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C. K. OGDEN




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



HISTORY OF ZIONISM

1600-1918



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History of Zionism

I600-I9I8

BY

NAHUM SOKOLOW



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

THE RT HON. A. J. BALFOUR, M.P.

AND NINETY PORTRAITS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

SELECTED AND ARRANGED BY ISRAEL SOLOMONS



IN TWO VOLUMES



VOL II.

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

M. STEPHEN PICHON

MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS FOR FRANCE



LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO.
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

FOURTH AVENUE «• 3OTH STREET, NEW YORK

BOMBAY, CALCUTTA AND MADRAS

I9I9



D5

PREFATORY NOTE

The present volume contains the continuation and documenta-
tion of Volume I.

After the conclusion of the historical review in its; chronological
order, it was considered desirable to supplement a portion of the
narrative by adding further chapters, which will be found at the
beginning of the present volume. These chapters bring the
historical narrative up to the outbreak of the War in 1914.

The developments in the Zionist Movement during the War
are dealt with in a separate account, which is not claimed to be,
in the proper sense of the word, an historical study, but an
account of recent activities up to the Peace Conference.

The present volume also contains an introduction, written by
the French Ministre des Affaires Etrangeres, M. Pichon, which
arrived too late to be included in the first volume, and a character
sketch of the late Sir Mark Sykes, whose death occurred while
the present volume was in the press, to whose memory a tribute
is offered .

The appendices contain not only the text of documents re-
ferred to in the body of the book, many of them hitherto un-
published, but also essays on subjects related to the main purpose
of the work — -for instance, Jewish art, and Hebrew literature —
and notes of a bibliographical or critical character.

It is desired to point out that the nature of the subject with
which this work deals rendered it inevitable that it should to
some extent assume an encyclopaedic rather than a narrative
character. The innumerable sources from which Zionism draws
its being, the geographical dispersion of the Jewish people, the
many events and phenomena outside of the life of the Jewish
people which have had and still have their bearing on the de-
velopment of the Jewish National idea, give it inevitably the f c mi
that it has assumed. The author is well aware that the History
of Zionism as narrated in these pages does not appear as alto-
gether a symmetrical structure. Some periods dealt with in the
story are somewhat disjointed, and as a necessary consequence the
record of those periods reflects the same character. A writer who
cared more for the form than for the correctness of the narrative
would in such a case have recourse to his imagination in order to
fill in the blanks. The present author has not, however, done so.
He has attempted rather to let Zionism appear as it really was
in the different countries and epochs with which he has dealt.
Where his narrative is fragmentary events were fragmentary.
In the earliest periods the different elements of Zionism were



C^



vi THE HISTORY OF ZIONISM

sometimes completely detached from one another. An exact de-
scription of these therefore takes necessarily an encyclopaedic
character. But Zionism develops as a unity, and at the end it
will be found to offer to the reader a united picture.

The present book treats of the History of Zionism especially
in England and France, but it has been found both impossible
and also undesirable to exclude from the narrative all references
to certain important events and personalities of other countries.
Zionism in England and France, however, forms the main thesis
of these volumes. Furthermore, this book is not only a history
of the Zionist efforts among the Jews, it also narrates the history
of similar efforts by non-Jews, in connexion with political events
and literary manifestations in the countries in which they worked.
At the same time the author has endeavoured as little as possible
to cover ground that has already been repeatedly traversed, his
intention being rather to break new ground and especially to
bring to hght hitherto unknown sources, old and forgotten prints,
unpublished manuscripts and archives. These he has used to
illustrate and document his narrative.

The plan which the author has followed falls under three
headings :—

;i (I) The special treatment of Zionism in England and France ;
(II) A particular consideration of the pro-Zionist efforts outside
of Jewry ; and
(III) The publication of previously unknown literary and
archival sources.

In accordance with this plan this history begins in the year
i(3oo, although the history of Zionism in reality opened much
earlier, even perhaps at the beginning of the Jewish history of
the countries dealt with.

Material for a thorough treatment of the History of Zionism
in other countries, including many monographs and historical
notices which remain in the hands of the author, as well as further
recent diplomatic and other documents relating to the most recent
development of Zionism and in connexion with the Peace Con-
ference of 1919, will be used as the basis of further volumes.

