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with sentiments testifying to their great appreciation; to their great interest in
the noble work that you have done for humanity, not only the present genera-
tion, but the generations which are to follow."

Mr. Straus replied in a speech, "My One Idea." (See page 295.)

The Committee distributed to the diners a review of Mr. Straus'
work, printed in English, German and Yiddish. The account began:

"The name of Nathan Straus is identified the world over with the systematic
saving of the lives of babies, for it was he who was the world pioneer in efforts
to prevent the slaughter of the innocents by infected milk, and for two decades
he has been the militant aggressive champion of the idea that the little ones
have the right to live, and that it is the duty of governments, national and munici-
pal, to secure this right for the babies by protecting their food supplies, by pas-
teurizing the milk that is the chief item in the dietary of the baby.

"Mr. Straus, nearly a score of years ago, found a condition perilous to the
public health, with unerring instinct chose a remedy, practically applied that
remedy out of his own resources, and after generous expenditures and many years
of keen fighting for the truth, has the satisfaction today of knowing that the
pasteurization of milk is accepted with singular unanimity by all unbiased
scientists.

"This achievement, this demonstration of a scientific fact in advance of the
researches of science, is so dramatic that it gives Mr. Straus a title to fame apart
from his philanthropies."

69



PASTEURIZATION IN OTHER CITIES.



WHILE carrying on his long fight for the pasteurization of the
milk supply in New York City, Mr. Straus extended his
propaganda to other cities and found early and most en-
thusiastic support particularly in Chicago, which in August, 1908, led all
the world by being the first city to require the pasteurization of the milk
supply. The story is told in this dispatch printed in August of that year
in the New York Evening Mail:

CHICAGO SAYS MILK MUST BE PASTEURIZED.

Chicago, Aug. 8. This city, under the leadership of Dr. W. A. Evans, Com-
missioner of Health, has taken the lead in adopting practical measures for the
prevention of tuberculosis, being the first city in the world to. take definite steps
to stop the sale of milk containing the germs of consumption.

The City Councils have passed an ordinance requiring that after January
1, 1909, all milk offered for sale in the city shall be pasteurized, unless it comes
from cows that have been tested with tuberculin within a year and that have
been proved to be free from tuberculosis.

Similar ordinances have been passed requiring that no butter or cheese shall
be sold in the city unless made from the milk of tuberculin-tested cows or from
pasteurized milk.

Dr. Evans, in his long fight for the adoption of these measures to prevent
the spread of tuberculosis, cited the demonstrations made in New York City by
Nathan Straus and the proofs given in European cities by the American philan-
thropist.

He pointed out that an American layman had taught the whole world how
to successfully combat the great white plague, and that the most American of
cities ought to take the lead in adopting and enforcing Mr. Straus' practical
and efficient scheme for the saving of human life and the curbing of the most
dreaded of all diseases. _ NeV> Yo rk Evening Mail.

Mr. Straus congratulated Chicago in a letter to Mayor Busse. (See
page 251.) Desperate attacks were made upon the pasteurization ordi-
nance, and officers of the State of Illinois endeavored to undo the work of
Dr. Evans. Mr. Straus, in a letter to Gov. Deneen, characterized these
attacks as "The Putting of Babies in Coffins." (See page 257.) The
following year an effort was made to repeal the ordinance. Mr. Straus,
apprised of this by wireless while on his way to Europe, appealed to the
Chicago City Council by cable. (See page 286.) The ordinance was
sustained.

Subsequently the . Chicago milk ordinance was invalidated by the
courts and the fight for the babies had to be made all over again in
1912. On July 30 of that year, while the new ordinance was pending,
Mr. Straus wired Dr. Willis O. Nance, chairman of the Health Com-
mittee of the Board of Aldermen:

"The ordinance for which you are fighting means lives of babies
saved; its defeat means babies killed; can Chicago hesitate between
these alternatives?" The ordinance was adopted.

Gradually, as opportunity offered, the propaganda was carried on in
one city and another, until the dangers of raw milk were well understood
and health officers and other officials were won over to pasteurization.

70



New York City fell in line as above related. Philadelphia estab-
lished compulsory pasteurization in the Spring of 1914. In other cities
the cause made progress, either by the force of public demand or through
the enlightened efforts of health commissioners.

Now pasteurization is either required or officially encouraged in 46
of the 52 largest cities in the United States. The record is as follows :



CITY


PROPORTION




PASTEURIZED


New York


95%


Philadelphia


90%


Chicago


80-85%


St. Louis


75%


Cleveland


95%


Detroit


95%


San Francisco


40%


Milwaukee


90%


Cincinnati


97%


Newark


75%


Jersey City


95%


Seattle


70%


Indianapolis


95%


Rochester


20%


Columbus


75%


Oakland, Cal.


