Nathaniel Boteler Cornelius Marshal Lowe.

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(Caes. I, 6, 7), of a return home; ad Oenavam pervenit (Caes. I, 7, 4),
he reaches the neighborhood of Geneva,


The name of the person addressed is put in the vocative. Example:
Catilina (Qc. Cat. 1, 1).

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290 APPENDIX 29 133-136


The lang^uage from which Latin developed had two more cases than
Latin has, — ^the instrumental and the locative. The trae ablative
meant separation (from), the instrumental meant association or instra-
ment {tuUh or by), and the locative meant place where (in). The forms
of these three cases united in the Latin ablative; so that this one
case has meanings which belonged to three separate cases.

A, The True Ablative

1 34. Ablative of Separation. Separation is usually expressed by
the ablative, either alone or with ab, de> or ex. With some verbs both
constructions are used; the individual usage of others must be noted.
For the so-called dative of separation see 116, 1. Examples: suis Hnibiu
e58 prohibent (Caes. I, 1, 14), they repel them from their own territory;
quae hostem a pugn& prohibdrent (Caes. IV, 34, 10), which kept the
enemy from battle; a Bibracte aberat (Caes. I, 23, 3), he was distant from

a. Place from which: with verbs expressing motion: —

1. Place from which is regularly expressed by the ablative with a
preposition. Compare 131 and 161. Examples: ut de finibuB suls
ezirent (Caes. I, 2, 4), to go out from their territory; qui ex prdvincia
convdnerant (Caes. I, 8, 2), who had gathered from the province.

2. But no preposition is used with names of towns and small
islands, or with dom5, ^rom home. Yet ab is used with names of towns
to express from the neighborhood of. Examples: Bdm& profog^runt
(Cic. Cat. I, 7), they fled from Rome; dom5 exire (Coes. I, 6, 1), to go
out from home.

b. With v^rbs meaning deprive, free, be wUhoda, and the like, and with
adjectives of similar meanings, the ablative without a prexK>sition is
generally used. Examples: Qi&gn5 me metu liberabis (Cic. Cat. 1, 10),
ymi will fi^ee me of great fear; proelio abstinebat (Caes. I, 22, 12), refused
battle (literally abstained from battle).

1 36. Ablative of Source. The ablative, usually without a prep-
osition, is used with the participles natus and ortua, -to express
parentage or rank. Examples: ampliasimd genere n&tus (Caes. IV,
12, 13), bom of the highest rank; sordrem ex matre (natam) (Caes. 1, 18,
17), his sister on his mother's side,

1 36. Ablative of Material. The material of which anything is
made is expressed by the ablative with ex, less often de. Example;
naves factae ex robore (Caes. lU, 13, 6), the ships were made of oak.

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i 137-142 APPENDIX 291

1 37. Ablative of Agent. With any form of the passive except
the passive periphrastic (see 118) the agent (person who performs the
act) is expressed by the ablative with ab. Compare the ablative of
means (148). Example: exercitum ab Helvetiis pulsmn (Caes. I, 7,
14), tJtat his army had been rovXed by the Helvetians,

138. Ablative of Cause. Cause is expressed by the ablative
without a preposition. Examples: gratia et larg^tione (Caes. I, 9, 5),
because of his popularity and lavish giving; quod sua victoria gloriarentur
(Caes. I, 14, 11), that they boasted (because) of their victory,

a. Cause is also often expressed by causa and the genitive (99, a),
or by the accusative with ob, per, or propter. Example: propter an-
gustias (Caes. I, 9, 2), because of its narrowness,

1 39. Ablative of Comparison. With comparatives than may be
expressed by the ablative. This is not to be confused with the ablative
of measure of difference (148). Examples: luce sunt clariora tua con-
silia (Cic. Cat. I, 6), your plans are dearer than day; n5n amplius quinis
aut senis milibujs passuum (Caes. I, 16, 15), not more than five or six
miles (compare b),

a, ftuam, thxin,^ may usually be used with a comparative. The
following noun is then in the same case as the one with which it is
compared. The ablative is generally used only to replace quam with
the nominative or accusative, and when the sentence is negatived.

b. Plus, minus, amplius, longius, are often used instead of plus
quam, etc. Example: milium amplius quinquaginta circuitu (Caes.
I, 41, 12), by a circuit of more than fifty miles,

B, The Insteumental Ablative

1 40. Ablative of Accompaniment. Accompaniment is expressed
by the ablative with cum. Example: ut cum omnibus c5piis ezirent
(Caes. I, 2, 4), to go out with all their troops,

141. Descriptive Ablative. The ablative modified by an adjective
describes a person or thing by naming some quality. It may be used
either attributively or predicatively. Compare the descriptive genitive
(100). Examples: homines inimico animo (Caes. I, 7, 16), men ofun^
friendly disposition) nondum bond anim5 viderentur (Caes. I, 6, 12),
they did not yet seem (to be) well disposed (of a good spirit),

1 42. Ablative of Manner. Manner is expressed by the ablative,
UBually with either cum or a modifying adjective, rarely with both.