Publication of an index to the work might well have been de-
ferred until these volumes had been completed, but the author
thinks that he ought not to delay one any longer. At the end of
the present volume, therefore, the reader will find a thorough
index of persons and of subjects, for which Mr. Jac b Mann, m.a.,
is responsible and to whom he hereby tenders his thanks.

Finally, the author wishes to supplement the expression of
thanks addressed to those of his friends who are mentioned in the
Preface to the first volume of this work for the assistance they
have rendered him in its preparation, and to mention in particular
the good services of Mr. Albert M. Hyamson and M. Andre Spire.

Paris, /mw^, 1919.



INTRODUCTION
By M. STEPHEN PICHON

MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS FOR FRANCE

FiDELE aux traditions de son histoire, la France
vient de montrer une fois de plus, au prix du sang
de tant de ses fils, comment elle entend les devoirs
que lui impose son role seculaire d'emancipatrice des
opprimes. Elle sort aujourd'hui victorieuse d'une
lutte decisive, soutenue au nom du Droit menace
par la brutalite d'un imperialisme sans scrupules.
Champion des grandes idees qu'il a, plus que tout
autre, semees a travers le monde, notre pays a puise
dans la conscience d'etre un vivant symbole de
justice, la force de terrasser son adversaire. II a, du
moins aujourd'hui, le droit de se dire, non sans fierte,
qu'il n'est plus au monde une race ou une nation qui
ne puisse faire entendre ses legitimes aspirations, et
qui ne sache qu'en France il y aura toujours un coeur
pour les adopter.

Dans la paix comme dans la guerre, la France,
etroitement unie a ses Allies, veut demeurer fidele a
sa parole. Elle a promis aux nationalites naguere
asservies de defendre leurs interets et de faire respec-
ter leurs droits. Elle ne reniera pas une promesse
dont la realisation, en inaugurant une ere nouvelle
de I'histoire du monde, justifiera les sacrifices con-
sentis a la cause commune. Elle ne laissera se
commettre aucune injustice, d'ou qu'elle vienne, et
qu'elle qu'en soit la victime. Elle ne saurait per-



viii THE HISTORY OF ZIONISM

mettre, en particulier, sans protester hautement,
qu'une majority ethnique ou confessionnelle puisse
desormais abuser impun6mcnt de sa force a regard
d'autrcs dements voisins, plus faibles ou plus dis-
perses.

C'est dire I'echo que ne pourra manquer d'eveiller
chez les Frangais la voix eloquente du represcntant
le plus autorise du Sionisme. Monsieur Sokolow,
mettant au service de son ideal, un talent qui n'en
est plus a son premier essai, s'attache a nous retracer
I'histoire des doctrines au triomphe desquelles il n'a
cesse de consacrer le meilleur de ses forces. Sachant
combien il importe, aujourd'hui, de demontrer his-
toriquement les origines et les antecedents des idees
que Ton professe, il a voulu nous exposer les titres
que possede le Sionisme a s'imposer a I'attention des
Allies, au moment oil ceux-ci procedent a une
reconstitution du monde entier. Monsieur Sokolow,
dont la foi dans le succes final de nos armes ne
connut jamais de def alliances, possede une foi au
moins egale dans I'esprit de justice qui preside a
I'oeuvre de la Conference de la Paix. Les sympa-
thies et les concours precieux qu'il a su trouver chez
nos amis Britanniques, et dont Mr. Balfour lui
renouvelle ici-meme I'assurance la plus formelle,
sont aux protagonistes du Sionisme un sur garant
de I'accucil que la France reserve a leur genereuse
initiative.