85%


Richmond


90%


Omaha


33%


Dayton, Ohio


75%


Spokane


80%


Montclair


50%


East Orange


50%


Albany


25%



CITY


PROPORTION




PASTEURIZED


Boston


82.5%


Baltimore


65%


Pittsburgh





Buffalo


80-85%


New Orleans


25%


Washington


85%


Los Angeles


80%


Providence


25%


Louisville


85%


Denver


50%


Worcester, Mass.


35%


Syracuse


33%


Binghampton





Scranton


80%


Paterson, N. J.





Fall River


10%


Lowell





Memphis


30%


Grand Rapids


10%


Nashville


25%


Cambridge


50%


Bridgeport





Ogden, Utah






The only large cities that do not officially encourage pasteurization
are:

Minneapolis, where, however, 60% is pasteurized.
Kansas City, where pasteurization is "permitted" for high
grades, but required for Grade C milk.
St. Paul,

Portland, Ore., where 50% of the supply is pasteurized.
Toledo, where 80% is pasteurized.
New Haven, where 25% is pasteurized.

When Mr. Straus started his work his warnings of the perils that
lurked in raw milk were received with incredulity, or with derision, or
with open and bitter attacks.

But he persisted, with the result that to-day there is not only almost
complete unanimity in favor of pasteurization on the part of medical and
scientific men, but pasteurization is an established fact in practically all
the big cities of the country.

71




FIRST NATHAN STRAUS MILK STATION, 1893.
On Pier at East Third Street, New York City.





PASTEURIZING ROOM. CITY HALL STATION, 1894.

In First Nathan Straus Laboratory First Nathan Straus Station in the

on East Third Street Pier. Parks.

(Reproduced from newspaper prints)



72



INFANT MILK DEPOTS




The Nathan Straus Stations in New
York City

Brooklyn Depots

Philadelphia

Chicago

St. Louis

Municipal Milk Stations

Depots in Other Cities

Milk Dispensed by the Glass



73




NATHAN STRAUS LABORATORY, 151 AVENUE C, NEW YORK CITY.

Opened in April, 1895.

[New Laboratory (p. 32) occupied September, 1908]




GROUP OF MOTHERS AND BABIES AT OLD LABORATORY.

74



THE NATHAN STRAUS DEPOTS IN NEW YORK.



THE first infant milk depot in America (see illustrations on pages,
10 and 72) was that founded by Mr. Straus in 1893 on the East
Third St. Pier, New York City. This statement does not overlook
the fact that as early as 1889 the Good Samaritan (Eastern) Dispensary
supplied sterilized milk for infant patients suffering from intestinal dis-
turbances. That was a clinic. The sterilized milk was a remedy dis-
pensed through the apothecary.

Mr. Straus' work was not to treat sick babies, though he always
had a physician in attendance to render that service, but to keep babies
well by supplying them with pasteurized milk. That was the genesis
of the system of infant milk depots that has since been copied in 127 cities
in this country and in many places abroad.

Incidentally, in starting this work on a city pier, Mr. Straus was*
the pioneer in the utilization of the upper stories of piers for the benefit
of the people. Out of this grew the establishment of Recreation Piers.
(See page 123.)

The demand for pasteurized milk increased so rapidly that in April,
1895, Mr. Straus equipped a laboratory at 151 Avenue C (see illustrations
on pages 42 and 74) in the great East Side of New York, for the prepa-
ration of milk for the babies. This soon became taxed to its capacity
and on September 1, 1908, the work was moved to the present laboratory,
erected and equipped by Mr. Straus, at 348 East 32d Street. (Pages
32-38.)

With the increased demand for the milk prepared at the Straus
Laboratory, additional stations were opened, until now Mr. Straus main-
tains eight infant milk depots the year round and eighteen in summer.

Each day more than 2,300 babies are fed on the Straus modified
and pasteurized milk, and from 4,000 to 5,000 babies are benefited in
the course of a year. In the earlier days no records were kept of the
individual babies, as Mr. Straus wished to have the depots as unlike
clinics as possible. But since the organization of the Babies' Welfare
Association, under the auspices of the Health Department, in 1912, a
record has been kept of each baby. Each week a report is sent to the
Association showing the number of babies at the beginning of the week,
the number added or dropped, the deaths, if any, and the number reg-
istered at the end of the week.

These records show that in the past four years while 20,111 babies
have been cared for by the Straus depots only six of them died.