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292; APPENDIX i g 143-147

Examples: pars cum cruciatu necabatur (Caes. V, 46, 6), same were
kiUed wiih torture; xnagniB itineribiiB.(Caes. I, 10, 9), hy forced marches,

a. In some common phrases the ablative means in accordance wUJi.
These are especially the following nouns, modified by either an adjective
or a genitive, — cdnsudtudine^ iure, iussu (iniussu), lege, moribus,
sententia, sponte, volimtate. Examples: iniussu 8u5 (Caes. I, 19, 4),
without his orders; mdribujs sms (Caes. I, 4, 1), in accordance wiUi their
customs; sua voluntate (Caes. I, 20, 11), in accordance with his wish.

143. Ablative of Means. The means or instrument by which a
thing is done is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. Com-
pare the ablative of the agent (137). Example: regni cupiditate
inductus (Caes. I, 2, 3), influenced by the desire for royal power,

a. Notice the ablative with the following words, — verbs and adjec-
tives ol filling (except plenus, 106) ;fido,confido,<rte«^ in; niter, rdy upon;
• lacesso (proelio), pr(n;oA;€ {to battle); assueflEUitus, assuetus, accustomed to;
fretuB, relying upon. Examples: natura loci confidSbant (Caes. Ill,
9, 13), they trusted in the nature of the country; null5 officiS assueiacti
(Caes. IV, 1, 18), accustomed to no obedience,

1 44. Ablative of the "Way. The road or way by which a person or
thing goes is expressed by the ablative of means. Examples:
frumentd quod flumine Arare navibus subvexerat (Caes. I, 16, 6), the
grain which he had brought up {by way of) the Saone; eodem itinere cot-
tendlt (Caes. I, 21, 8), he advances by the same road,

1 46. Ablative with Special Verbs. The ablative of means is used
with the following verbs, which in English are transitive, — utor, use,
fruor, enjoy y tungOT, perform ^ fulfill^ potior (compare 111), get possession of,
vescor, eat, and their compounds. Examples: eddem Hal c5nsilid
(Caes. I, 6, 10), adopting {using) the same plan; impend potiri (Caes. I, 2,
d), to get possession of the government,

146. Ablative with opus est. The ablative of means is used with
opus est (uBus est), there is need of. Example: si qu6 opu» asset (Caes.
II, 8, 17), if there should be need of any {reserve),

a. But if the thing needed is expressed by a neuter pronoun or
adjective it may be used as the subject, with opujs as predicate noun.
Example: si quid opus esset (Caes. I, 34, 5), if he needed anything.

1 47. Ablative of Price. "With verbs of buying, selling, and the like,
price is expressed by the ablative. Compare the genitive of value, 106.
Example: parv5 pretio redempta (Caes. I, 18, 9), bought up at a law


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81148-150 APPENDIX 293

1 48. Ablative of Measure of Difference. The ablative is used
-with comparatives and words of similar meaning to express the measure
of difference. Compare 139. Examples: insula dimidio minor (Caes.
V, 13, 7), an island smaller by half; paucis ante diebus, (Caes. I, 18, 26),
a few days before (literally before by a few days),

a. E6 . . . quo, in this construction, may be translated the , , . the,
^Example: ed gravius ferre quo minus merito accidissent (Caes. I, 14,
3), he- was the m(yre angry the less deservedly they had happened (literally by
that amount , , , , by which).

149. Ablative of Specification. The ablative is used to express
that in respect to which a statement is true. This is the regular con-
struction of supines in -u (296). Examples: lingua inter se differunt
(Caes. I, 1, 4), they differ in language; maior natii, older {greater in birth);
perfacile factu (Caes. I, 3, 18), very easy to do (cw to the doing),

a. The ablative is used with dignus, worthy, and indignus, unworthy.
Example: qui se dignum custodia iudicarit (Cic. Cat. !> 19), who has
judged himself deserving of a guard.