Non seulement, en effet la race juive n'acess6 d'etre,
au cours des siecles, persecutee, decim^e, poursuivie
sans treve par une haine incapable de desarmer ;
plus malheureuse encore que tant d'autres peuples
opprimes, qui ont pu conserver au moins un symbole
de leur grand passe, les Juifs n'ont pu sauver ce
dernier vestige. D'autres qu'eux memes sont de-
venus les maitres de la Judee. Disperses a travers



INTRODUCTION ix

le monde, beaucoup aspirent aujourd'hui plus que
jamais a reprendre la chaine brisee par tant de
conquerants successifs, de leurs traditions ethniques
et religieuses : ils pensent aussi qu'une telle restaura-
tion n'est possible qu'appuyee sur des realites, c'est
a dire, en I'espece, sur un foyer moral national
reconstitue au milieu des mines de I'antique Judee.
Qui done, sans avoir perdu les plus elementaires
sentiments d'humanite et de justice, pourrait refuser
aux exiles de revendiquer leur place, au meme titre
que les autres elements indigenes, dans cette Pales-
tine oil un controle collectif des Puissances euro-
peennes assurera desormais a chacun le respect de ses
droits les plus sacres ?

Entree en guerre pour assurer la victoire definitive
du Droit sur la force, la France se felicite de I'appui
que le Sionisme a rencontre chez elle et chez ses
Allies. Une doctrine qui a pour elle, outre la justice,
I'eloquence d'avocats tels que M. Sokolow est assuree
de succes. Je suis heureux de Toccasion qui m'est
offerte de reiterer les voeux que le Gouvernement de
la Republique n'a cesse de faire pour le triomphe
final d'une cause qui rallie tant de sympathies
fran9aises.



CONTENTS



PREFATORY NOTE



INTRODUCTION, by M. Stephen Pichon
CONTENTS OF Volume II . . .

ILLUSTRATIONS to Volume II
SIR MARK SYKES— A Tribute



FAGB
V



CHAPTER XLIXa.

Congress



From the Second to the Fourth



xxxvii-xliv



Chovevc Zion and Zionists in England — Louis Loewe- —
Nathan Marcus Adler — Albert Lowy — ^Abraham Benisch —
The Rev. M. J. Raphall— Dr. M. Caster— Rabbi Samuel
Mohilewer — English representation at the Second and
Third Congresses — The Fourth Congress in London.

CHAPTER XLIXb. The Death of Herzl . . . xlv-1

England and Zionism- — Sir B. Arnold in the Speclatuy — ■
Cardinal Vaughan^ — Lord Rosebery — The death of Herzl —
David Wolffsohn — Prof. Otto Warburg — Zionism in the
smaller states.

CHAPTER XLIXc. The Pogroms li-liv

The year igo6 — Pogroms- — Emigration- — Conder and his
activities — An Emigration Conference — The Eighth Con-
gress — -The question of the Headquarters.

CHAPTER XLIXd. The Death of Wolffsohn . . Iv-lvii

1 9 10-14 — The Tenth and Eleventh Congresses — Death of
Wolffsohn.

CHAPTER XLIXe. On the Eve of the War . . Iviii-lxiii

Baron Edmond de Rothschild in Palestine — Sir John Gray
Hill — Professor S. Schechter^ — South African Statesmen —
A Canadian Statesman — Christian religious literature
again.



ZIONISM DURING THE WAR, 1914-1918—
General Survey . . .

Zionist Propaganda in Wartime
Conferences

The Jewish National Fund .
Zionism and Jewish Relief Work
The Russian Revolution



I
21
22
32
33
38



xu



THE HISTORY OF ZIONISM



ZIONISM DURING THE WAR, igi^-igiS— continued— ■
Political Activities in England and the Allied Countries
Conference of English Zionist Federation in 191 7
Zionism and Public Opinion in England
Co-ordination of Zionists' Reports
The British Declaration and its Reception
London Opera House Demonstration
Manifesto to the Jewish People
Declarations of the Entente Governments



PAGE

42

54
58
79
83
99
124
127



APPENDICES—

I. The Prophets and the Idea of a National Restoration
II. Rev. Paul Knell: Israel and England Paralleled

III. Matthew Arnold on Righteousness in the Old Testa

ment .......

IV. " Esperan9a de Israel," by Manasseh Ben-Israel
\'. " Spes Israelis," by Manasseh Ben-Israel .

\i. " Hope of Israel — Ten Tribes ... in America —
^N"lt;^'* nipD — De Hoop Van Israel," by Manasseh
Ben- Israel ......