Many of the babies are in desperate condition when first brought
to the Straus depots, the mothers having in vain tried every other means
of keeping them in health. In many cases the babies come from hos-

75




THE PHILADELPHIA PASTEURIZED MILK SOCIETY.
Filling the Bottles by Machinery.




THE PHILADELPHIA PASTEURIZED MILK SOCIETY.
Placing the Filled Bottles in the Pasteurizing Oven.



75



pitals which have given up the cases, yet in almost every instance the
babies thrive and sickness is rare among them.

The way in which the work expanded is illustrated by the records,
of the modified and pasteurized milk dispensed. The figures are given
by years ended September 1st and are as follows:

YEARS. BOTTLES. GLASSES.

1893 34,400

1894 306,446 572,150

1895 589,064 371,360

1896 658,064 576,178

1897 647,728 369,900

1898 567,533 706,140

1899 566,096 783,000

1900 690,240 854,100

1901 791,151 765,000

1902 1,202.287 875,700

1903 1,777,612 692,685

1904 2,233,818 811,090

1905 3,167,871 1,016,731

1906 3,140,252 1,078,405

1907 3,031,510 1,230,130

1908 4,167,675 1,411,017

1909 3,319,063 1,522,998

1910 2,900,675 1,384,021

1911 2,217,512 1,335,363

1912 2,193,684 1,326,100

1913 2,193,210 1,542,419

1914 2,148,119 1,747,984

1915 2,175,208 1,441,580

1916 2,153,963 1,595,447

Total 42,873,181 24,009,498

In addition nearly half a million bottles of barley water have been supplied.

In 1896 Mr. Straus began supplying pasteurized milk in Brooklyn,
through the Diet Dispensary, with five stations. This work was sub-
sequently taken over by the Brooklyn Children's Aid Society, which
maintains 14 stations.

The Nathan Straus work came under very careful scrutiny in 1903,
when Charles Emory Smith, editor of "The Philadelphia Press," becom-
ing concerned over the high infant death rate in that city, sent a medical
expert to New York to examine the Nathan Straus method. His report
was so satisfactory that Dr. Edward Martin, director of Public Health,
accompanied the "Press" expert to New York for a personal investiga-
tion and "became convinced that such a plant would work wonders in
lessening the appalling death rate among infants in Philadelphia." Mr.
Straus gave a $5,000 plant, which was installed by "The Press" in a
building given by the city (see illustration on opposite page) and has
been successfully operated for the past 14 years by the Philadelphia
Pasteurized Milk Society.

In 1903 the Children's Hospital Society of Chicago formed a
Milk Commission to duplicate the Straus work in that city and the plant
for this purpose was donated by Mr. Straus.

77




STATION IN MORNINGSIDE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH,
NEW YORK.



Y MACHINE

ODIREDMiU




AUTOMOBILE REFRIGERATOR TRUCK.
In Baby Day Parade, May 11, 1915.



78



In the same year Mr. Walter Bernays, City Chemist of St. Louis,
made a critical study of the Straus work in New York and on his report
the St. Louis Provident Association formed a Pure Milk Commission,
to which Mr. Straus gave a pasteurizing plant in February, 1904.

In these three cities the work has been carried on successfully, along
the lines of the New York depots, with similar effect in reducing the
infant mortality rate.

Up to 1908 practically the entire burden of providing wholesome
milk for babies in New York City rested upon Mr. Straus and in that
year more than four million bottles of pasteurized milk were supplied.
About that time private philanthropy began to duplicate Mr. Straus'
work, the New York Milk Committee establishing seven stations. The
Morningside Presbyterian Church, Rev. Allen W. McCurdy, pastor, fol-
lowed Mr. Straus' example by opening a milk depot in the church build-
ing at Morningside Avenue and West 122d Street. (See opposite page.)

In 1910 the City of New York decided to take up the work and in

1911 opened 15 municipal milk depots, increasing the number to 50 in

1912 and to 59 in 1913, largely through the efforts of the Hon. George
McAneny, then President of the Borough of Manhattan.

Now there are in New York City 79 infant milk stations, but the
Straus depots are the only ones that supply modified milk pasteurized in
nursing, bottles ready for feeding upon warming. The Straus mill? is the only ready-
to-drink milk f r babies.

The extent to which Mr. Straus' example has been followed is shown
by the following record of the number of infant milk depots in leading
cities of the country :



CITY. NUMBER.