1 50. Ablative Absolute. The ablative absolute consists of a noun
and participle in the ablative, syntactically independent of the rest of
the sentence. It corresponds to the English nominative absolute, but is
used very much more commonly. As Latin has no present participle of
the verb to be, a noun and noun or noun and adjective may be used in
the ablative absolute where English would connect them by the word

The ablative absolute is freely used as a concise means of expressing
some attendant circumstance, often where English would, and Latin
might, use a dependent clause instead. It may thus be translated by
wTien, after, if, though, because, etc., and in many other ways. Notice the
translation of the following examples. Examples: (translated by active
past participle) remotis equis proelium commisit (Caes. I, 25, 2),
having sent the horses away. Tie began the battle; (translated by prepositional
phrase) M. Messala et H. Pisone consulibus (Caes. I, 2, 2), in the
consulship of, etc.; eo deprecatore (Caes. I, 9, 4), by his mediation;
(translated by subordinate clause) omnibus rebus comparatis diem
dicunt (Caes. I, 6, 14), when everything was ready they set a day; Sequanis
invilis ire non poterant (Caes. I, 9, 1), if the Sequani should refuse they
could not go; monte occupato nostr5s ezspectabat (Caes. I, 22, 11),
though he had occupied the mountain he waited for our men; (translated
by coordinate clause) locis superi5ribus occupatis .... conantur
(Caes. 1, 10, 13), they occupied advantageous positions and tried, etc.

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294 APPENDIX {{151-154

C The Locative Ablative

161. Place in Which, Place in which is regularly expressed by
the ablative with in. Compare 131 and 134, a. Example: in eorum
finibns belliun gerunt (Caes. I, 1, 14), they fight in their territory.

a. But no preposition is used with names of towns and small
islands. They stand in the locative (16, b; 16, b) if they are singular
nouns of the first and second declensions; otherwise in the ablative.
The locative domi, at home, is also in regular use. Examples: nemo
Biomae fuit ( Cic. Cat. II, 8), there was no one at Borne; domi larglter
posse (Caes. I, 18, 14), he had great influence at home.

b. No preposition is regularly used with loc5, locis, parte, partibus
and any modifier; or with any noun modified by totus. Examples:
ndnnullis locis transitur (Caes. I, 6, 8), is crossed in several places; vulgo
toils castns (Caes. I, 30, 18), everywhere throughout the entire camp,

c. Latin often uses some other construction where the English
would lead one to expect the construction of place in which. So ab and
ex are used to express position; and the ablative of means is often, used
instead of the ablative with in if the construction is at all appropriate.
Examples: una ex parte (Caes. I, 2, 8), on one side; cotidianis proeliu
contendunt (Caes. I, 1, 13), they contend in (by means of) daily batHet;
memoria tenebat (Caes. I, 7, 13), he held in (by means of) memory,

162. Ablative of Time. Time in or within which is expressed by
the ablative without a preposition. Compare the accusative of time
(130). Examples: e5 tempore (Caes. I, 3, 15), at that time; id quod ipa
diebus viginii aegerrime cdnfecerant (Caes. I, 13, 4), a thing which they
had barely ajccomplished in (within) twenty days,

a. The ablative rarely denotes duration of time. Example: ea tota
nocte ierunt (Caes. I, 26, 14), they marched during that whole night,


1 63. Ablative. The following prepositions govern the ablative: ab,
absque, coram, cum, de, ex, prae, pro, sine, tenus.

a. The forms ab and ex must be used before words beginning with
a vowel or h. It is always safe to use a and e before words beginning
with a consonant, though ab and ex are often found.

6. Cum is enclitic with the personal and reflexive pronouns, and
usually with the relative and interrogative.

164. Accusative or Ablative. In and Bub with the accusative
imply motion from outside irdo and under , respectively; with the ablative

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88156-159 APPENDIX 295

they imply rest or motion in and under j respectively. Subter and super
sometimes govern the ablative.

1 66. Accusative. All other prepositions govern the accusative.



A predicate adjective is connected with its noun by some part of
the v^rb sum or a verb of similar meaning (see 95, a); as, flumen est
Ifitum, the river is wide. An attributive adjective modifies its noun
without such a connecting verb; as flumen latum, the uide river.


Adjectives (including participles and adjective pronouns) agree
with their nouns in gender, number, and case. Example!: homd
bonus, a good man; mulieri bonae, to a good woman; belldrum m&gno-
ruxn, of great wars.

a. An adjective which belongs in sense to two or more nouns, —

1. If attributive, regularly agrees with the nearest noun. Examples:
▼ir bonus et mulier, a good man and woman; bella et victdriae magnae,
great wars and victories.