VII. The Humble Addresses of Manasseh Ben-Israel.

\TII. " Vindiciae Judaeorum," by Manasseh Ben-Israel

IX. Enseiia A Pecadores .....

X. " De Termino Vitae — of the Term of Life," by Manasseh
Ben-Israel ......

XI. " D^^n riDtJ'D — De Immortalitate Animse," by Man
asseh Ben-Israel .....

XII. " Rights of the Kingdom," by John Sadler

XIII. " Nova Solyma," edited by the Rev. Walter Begley

XIV. " Praeadamitae — Men before Adam," by Isaac de La

Peyrere .......

XV. Isaac Vossius ......

XVI. " Doomes-Day " .

XVII. " Restauration of All Israel And Judah " .

XVIII. " Apology for the Honorable Nation of the Jews —

Apologia por la Noble Nacion de los Ivdios —

Verantwoordinge voor de edele Volcken der

Jooden," by Edward Nicholas .

XIX. " A Word for the Armie," by Hugh Peters

XX. Isaac da Fonseca Aboab .....

XXI. Dr. Abraham Zacutus Lusitanus
XXII. Jacob Judah Aryeh de Leon ....

XXIII. Thesouro Dos Dinim .....

XXIV. " Rettung der Juden," by Manasseh Ben-Israel .
XXV. Newes from Rome ......

XXVI. " The World's Great Restauration," by Sir Henry
Finch .......

XXVII. " The World's Great Restauration " — continued
XXV^III. Philip Ferdinandus .....

XXIX. Petition of the Jewes Johanna and Ebenezer Cart(en

(w)right

XXX. • The Messiah Already Come," by John Harrison



161
168

169
169
171



171
173
173
173

174

175
176
176

180
180
181
182



182
183
183
184

185
188
189
191

207
208
209

210
210



CONTENTS



xiu



XXXI. " Discourse of Mr. John Dury to Mr. Thorowgood —
Jewes in America," by Tho. Thorowgood —
"Americans no Jews," by Hamon I'Estrange . 211
XXXII. " Whether it be Lawful to Admit Jews into a Chris-
tian Commonwealth," by John Dury . . .212

XXXIII. " Life and Death of Henry Jessey " . . . . 212

XXXIV. " The Glory of Jehudah and Israel — De Heerlichkeydt

. . . van Jehuda en Israel," by Henry Jesse . 214

XXXV. Of the Late Proceeds at White-Hall, concerning the

Jews (Henry Jesse) . . . . . .215

XXXVI. Bishop Thomas Newton and the Restoration of Israel 216
XXXVII. " A Call to the Christians and the Hebrews " . . 217

XXXVIII. The Centenary of the British and Foreign Bible

Society ........ 218

XXXIX. Lord Kitchener and the Palestine Exploration Fund 219
XL. Bonaparte's Call to the Jews . . . . .220

XLI. Letter addressed by a Jew to his Co-religionists in 1798 220
XLII. " Transactions of the Parisian Sanhedrim," by Diogene

Tama ........ 222

XLIII. " Signs of the Times " — " A Word in Season " —
" Commotions since French Revolution " — " His-
tory of Christianity " — " The German Empire " —
" Fulfilment of Prophecy," by Rev. James Bicheno 223
XLIV. " Restoration of the Jews " — " Friendly Address to
the Jews," by the Rev. James Bicheno — "Letter
to Mr. Bicheno," by David Levi .... 223

