Murat Halstead.

The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico The Eldorado of the Orient online

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run two and three-tenths miles, and was one and two-tenths miles from
the Vizcaya and one and six-tenths miles from the Colon, which was
running nearer the shore. The Oregon had sailed two and a half miles,
and was one and one-half miles from the Vizcaya, and about the same
distance from the Colon. The Texas was one and two-tenths miles astern
of the Oregon, two and four-tenths miles from the Oregon. The Indiana
was one and one-half miles astern of the Texas.

"Position No. 6, 11:05 a.m. Vizcaya turned to run ashore. In
thirty-five minutes the Vizcaya had sailed about seven miles, and
was off the mouth of the Aserradero River. The Colon had run five and
one-half miles further, and was more than that distance in advance of
any of the American vessels. The Brooklyn was one and three-tenths
miles distant from the Vizcaya and slightly behind it. The Oregon
was one and a half miles from the Vizcaya, but nearer the shore and
somewhat more astern of the enemy. The Texas was two and seven-tenths
miles from the Vizcaya and directly astern of the Oregon. The Iowa
was three and two-tenths miles directly astern of the Vizcaya. The New
York was five miles behind the Iowa. The Ericsson had kept along with
the New York all the time, and was, at this position, one-half a mile
in advance of it. The Indiana was nearly four miles behind the Iowa.

"Position No. 7, 1:15 p.m. The Colon surrendered. In the two hours
and ten minutes from the last position given the vessels had coursed
westward a great distance. The Colon had run twenty-six and one-half
miles and was off the Tarquino River. The Brooklyn was the nearest
American vessel. It had sailed twenty-eight and one-half miles and was
three and four-tenths miles from the Colon. The Oregon was four and
one-half miles from the Colon and more in shore than the Brooklyn. The
Texas was three and four-tenths miles behind the Oregon. The New York
was nine and one-half miles from the Colon. No one of the other vessels
had come up save the Vixen, which was abreast of the New York. This
little vessel in the beginning of the fight steamed out to sea and
sailed westward on a course about two and one-quarter miles from that
of the nearest Spanish ships.

"The tracings of the chart show that the Spanish vessels sailed on
courses not more than three-tenths of a mile apart until the Oquendo
ran ashore. Then the Vizcaya veered out to sea and the Colon kept
nearer the shore, their courses being about seven-tenths of a mile
apart. Up to the time the Oquendo went ashore the Iowa, Indiana,
Oregon, and Texas sailed on courses within three-tenths of a mile
of each other, the Iowa being the nearest and the Texas the farthest
from the course of the Spanish ships. The Brooklyn's course was from
three-tenths to one-half of a mile outside that of the Texas. The swing
to the right which the Brooklyn made at the beginning of the engagement
shows an oval four-tenths of a mile across. It crossed the courses of
the Texas, Oregon, and Indiana twice while making the turn, but before
these vessels had gone over them. The course of the New York after
passing Morro was nearer the shore than any other United States vessel
except the Gloucester, and a mile behind where the Oquendo turned to
run ashore it passed inside the courses of the Spanish vessels. Ten
miles west of the Vizcaya disaster it crossed the Colon's track, but
followed close the course of that vessel until the latter surrendered.

"The Iowa, Indiana, and Ericsson did not go further west than where
the Vizcaya ran ashore. The Gloucester stopped by the Maria Teresa
and Oquendo, as also did the Hist. The latter vessel was not able to
keep pace with the New York and Ericsson, the vessels it was with at
the beginning of the battle."

Major General Nelson A. Miles was carrying on, as master of the art
and science of war, a prospering campaign in Porto Rico, when the
protocol of peace between the United States and Spain was signed,
and "the war drum throbbed" no longer. It is the testimony of those
who have studied the management of the invasion of Porto Rico by the
military head of the army, that it was going on guided with consummate
skill when the war closed. The American forces had the pleasure in
Porto Rico of moving in a country that had not been desolated as Cuba
was. The island was a tropical picture of peace, only the glitter of
armies breaking the spell. The defenders had the help of good roads,
by which they could, on the inner lines, shift their columns with
rapidity and ease. But the Porto Rico people were largely favorable to
United States sovereignty - just as the Cubans would be if it were not
for the selfishness and jealousies, hatreds and scheming, regardless
of the favor or prosperity of the people, that the most deplorable
warfare known in the later years of the earth has engendered. It was
on October 18, 1898, that the American flag was raised over San Juan
de Porto Rico. The telegram of the Associated Press contained this
announcement of the ceremony and symbol by which was announced the
glorious initial chapter of a new dispensation that adds to America's
territory one of the loveliest islands of the sea:

San Juan de Porto Rico, Oct. 18. - Promptly at noon to-day the American
flag was raised over San Juan. The ceremony was quiet and dignified,
unmarred by disorder of any kind.