New York 79

Philadelphia 25

Chicago 20

St. Louis 12

Boston 12

Cleveland 15

Baltimore 2

Pittsburgh . 21

Detroit 6

Buffalo 2

Milwaukee 4

Cincinnati 9

Newark 2

New Orleans 15

Los Angeles 5

Minneapolis 4

Kansas City 6

Indianapolis 6

Louisville 4



CITY. NUMBER

Rochester 12

Jersey City 2

Providence 4

Denver 1

Syracuse 2

New Haven 4

Scranton 1

Birmingham 1

Paterson, N. J 1

Omaha 3

Dayton, Ohio 4

Lowell 1

Nashville 4

Cambridge 2

Bridgeport 4

East Orange 1

Montclair 1

Total . 297



79




TOMPKINS SQUARE STATION.

Model Building Erected by the City of New York in 1909 for the

Straus Work.




TOMPKINS SQUARE PARK STATION
Northside, Where Pasteurized Milk Is Dispensed by the Glass.

80



MILK DISPENSED BY THE GLASS.



MILK properly pasteurized is supplied by the glass during the
Summer at stations in parks and on recreation piers, at a
charge of one cent a glass. In this way healthful food, free
from any possible infection, is brought within the reach of children who
play in these recreation centres, and the eagerness with which they
throng the stations to get this milk is evidence of the need for such
institutions. Park Commissioners and others interested in making the
parks and recreation piers really beneficial to the children agree that
there is no way in which the good done by these play centres can be
better supplemented than by this provision for supplying wholesome
pasteurized milk at a nominal charge.

In addition to the glass milk the pasteurized modified milk in nurs-
ing bottles is also dispensed at these stations. As there is provision for
heating the bottles the mothers are not compelled to return home at
feeding time, but can spend the day in the open with their children.

But it is not only the children and mothers who are cared for by
the dispensing of milk by the glass. These depots are also eagerly
sought by growing lads and full grown men, who find in a glass of
pasteurized milk better refreshment than is afforded by the corner
saloon, and at one-fifth of the cost of a glass of beer, or one-tenth the
cost of a drink of spirits. In this way this work has had a decided
influence in promoting temperance not by preaching but by the sub-
stitution of a nourishing and wholesome drink for that which dulls the
brain and undermines the health.

During the past Summer 1,595,447 glasses of pasteurized milk were
served at these stations, and in the twenty-five years of Mr. Straus' work
24,009,498 glasses of pasteurized milk were thus served.

The question is often asked as to what equipment is needed for
stations for the sale of milk by the glass. The requirements are:

Refrigerating tanks, capacity of inner compartment 30 gal-
lon? of milk, surrounded by ice chamber.

Glasses eight ounce mugs.

Stirring contrivance, to keep the cream distributed through
the milk in the tanks.

Strainer and cheese cloth to put over top of tanks in pour-
ing milk in.

Box for extra ice to be used in keeping ice compartment
in tanks full.

Counter for serving the milk.

Sink for washing glasses, with running hot and cold water.

Borax solution.

Trough under tanks to catch drippings.

Thermometer for testing temperature of milk on delivery
to station.

Dipper for tasting milk on delivery to station.

81



A STUDY OF EFFORTS MADE IN NEW YORK CITY
TO REDUCE INFANT MORTALITY.



BY THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION INTERNATIONAL HEALTH

COMMISSION.



(Extracts from the Report.)



NATHAN STRAUS PASTEURIZED MILK DEPOTS.

In 1892 Nathan Straus established his Pasteurized Milk
Laboratory and five depots which operated throughout the year.
This was the beginning of organized effort to combat infant
mortality by providing absolutely safe milk for artificially fed
infants.

The number of year round stations was later increased to
eight depots. Ten additional depots were also opened in the
summer and have been maintained every year during this season.
In addition to the selling of pure milk below cost, free milk was
given the needy cases; educational work was carried on through
the distribution of literature in various languages; sick infants
were treated, mostly in their homes; and advice was given to
mothers in infant care, including individual consultations with the
doctor who visited the stations.

The paid staff attached to the year-round depots, carrying on
definite infant welfare work, included a physician, a supervising
nurse who is a trained nurse in charge of all the work,
eight matrons in charge of the depots, assistants to the matrons,
and cleaners at certain of the larger depots. The matrons of
each depot had direct charge of the work, including the dispensing
of milk and gave such assistance as the physician required on
clinic days.

This is a private charity. The expense is borne by Mr.
Nathan Straus.

1. Enrollment. Permitted to infants in good health and to
sick infants, suffering from non-contagious diseases, which are
under two years of age, and live in certain definite districts within
whose limits the depots operate. On application, however, any-
body in New York City rich or poor in need of the special
feedings dispensed at these depots may procure the same.