XLV. " Attempt to Remove Prejudices Concerning the

Jewish Nation," by Thomas Witherby . . 225

XLVI. " Observations on Mr. Bicheno's Book," by Thomas

Witherby ........ 225

XLVII. " Letters to the Jews," by Joseph Priestley . . 225

XLVIII. " An Address to the Jews on the Present State of the

World," by Joseph Priestley . . . .226

XLIX. " Letters to Dr. Priestley," by David Levi . 226

L. "A Famous Passover Melody," by the Rev. F. L.

Cohen ........ 227

LI. " Reminiscences of Lord Byron . . . Poetry, etc., of

Lady Caroline Lamb," by Isaac Nathan . . 228

LII. " Selection of Hebrew Melodies," by John Braham

and Isaac Nathan . . . . . .228

LIII. Earl of Shaftesbury's Zionist Memorandum — Scheme

for the Colonisation of Palestine . . . .229

LIV. Restoration of the Jews ...... 231

LV. Another Zionist Memorandum — Restoration of the

Jews ........ 236

LVI. Extracts from Autograph and other Letters between

Sir Moses Monteliore and Dr. N. M. Adler . . 237

LVII. The Final Exodus . . . . . . . 245

LVIII. Disraeli and the Purchase of the Suez Canal Shares . 246
LIX. Cyprus and Palestine ...... 247

LX. Disraeli and Heine ....... 248

LXI. Disraeli's Defence of the Jews ..... 249

LXII. A Hebrew Address to Queen Victoria (1849) . . 250

LXIII. An Appeal by Ernest Laharanne (i860) . . . 251



XIV

LXIV.
LXV.

LXVI.

LXVII.

LXVIII.
LXIX.

LXX.
LXXI.

LXXII.
LXXIII.

LXXIV.
LXXV.

LXX VI.

LXXVII.

LXXVIII.

LXXIX.

LXXX.

LXXXI.

LXXXII.

LXXXIII.

LXXXIV.

LXXXV.

LXXXVI.

LXXXVII.

LXXXVIII.

LXXXIX.

XC.

XCI.



THE HISTORY OF ZIONISM

PAGB

Statistics of the Holy Land 252

An Open Letter of Rabbi ChajTim Zebi Sneersohn of

Jerusalem (1863) 253

The Tragedy of a Minority, as seen by an English

Je\vish Publicist (1863) 255

London Hebrew Society for the Colonization of the

Holy Land 256

An Open Letter of Henri Dunant {1866) . . -259

An Appeal of Rabbi Elias Gutmacher and Rabbi

Hirsch Kalischer to the Jews of England (1867) . 262
Alexandre Dumas (fils) and Zionism . . . 263

Appeal of Dunant 's Association for the Colonisation

of Palestine (1867) ...... 265

Edward Cazalet's Zionist Views . . . .267

A Collection of Opinions of English Christian Authori-
ties on the Colonization of Palestine . . 269
Petition to the Sultan ...... 279

(i) Chovevd Zion and Zionist Workers . . . 281

(2) Modern Hebrew Literature ..... 309

Note upon the Alliance Isradliie Universelle and the
Anglo- Jewish Association . . . . .318

An Appeal of the Berlin Kadima .... 325

The Jewish Colonies in Palestine .... 326

The Manifesto of the Bilu (1882) .... 332

Zionism and Jewish Art ...... 333

Progress of Zionism in the West since 1897 . . 347

The Institutions of Zionism . . . . -358

David Wolffsohn's Autobiography .... 388

Some English Press Comments on the London Zionist
Congress (1900) ....... 389

Colonel Conder on the Value of the Jewish National

Movement (1903) . . . . . -391

Lord Gwydyr on Zionism and the Arabs . . -392

Consular Reports ....... 395

" Advent of the Millennium " (Moore) . . . 399

Cremieux's Circular to the Jews in Western Europe . 400
" The Banner of the Jews " (Emma Lazarus) . . 400

" The Advanced Guard " . . . . . 401



ADDENDA

CORRIGENDA

CATALOGUE OF THE ILLUSTRATIONS
BOOKS CONSULTED ....



403-425
426-427

429-447
449-460



INDEX 461



ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOL. II.



Baron Edmond de Rothschild

Lieut. -Col. Sir Mark Sykes, Bart, M.P

Rt. Hon. Arthur J. Balfour, M.P.

Gen. Sir Edmund H. H. Allenby

M. S. J. M. Pichon .

M. Jules Cambon

H.E. Paolo Boselli

H.E. Baron Sidney Sonnino

M. A. F. J. RiBOT .

M. G. E. B. Clemenceau

President Thomas Woodrow Wilson

Rt. Hon. David Lloyd George, M.P.

Laying Foundation Stone of the Hebrew University,
Jerusalem ........

The Kattowitz Conference, 5644=1884 . . . .



Frontispiece

Facing /. xvii

82

84

128

128

128

128

128

128

130

132

144

288



XT




I.eoppU PilichmK)s.ki. iqiS

Lit It f.- Co/. Sir Mark Sykks, Bart., M.P.



