ; —

and they more particularly recollected the lays

of Lord Byron on subjects of Greek or Turkish

origin. These pleasant themes of discourse

were, however, much interrupted by the many

petty evils which make themselves felt, alike in


despite of the buoyant spirits of youth, and the
philosophical temper acquired by experience.
Their vessel was crazy, ill-manned, ill-managed,
and so wofully provisioned, that they had no
alternative between starving and living on food
inferior to hog-wasli at home. There were
times when CI ay field could not help wishing him-
self at home again ; but Alfred entered on this
beginning of hardships with all the firmness of
a veteran traveller ; and his cheerful smile, and
" Courage^ mon ami^'''' quickly restored his friend
to his usual spirits.

They put in for a short time at Nicosia on the
isle of Cyprus, which afforded them the relief of
a little fresh food, and a draught of the finest
wine in all the Greek islands, and which, being
produced from grapes growing at the foot of
Olympus, not only cheered their spirits, but
renewed that spirit of classical research, damped
by a long and disagreeable voyage.


So far as they could judge, this island realized
all the evils every where found under the Turk-
ish government — Nature was abundant in her
productions, but man was poor in the midst of
them. Oil, wme, cotton, silk, and turpentine,
all of excellent quahty, are abundantly produced
on this fine island, which is one hundred and
fifty miles long, and seventy broad. At the time
of the Crusaders it was inhabited by Christians,
and was a rich and flourishing kingdom. Richard
Coeur de Lion subdued it, and affixed it to the
kingdom of Jerusalem under Guy de Lusignan,
but it soon afterwards shared the fate of all those
possessions attained by the Crusaders.

" In this place," observed Alfred, " I may
begin my recollections of my former journey, for
1 touched here on my return from Palestine,
which I heartily desire to see again ; but with
that exception I wish of course to give all possi-
ble novelty to my journey ; and as the whole is


alike new to you, if I promise to conduct you to
the principal objects of curiosity in this interest-
ing country, 1 presume you will be content."

" Undoubtedly I shall, for I have already
found out the utter impossibility of exploring
every place : otherwise I would have run over
every island in the Archipelago, and Levant
sea, in the same way we visited the seven Ionian
Isles, since they would, I apprehend, have afford-
ed many more antiquities. I should have wished
to have climbed Mount Ida in Crete, where Jupi-
ter was nursed". — "You would find it now a bar-
ren rock, with no traces of temple or monument
to repay your toil." — " I would have gone to
Rhodes, though I should not hope to fmd any
remnant of its brass statue, once the wonder of
the world ; and to Chios, which claims, with six
other places, to be the native land of Homer —
thence to Samos, which was the birth-place of
Pythagoras — to the Cyclades, where Apollo and

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Online LibraryMrs. (Barbara) HoflandThe young pilgrim, or, Alfred Campbell's return to the East : and his travels in Egypt, Nubia, Asia Minor, Arabia Petræa, &c. &c. → online text (page 1 of 9)