2. If predicative, regularly agrees with all the nouns, and must,
therefore, be plural. If the nouns are of the same gender the adjective
usually takes that gender; otherwise it is neuter unless one or more of
the nouns denote things with life, when the adjective is usually mascu-
line rather than feminine, feminine rather than neuter. But the
adjective may be neuter under almost any circumstances. Examples:
homines et mores sunt boni, the men and their characters are good;
homines et arma sunt magni, the men and their arms are large; montes
et flumina sunt magna, the mountains and rivers are large.


Adjectives are rarely used as substantives in the singular, more
commonly in the plural. The masculine is used in all cases in the sense
of man or men. The neuter is used in the sense of thing or things, and
commonly only in the nominative and accusative because they are the
only cases in which masculine and neuter forms can be distinguished.
But the genitive singular neuter is common as the genitive of the whole
(101, a). Examples: mulU, many men; multorum, of many men; multa,
many things; multarum rerum, of many things.


Some adjectives are commonly used where the English idiom suggests

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296 APPENDIX J| 160-164

the use of adverbs, chiefly when they modify the subject or object.
Examples: invitus venit, he came unwillingly ^ or better he was univiUmg
to come; primus venit, h€ came first, or was first to come*


Some adjectives mean a part of an object. The most common
of these are, imus, infimus, the bottom of; medius^ the middle of;
summuB, the top of; primus, the first part of; extremus, the last part of
Examples: in colle medio (Caes. I, 24, 4), on the middle of (half way up)
the slope; smnmus mdns (Caes. I, 22, 1), the top of the mountain; prima
nocte (Caes. I, 27, 13), in the first part of the night,


Comparatives and superlatives of both adjectives and adverbs
are usually to be translated by the corresponding English forms; but
the comparative is souietimes to be translated by rather or too, the
superlative by very. Examples: ndn est saepius saliis periclitanda
(Cic. Cat. I, 11), safety must not he endangered too often; xnonte lura
altissimo (( aes. I, 2, 10), by the very high mountain Jura,

a. The superlative is often strengthened by quam, with or without
a form of possxmi. Examples: quam mazimmn nxmienun (Caes. I, 3, 3),
as great a number as possible; quam maximum potest numerum (Caes.
1, 7, 5), as great a number as possible,



A personal pronoun is rarely used as the subject of a finite verb
except for emphasis or contrast. Example: ego maned, tii abis, I
remain, you go,

a. The plural of the first person is more often used for the singular
til an in English. The plural of the second person is not used for the
singular. ^


1 63. Reflexive pronouns refer back to the subject of the clause or
sentence in which they stand, and correspond to myself, himself, etc., in
such sentences as I praise myself he praises himself , This use oi myself
et<\, must not be confused with the use in such sentences as I myself
praise him, where mj/seZ/ emphasizes /. The latter use corresponds to the
Latin intensive pronoun (172).

1 64. The Direct Reflexive. Sui is used in every kind of sentence
or clause to refer to the subject of the clause in which it stands. It is

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then called a direct reflexive. Example: eum vide5 qm 8$ laudat, I
see the man who praises himself,

165. The Indirect Reflexive. In a subordinate clause which ex-
presses the thought of the principal subject sui is also used to refer to
the principal subject instead of the subject of the clause in which it
stands. It is then called an indirect reflexive.

This is especially important in indirect discourse (271), where the
whole indirect discourse expresses the thought of the speaker, and con-
sequently every pronoun referring to the speaker is regularly some form
of 8ui. Example: Caesar dicit me se laudavisse, Caesar says that 1
praised him (Caesar).

1 66. The Reciprocal Expression! The reflexive pronouns are used
with inter to express the reciprocal idea, <me another^ each other.
Example: inter nos laudamus, we praise erne another or each other,


167. The possessive pronouns are rarely expressed except for
clearness or contrast. Example: Caesar exercitum duxit, Caesar led
{his) army.

a. SuuB is the adjective of the reflexive pronoun sui, and is used in
the same way. Exalnples: Caesar suds milites laudat, Caesar praises
his (own) soldiers; Caesar eius milites laudat, Caesar praises his (not
Caesar's) soldiers,


1 68. Hie refers to something near the speaker, and is sometimes
called the demonstrative of the first person. Example: hie liber, this
booh (near me).

1 69. Iste refers to something near the person spoken to, and is some-
times called the demonstrative of the second person. Example: iste
liber, that book (near you). It often expresses contempt.

170. Ille refers to something more remote from the speaker or
person spoken to, and is often called the demonstrative of the third
person. Example: ille liber, tJiat book (yonder).

a. Hie and hie are often used in the sense of tfie former^ the latter.
Hie is usually the latter^ as referring to the nearer of two things
mentioned; but it may be the former if the former object is more
important and therefore nearer in thought.