SIR MARK SYKES, BART., M.P.

(A TRIBUTE)

A MOST tragic event took place on the i6th of February,
1919, when the world lost one of the most valiant champions
of Zionism, namely Sir Mark Sykes, Bart., M.P. He fell
like a hero in the thick of the fight ; he was suddenly
extinguished, as it were a torch in full blaze. He stood
towering above the crowd of sceptics and grumblers, viewing
the promised land as from Pisgah's height, his clear eye
fixed on Zion. He was at once a sage and a warrior, a kniglit
in the service of the sacred spirit of the national idea
without fear or reproach, whom nothing could overcome
but the doom of sudden and premature death. Sir Mark
Sykes was but forty years old, physically a giant, a
picture of perfect manhood, full of youthful vigour, a
soldier and a poet, a fervid patriot and a kindly and self-
sacrificing friend of humanity. He was one of the born
representatives of that tradition which for centuries has
inseparably united the genius of Great Britain with the
Zionist ideal of the Jewish people. In him appeared to be
harmoniously united the soaring imagination of Byron, the
deep mysticism of Thomas Moore, the rehgious zeal of
Cardinal Manning and the statesmanly and wide outlook
of Disraeli.

The germs of Sykes' Zionism lay latent in him in his
earhest years. He was scarcely eight years old when his
father took him for the first time to Jerusalem. He often
related how when many years later he visited a certain spot
in Palestine, an elderly Arab told him that years before an
English gentleman had been there with a Uttle boy, leaving
behind him kindly memories. His father, a wealthy land-
owner in Yorkshire, was one of the principal churchbuilders
in England of his time. He was a gentleman of the
old style, a protector of the poor, fired with religious
enthusiasm, who devoted untiring labour to the manage-
ment of his family estate. Every foot of this extensive



xviii THE HISTORY OF ZIONISM

family estate with its churches and schools, its country
houses and old and new farms and dwellings, with its
great collections and its old and valuable library, bears
the impress not only of marked diligence and refined taste,
but also of an unusual sense of continuity and tradition.
Long before the traveller from Hull reaches the estate, a
high and slender tower strikes his eye. It is the monument
that has been erected in memory of the grandfather, the
old squire, an original character about whom Sir Mark was
wont to tell so many amusing stories. Long after the intro-
duction of railways he used to ride his steed to London, and
on the way often used to stop, take the hammer from the
navvies who were breaking road-metal, and perform their
work for them for hours at a time. Now his statue is to be
seen in a chapel-like recess crowned with a high tower on one
of the main roads of the estate. His son. Sir Mark's father,
was not less of an original character. He had nothing of
the tradition of feudal lords — the family was descended
from an old and very rich shipbuilding family in Hull
which flourished in the i6th century, had by the 17th
century gained a great reputation, and later had business
relations with Peter the Great — but he rather repre-
sented the t3^pe of a fanciful IMaecenas, whose hobby
it was constantly to remodel buildings or to erect new
ones. His ancestors had built ships, he built houses.
That amounted to a passion in him, a noble passion, a
desire to build, endow and found. And as he was
very religious he built churches. He also travelled widely
and gathered large collections in his country house. His
religion was nominally High Church, but he must have
had strong leanings towards Catholicism. His wife, the
mother of Sir Mark, was an ardent Catholic. Sir Mark was
attached to his mother, and was brought up in the Catholic
faith. On his mother's side Sir Mark had a decided strain
of Irish blood, but the English type was predominant in
him. His features, however, were of extraordinary gentle-
ness, his eyes large and clear blue in colour, and a wisp of
hair would often fall over his brow. He was an English
Catholic and cherished in his heart the memory of the not
so far distant time when Catholics were persecuted, and
restricted in their civil rights. He was a Catholic in a coun-
try where the Catholics constitute a small and weak minority,
and often he remarked to me tliat it was his Catholicism
that enabled him to understand the tragedy of the Jewish



SIR MARK SYKES xix

question, since not so long since Catholics had to suffer
much in England. His Catholicism did not make him
fanatical ; it made him rather cosmopolitan, that is to say,
catholic in the pure sense of the word. He received an ex-



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