The Eleventh Regular Infantry, with two batteries of the Fifth
Artillery, landed this morning. The latter proceeded to the forts,
while the infantry lined up on the docks. It was a holiday for San
Juan, and there were many people in the streets.

Rear Admiral Schley and General Gordon, accompanied by their staffs,
proceeded to the palace in carriages. The Eleventh infantry Regiment
and band, with Troop H of the Sixth United States Cavalry, then marched
through the streets and formed in the square opposite the palace.

At 11:40 a. m. General Brooke, Admiral Schley, and General Gordon, the
United States Evacuation Commissioners, came out of the palace, with
many naval officers, and formed on the right side of the square. The
streets behind the soldiers were thronged with townspeople, who stood
waiting in dead silence.

At last the city clock struck the hour of 12 and the crowds, almost
breathless and with eyes fixed upon the flagpole, watched for
developments. At the sound of the first gun from Fort Morro, Major
Dean and Lieutenant Castle, of General Brooke's staff, hoisted the
Stars and Stripes, while the band played the "Star Spangled Banner."

All heads were bared and the crowds cheered. Fort Morro, Fort San
Cristobal, and the United States revenue cutter Manning, lying in
the harbor, fired twenty-one guns each.

Senor Munoz Rivera, who was President of the recent autonomist council
of secretaries, and other officials of the late insular government,
were present at the proceedings.

Congratulations and handshaking among the American officers followed,
Ensign King hoisted the Stars and Stripes over the intendencia,
but all other flags on the various public buildings were hoisted by
military officers. Simultaneously with the raising of the flag over
the Captain General's palace many others were hoisted in different
parts of the city.

Washington, D. C., Oct. 18. - The War Department has received the
following to-day:

"San Juan, Porto Rico, Oct. 18. - Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.:
Flags have been raised on public buildings and forts in this city
and saluted with national salutes. The occupation of the island is
now complete.

"_Brooke_, Chairman."

The two Spanish fleets - of the East and West Indies, were annihilated,
the former May 1st, and the latter July 2nd, two months and two
days between the events. The respective fleets in Manila bay were
as follows:

_American Fleet_.


Name Class Armanent Men and
Officers
Olympia Protected Cruiser Four 8-in., ten 5-in., 24 R.F. 466
Baltimore Protected Cruiser Four 8-in., six 6-in., 10 R.F. 395
Boston Par. Ptd. Cruiser Two 8-in., six 6-in., 10 R.F. 272
Raleigh Protected Cruiser One 6-in., ten 5-in., 14 R.F. 295
Concord Gunboat Six 6-in., 9 R.F. 150
Petrel Gunboat Four 6-in., 7 R.F. 100
McCulloch Revenue Cutter Four 4-in 180


_Spanish Fleet_.


Name. Class. Armament. Men and
Officers
*Rema Cristina Steel Cruiser Six 6.2-in., two 2.7,
13 R.F. 370
Castilla Wood Cruiser Four 5.9, two 4.7, two 3.4,
two 2.9, 12 R.F. 300
Don Antonio de Ulloa Iron Cruiser Four 4.7, 5 R.F. 173
Don Juan de Austria Iron Cruiser Four 4.7, two 2.7, 21 R.F. 173
Isla de Luzon Steel Ptd. Cruiser Six 4.7, 8 R.F 164
Isla de Cuba Steel Ptd. Cruiser Six 4.7, 8 R.F 164
Velasco Iron Cruiser Three 6-in., two 2.7, two
R.F. 173
Marques del Duero Gunboat One 6.2, two 4.7, 1 R.F. 98
General Lezo Gunboat One 3.5, 1 R.F. 97
El Correo Gunboat Three 4.7, 4 R.F. 116
Quiros Gunboat 4 R.F. 60
Villalobos Gunboat 4 R.F. 60
Two torpedo boats and two transports.


The American squadron was thus officered:

Acting Rear Admiral George Dewey, Commander-in-Chief.

Commander B.P. Lamberter, Chief-of-Staff.

Lieutenant L.M. Brumby, Flag Lieutenant.

Ensign H.H. Caldwell, Secretary.





_Olympia_ (Flagship).

Captain, Charles V. Gridley.

Lieutenant-Commander, S. C. Paine.

Lieutenants: C.G. Calkins, V.S. Nelson, G.S. Morgan, S.M. Strite.