'1 7.1 • Is is the weakest of the demonstratives and the one mot^t used

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298 APPENDIX U 172, 173

as the personal pronoun of the third person, or to refer to something
just mentioned, or as the antecedent of a relative.

a. When is serves as the antecedent of a relative it is to be trans-
lated variously, according to the kind of relative clause which follows.

1. When followed by a determininj^ clause (281) it means tJuy the man,
etc. Example: is est qui laudat, he u the man who praises,

2. When followed by a conciiHoirkof relaUve dause (250) it means a,
a marif anyone (= everyone), etc Example: is qui pugnat errat^ anyon/t
who fights makes a mistake,

3. When followed by a characterizing clause (280) it means a, swk
a, such a man, etc. Example: itf est qui pugnet^ he is a man who (swh
a man as) fights.


1 72. Ipse emphasizes the noun with which it agrees. It is usually
translated by self, and is not to be confused with the reflexive pronouns.
Examples: ipse Caesar eum laudat, Caesar himself praises him; ipse
Caesar se laudat^ Caesar (himself) praises himself

a. Ipse is often used 'to strengthen a possessive pronoun. It then
stands in the genitive to agree with the ge&itive implied in the
possessive. Examples :• mens ipsius liber, my ovm hook {the hook of me
myself); vester ipsdrum liber, your own hook (the hook of you yourselves).


173. A relative pronoun agrees in gender and number with its
antecedent; its case depends on its construction in the clause in which
it stands. If it is used as subject the verb agrees in person with the
antecedent. If the relative has two or more antecedents it follows the
same rules of agreement as predicate adjectives (167,'a, 2). The relative
is never omitted. Examples: Caesar, quem laudo, Caesar, whom 1
praise; ego, qtd eum laudd, /, who praise him; Caesar et Cicerd, qui
me laudanty Caesar and Cicero, who praise me.

a. It is often necessary to translate a relative by a conjunction and
a personal or demonstrative pronoun (222, a). Example: relinquebatur
una via, qua ire non poterant, there was left only one way, and by it they
could not go, Latin is fond of letting a relative stand at the beginning
of an entirely new sentence, with its antecedent in the preceding
sentence. It is then usually best translated by a personal or demon-
strative pronoun, without a conjunction. Example: Oaes. I, 27j 2.

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S S 174-180 APPENDIX 299

1 74. Quia, anyone, is generally used after si, nisi, nS, and num; in
relative clauses; and in composition with the interrogative particle ec-.
Examples: si quia laudat, if anyone praises; ecquid attendis, do you give
any heedf

1 76. Aliquis (aliqui) is the indefinite commonly used in affirmative
sentences to mean some one, some, etc. Example: aliquis dicat^ some one
may say,

1 76. Qidspiam has almost exactly the same meaning as aliquis, but
is rare. Example: quispiam dicat, soTne one may say,

1 77. duisquam and ullus are the words commonly used in nega-
tive sentences (except with nS), or questions implying a negative, to
mean any, anyone, etc. Examples: neque quemquam laudd, nor do 1
praise anyone; num quemquam laudd, Ida not praise anyone, do If

1 78. Neacid quia (neaciS qui), originally meaning / know not who, *
is often used in a sense very much like that of aliquis, but with even
more indefiniteness. Examples: nescio quis laudat, some one or other


1 70. If there is but one subject, the finite verb agrees with it in
person and number, and in the compound tenses the participle agrees
with it in gender. Examples: Oaesar laudatus est, Caesar was praised;
muUeres laudatae sunt, the women were praised.

a. But the verb sometimes agrees with the meaning of the subject
rather than its grammatical form. Thus a singular collective noun
sometimes has a plural verb, and a neuter noun a masculine participle
in agreement. Examples: multit^dd venerunt, a great number came;
duo milia occisi sunt^ two thousand were killed,

1 80. If there are two or more subjects, the verb is usually plural,
and in the compound tenses of the passive 'the participle follows the
rule given for predicate adjectives (167, a, 2). If the subjects differ in
person the first person is preferred to the second and the second to the
third. Examples: homo et mulier occisi sunt, the man and the woman

were kiUed; ego et tu venimus, you and I came,

a. The verb may agree with the nearest subject, especially if the
verb stands first or after the first subject. It regularly does so if the
subjects are connected by conjunctions meaning or or nor. Examples:

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300 APPENDIX U 181-184

Oaesar vSnit et Labidnus, Caesar and Labienus came; neque Caesar
neque LabiSnus venit, neither Caesar nor Labienus came; filia atque
unois e f iliis captuB est (Caes. I, 26, 12), his daughter and one of his song

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