2. Foods. Certified milk, pasteurized according to the
Straus method, sold every day in pint and half pint bottles and
as modified feedings in individual feeding bottles (of varying
sizes) for infants. Needy cases supplied free, after investigation
by the supervising nurse.

3. Weekly medical examination by physician at the depots
for infants enrolled. Babies weighed and standard modification
formulas issued to meet individual needs.

Straus Method of Pasteurization: "The milk is exposed to
157 Fahrenheit for 25 minutes (5 minutes for reaching the tem-
perature and 20 minutes at that temperature), and then rapidly
cooled to 40 degrees. This process kills all noxious germs and
preserves the nutritious quality."

Cost of Operation: Mr. Straus writes: "I have never made
any estimate of the cost of the work. My instructions have been
to do the work in the best possible way. The milk has been sold
at less than cost and much of it has been given away."

82



PASTEURIZATION
IN THE HOME



Mr. Straus' Invention of a "Fool
Proof" Home Pasteurizer

Award in 1908 by the Exposition
Internationale, Paris

Directions for Making the Home
Pasteurizer



83



REPUBIAQPE TRANQAI S E



Ml'LOME m

/&t *




DIPLOMA AWARDED TO NATHAN STRAUS, PARIS, 1908.



84



PASTEURIZATION AT HOME.



MR. STRAUS felt the need of a pasteurizer for use in the home
that would accomplish by simple method the same destruc-
tion of bacteria, without impairing the milk, that was effected
in the Milk Laboratory.

As the number of people supplied with milk at the Straus Labo-
ratory increased it became evident that there were a large number who
would be glad to use the pasteurized modified milk, but were too proud
to come to the laboratory to obtain it. In addition, there is, of course,
a large class who can well afford to pasteurize at home those who
do not care to share in the charity of buying milk of the laboratory.
The apparatus then on the market for this purpose were all of compli-
cated manipulation and most of them heated the milk to a tempera-
ture far in excess of that needed to destroy the bacteria.




THE NATHAN STRAUS HOME PASTEURIZER.

It was during a prolonged residence in Heidelberg, Baden, Ger-
many, where for some time the pasteurization work was carried on,
that experiments were made. They were conducted by inserting a
thermometer through the top of the can while pasteurization was going
on so that the mercury of the thermometer was in the actual milk in
the bottle. The temperature registered on this thermometer was noted
every minute for twenty minutes of pasteurization. The proportion of
boiling water and cold milk to be pasteurized was exactly determined
upon after hundreds of such tests.

Months of experience were needed to develop the Straus Home
Pasteurizer to its present high degree of perfection and to make it
what is popularly called "FOOL-PROOF."

85



Directions For Manufacturing Home Pasteurizer-
System Nathan Straus




H)UK PASTEUR,^



INSIDE

SECTION

SHOWING

BRACKET

FOR

TRAY




Height of Pan

Diameter of Pan

Distance of Top of Bracket from
Bottom of Pan

Amount of Water..,



SIZE I

Eight
3 oz. Bottles



n.
in.



3 Vie in.
5 quarts



SIZE II

Eight
oz. Bottles



n.
in.



f n.
quarts



SIZE III SIZE IV

Six Six 16 oz.

> oz. Bottles (pint) Bottles



12



n.
in.



43/4 in.
J4 quarts



14 M in.



6J4 in.
9 quarts



86



The Home Pasteurizer consists essentially of three parts, as shown
in the illustration. A can (b), a rack (a) to hold the bottles of milk,
and a top for the can (c). The bottles are filled to the neck, the patent
corks are snapped on and the bottles are placed in the rack.

The pot (b) is placed on a wooden surface (table or floor) and filled
to the three supports (in the pot) with boiling water. Then place tray
(a), with the filled bottles, in the pot (b) so that the bottom of the tray
rests on the three supports. The cover is then placed on the can and
the bottles are left in this position for five minutes to heat them thor-
oughly through. When five minutes have passed the cover is taken off,
the rack is given a half turn so that it is no longer supported by the
projections on the inside of the can, and it sinks slowly to the bottom
of the can. The cover is then replaced on the can. It is advisable to
perform this operation as rapidly as possible. The whole is then al-
lowed to stand for twenty-five minutes. The can is then uncovered, the
rack lifted out, the hot water is partially emptied out of the can and
cold water is poured in its place. When the bottles are cool enough so
that they will not be cracked by contact with ice, ice is added to chill
them as thoroughly and quickly as possible.

By this process pasteurization is accomplished with a degree of
exactness that is almost unbelievable unless one has seen the experiment



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