Ensigns: M.M. Taylor, F.B. Upham, W.P. Scott, A.G. Kavanagh,
H.V. Butler.

Medical Inspector, A.F. Price; Passed Assistant Surgeon, J.E. Page;
Assistant Surgeon, C.H. Kindleberger; Pay Inspector, D.A. Smith;
Chief Engineer, J. Entwistle; Assistant Engineer, S.H. DeLany;
Assistant Engineer, J.F. Marshall, Jr.; Chaplain, J.B. Frazier;
Captain of Marines, W.P. Biddle; Gunner, L.J.G. Kuhlwein; Carpenter,
W. Macdonald; Acting Boatswain, E.J. Norcott.





_The Boston_.

Captain, F. Wildes.

Lieutenant-Commander, J.A. Norris.

Lieutenants: J. Gibson, W.L. Howard.

Ensigns: S.S. Robinson, L.H. Everhart, J.S. Doddridge.

Surgeon, M.H. Crawford; Assistant Surgeon, R.S. Balkeman; Paymaster,
J.R. Martin; Chief Engineer, G.B. Ransom; Assistant Engineer,
L.J. James; First Lieutenant of Marines, R. McM. Dutton; Gunner,
J.C. Evans; Carpenter, L.H. Hilton


_U. S. Steamship Baltimore_.

Captain, N. M. Dyer.

Lieutenant-Commander, G. Blocklinger.

Lieutenants: W. Braunersreuther, F. W. Kellogg, J. M. Ellicott,
C. S. Stanworth.

Ensigns: G. H. Hayward, M. J. McCormack, U. E. Irwin.

Naval Cadets, D. W. Wurtsbaugh, I. Z. Wettersoll, C. M. Tozer
T. A. Karney; Passed Assistant Surgeon, F. A. Heiseler; Assistant
Surgeon, E. K. Smith; Pay Inspector, E. Bellows; Chief Engineer,
A. C. Engard; Assistant Engineers, H. B. Price, H. I. Cone; Naval Cadet
(engineer), C. P. Burt; Chaplain. T. S. K. Freeman; First Lieutenant
of Marines, D. Williams; Acting Boatswain, H. R. Brayton; Gunner,
L. J. Connelly; Acting Gunner, L. J. Waller; Carpenter, O. Bath.

_U. S. Steamship Raleigh_.

Captain, J. B. Coghlan.

Lieutenant-Commander, F. Singer.

Lieutenants: W. Winder, B. Tappan, H. Rodman, C. B. Morgan,

Ensigns: F. L. Chidwick, P. Babin.

Surgeon, E. H. Marsteller; Assistant Surgeon, D. N. Carpenter; Passed
Assistant Paymaster, S. E. Heap; Chief Engineer, F. H. Bailey;
Passed Assistant Engineer, A. S. Halstead; Assistant Engineer,
J. E. Brady; First Lieutenant of Marines, T. C. Treadwell; Acting
Gunner, G. D. Johnstone; Acting Carpenter, T. E. Kiley.

_The Concord_.

Commander, A. S. Walker.

Lieutenant-Commander, G. P. Colvocoreses.

Lieutenants: T. B. Howard, P. W. Hourigan.

Ensigns: L. A. Kiser, W. C. Davidson, O. S. Knepper.

Passed Assistant Surgeon, R. G. Broderick; Passed Assistant Paymaster,
E. D. Ryan; Chief Engineer, Richard Inch; Passed Assistant Engineer,
H. W. Jones; Assistant Engineer, E. H. Dunn.

_The Petrel_.

Commander, E. P. Wood.

Lieutenants: E. M. Hughes, B. A. Fiske, A. N. Wood, C. P. Plunkett.

Ensigns: G. L. Fermier, W. S. Montgomery.

Passed Assistant Surgeon, C. D. Brownell; Assistant Paymaster,
G. G. Siebells; Passed Assistant Engineer, R. T. Hall.

The marvel of the naval engagements that disarmed Spain in both the
Indies, is that only one American was killed in the Santiago action,
and the only man who lost his life on Dewey's fleet was overcome by
heat. The Spaniards were deceived as well as surprised at Manila, the
deception being their dependence upon the belief that the Americans
would take it for granted that the falsified official charts were
correct, and stand off. The course of the American fleet, finding with
the lead on the first round 32 feet of water where the chart said 15,
dismayed the enemy. The Spanish had but one chance to cripple Dewey,
and that was by closing with him, but they never seem, except in the
case of the flagship, to have contemplated taking the offensive.





In the course of the war crowded with victory, two Spanish fleets were
destroyed, two Spanish armies surrendered, thirty-six thousand soldiers
and sailors of Spain made prisoners of war, the only heavy losses of
Americans were at Santiago, and they happened because in the terrible
climate of Cuba in summer, for those unaccustomed to it and forced
to be in the rain and sleep on the ground, it was necessary to carry
the enemy's lines of defense by assault, because it was certain that
delay would be destruction of the troops. The campaign was hurried and
short, but such was the effect of the few weeks spent in Cuba that,
bloody as were the first days of July, the weeks succeeding witnessed
the death from sickness of more soldiers than fell in battle.

Not until November 5,1898, did the State Department make public the
complete text of the Protocol between the United States and Spain
for the preliminary settlement of the war. A copy was cabled to this
country from the French translation, but the department here never
gave out the text of the document in official form. The Protocol
textually is as follows:

"Protocol of agreement between the United States and Spain, embodying
the terms of a basis for the establishment of peace between the two
countries, signed at Washington Aug. 12, 1898. Protocol: William
R. Day, Secretary of State of the United States, and his Excellency,
Jules Cambon, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the
Republic of France at Washington, respectively possessing for this
purpose full authority from the government of the United States
and the government of Spain, have concluded and signed the following
articles, embodying the terms on which the two governments have agreed
in respect to the matters hereinafter set forth, having in view the
establishment of peace between the two countries - that is to say:


_Article_ I.

"Spain will relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba.





_Article_ II.

"Spain will cede to the United States the Island of Porto Rico and
other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and
also an island in the Ladrones, to be selected by the United States.





_Article_ III.

"The United States will occupy and hold the City, Bay, and Harbor
of Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace, which shall
determine the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines.





_Article_ IV.

"Spain will immediately evacuate Cuba, Porto Rico, and other islands
now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and to this end each
government will, within ten days after the signing of this protocol,
appoint commissioners, and the commissioners so appointed shall,
within thirty days after the signing of this protocol, meet at
Havana for the purpose of arranging and carrying out the details of
the aforesaid evacuation of Cuba and the adjacent Spanish islands;
and each government will, within ten days after the signing of this
protocol, also appoint other commissioners, who shall, within thirty
days after the signing of this protocol, meet at San Juan, Porto
Rico, for the purpose of arranging and carrying out the details of
the aforesaid evacuation of Porto Rico and other islands now under,
Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies.





_Article_ V.

"The United States and Spain will each appoint not more than five
commissioners to treat of peace, and the commissioners so appointed
shall meet at Paris not later than Oct. 1, 1898, and proceed to the
negotiation and conclusion of a treaty of peace, which treaty shall
be subject to ratification according to the respective constitutional
forms of the two countries.


_Article_ VI.

"Upon the conclusion and signing of this protocol hostilities between
the two countries shall be suspended, and notice to that effect shall
be given as soon as possible by each government to the commanders of
its military and naval forces.

"Done at Washington in duplicate, in English and in French, by the
undersigned, who have hereunto set their hands and seals, the 12th
day of August, 1898.

"William R. Day.
Jules Cambon."



CHAPTER XVI

The Peace Jubilee.

The Lessons of War in the Joy Over Peace in the Celebrations at Chicago
and Philadelphia - Orations by Archbishop Ireland and Judge Emory
Speer - The President's Few Words of Thrilling Significance - The Parade
of the Loyal League, and Clover Club Banquet at Philadelphia - Address
by the President - The Hero Hobson Makes a Speech - Fighting Bob Evans'
Startling Battle Picture - The Destruction of Cervera's Fleet - The
Proclamation of Thanksgiving.

The lessons of war - that which has been through it accomplished for the
country - the new lands over which our sovereignty is established - the
gain in the national character - the increased immensity of the outlook
of destiny, found impressive expression in the peace jubilee, the
President of the United States participating, and interpreting history
with dignity, in great Chicago, the giant of the West and North, and
Philadelphia, the holy city of Independence Hall and the liberty bell.

Of the celebrations of Peace with honor and victory, the first was
that at Chicago, and it will be memorable for remarkable speeches in
which many orators rose to the height of the occasion, their speeches
worthy of celebrity and certain to give imperishable passages to the
school books of the future. We have to pass over much of meritorious
distinction, and confine ourselves in the selections for these pages,
to the utterances of the President - Archbishop Ireland, whose golden
periods of Americanism ring through the land, and the Southern orator,
Judge Emory Speer, of Georgia, whose patriotism springs forth and
elevates the nobility of his thought, and touches with sacred fire
the ruddy glow of his eloquence.

"Lead, my country, in peace!" was Archbishop Ireland's passionate
exclamation, the key-note of his oration. He said:

"War has passed; peace reigns. Stilled over land and sea is the
clang of arms; from San Juan to Manila, fearless and triumphant,
floats the star spangled banner. America, 'Be glad and rejoice, for
the Lord hath done great things.' America, with whole heart and soul,
celebrate thy jubilee of peace.

"Welcome to America, sweet, beloved peace; welcome to America, honored,
glorious victory. Oh, peace, thou art heaven's gift to men. When
the Savior of humanity was born in Bethlehem the sky sang forth,
'Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace and good will to
men.' Peace was offered to the world through Christ, and when the
spirit of Christ is supreme, there is universal peace - peace among men,
peace among nations.

"Oh, peace, so precious art thou to humanity that our highest ideal
of social felicity must ever be thy sovereignty upon earth. Pagan
statesmanship, speaking through pagan poetry, exclaims: 'The best of
things which it is given to know is peace; better than a thousand
triumphs is the simple gift of peace.' The regenerated world shall
not lift up sword against sword; neither shall they he exercised any
more in war.

"Peace is the normal flow of humanity's life, the healthy pulsation of
humanity's social organism, the vital condition of humanity's growth
and happiness.


"'O first of human blessings and supreme,
Fair Peace! how lovely, how delightful thou.







Oh peace! thou soul and source of social life,
Beneath whose calm inspiring influence
Science his views enlarges, art refines,
And swelling commerce opens all her ports.
Blessed be the man divine who gave us thee.'


"The praise of peace is proclaimed beyond need of other words,
when men confess that the only possible justification of war is the
establishment of peace. Peace, we prize thee.


"'But the better thou,
The richer of delight, sometime the more
Inevitable war.'


"'Pasis imponero morem' - to enforce the law of peace: this, the
sole moral argument which God and humanity allow for war. O peace,
welcome again to America.

"War - how dreadful thou art! I shall not, indeed, declare thee to be
immoral, ever unnecessary, ever accursed. No; I shall not so arraign
thee as to mete plenary condemnation to the whole past history of
nations, to the whole past history of my own America. But that thou
art ever dreadful, ever barbarous, I shall not deny. War! Is it
by cunning design - in order to hide from men thy true nature - that
pomp and circumstance attend thy march; that poetry and music set
in brightest colors, the rays of light struggling through thy heavy
darkness, that history weaves into threads of richest glory the woes
and virtues of thy victims? Stripped of thy show and tinsel, what art
thou but the slaying of men? - the slaying of men by the thousands,
aye, often by the tens, by the hundreds of thousands.

"With the steady aim and relentless energy tasking science to its
utmost ingenuity, the multitudes of men to their utmost endurance,
whole nations work day and night, fitting ourselves for the quick
and extensive killing of men. This preparation for war. Armies
meet on the field of battle; shot and shell rend the air; men fall
to the ground like leaves in autumnal storms, bleeding, agonizing,
dying; the earth is reddened by human blood; the more gory the earth
beneath the tread of one army the louder the revel of victory in the
ranks of the other. This, the actual conflict of war. From north to
south, from east to west, through both countries whose flags were
raised over the field of battle, homes not to be numbered mourned in
soul-wrecking grief, for husband, father, son or brother who sank
beneath the foeman's steel or yielded life within the fever tent,
or who, surviving shot and malady, carries back to his loved ones a
maimed or weakened body. This, the result of war.

"Reduced to the smallest sacrifice of human life the carnage of the
battlefields, some one has died and some one is bereft. 'Only one
killed,' the headline reads. The glad news speeds. The newsboys cry:
'Killed only one.' 'He was my son. What were a thousand to this
one - my only son.'

"It was Wellington who said: 'Take my word for it, if you had seen
but one day of war you would pray to Almighty God that you might
never see such a thing again.' It was Napoleon who said: 'The sight
of a battlefield after the fight is enough to inspire princes with
a love of peace and a horror of war.'

"War, be thou gone from my soul's sight! I thank the good God that
thy ghastly specter stands no longer upon the thresholds of the homes
of my fellow countrymen in America, or my fellow beings in distant
Andalusia. When, I ask heaven, shall humanity rise to such heights
of reason and of religion that war shall be impossible, and stories
of battlefields but the saddening echoes of primitive ages of the race?

"And yet, while we await that blessed day, when embodied justice shall
sit in judgment between peoples as between individuals, from time to



Online LibraryMurat HalsteadThe Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico The Eldorado of the Orient → online text (page 23 of 44)