Nathaniel Lord Britton.

An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic ocean westward to the 102d meridian online

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Online LibraryNathaniel Lord BrittonAn illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic ocean westward to the 102d meridian → online text (page 26 of 79)
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the margins; panicle lax, syi^-ic/ in length,
its branches filiform and pendulous, the
lower 2''-5^ long; spikelets many-flowered,
oblong to ovate, )^^-i}4^ long, on long cap-
illary pendulous pedicels; lower scales much
smaller than the flowering ones, which are
4}^^^-(/^ long, ciliate-hispid on the winged
keel; stamen i.

In moist places, Pennsylvania to Illinois and
Kansas, south to Florida and Texas. Ascends
to 20CX) ft. in North Carolina. Aug.-Sept.



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198 GRAMINEAE.

3. Uniola panicuUta L. Sea Oats. (Fig. 453.)

Uniola paniculata I,. Sp. PI. 71. 1753.

Glabrous thoroughout, culms 3°-8° tall,
erect » simple, smooth. Sheaths often longer
than the intemodes; ligule a ring of hairs
about %^' long; leaves 1° long or more, about
)i' wide, involute when dry, attenuate into a
long slender tip; panicle 9^-1° in length or
more, the branches erect or ascending, strict,
rigid, the lower 2)^^-5^ long; spikelets many-
flowered, short-pedicelled, ovate to oval when
mature, Yt^-i' long; lower scales much shorter
than the flowering ones, which are 4^''-5^^
long and scabrous on the keels; stamens 3.

In sands of tlie seacoast, Virginia to Florida
and west to Texas. Also in the West Indies and
South America. Spikelets persistent into the
winter. Oct. -Nov.



73. DISTICHLIS Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 104. 1819.

Dioecious grasses, with rigid culms creeping or decumbent at the base, flat or convo-
lute leaves and spike-like paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets flattened, more numerous on
the staminate plants than on the pistillate, 6-i6-flowered; rachilla continuous in the stam-
inate spikelets, articulated in the pistillate. Two lower scales empty, narrow, keeled, acute,
shorter than the flowering ones; flowering scales broader, many-nerved, acute, rigid; palels-
2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles thickened at the base, rather long, distinct. Stigmas
long-plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the scale and palet. [Greek, signifying two-ranked,
probably in reference to the spikelets.]

Four kno\%'n species, natives of America, inhabiting the sea coast or alkaline soil; one of them
is also found in Australia.

I. Distichlis spic^ta (ly.) Greene. Marsh Spike-grass. (Fig. 454.)

Uniola spicaia L. Sp. PI. 71. 1753.
Distichlis maritima Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 104. 1819.
Uniola stricta Torr. Ann. L,yc. N. Y. i: 155. 1824.
Distichlis spicaia Greene, Bull. Cal. Acad. 3: 415.

1887.
Distichlis spicaia var. stricta Scribn. Mem. Torr.

Club, 5: 51. 1894.

Glabrous throughout, culms 3''-2° tall, erect
from a horizontal rootstock, or oflen decumbent at
the base. Sheaths overlapping and often crowded;
ligule a ring of very short hairs; leaves Yz^-d^ long,
\^^-i'' wide, flat or involute; panicle dense and
spike-like, }i^-2%,^ in length, the branches \'
long or less, erect; spikelets 6-i6-flowcred, \^'-<^^'
long, pale green; empty scales acute, the first 1-3-
nerved, two-thirds as long as the 3-5-nerved
second one; flowering scales lYz^^-^yi'^ long,
acute or acuminate.

On salt meadows along the Atlantic coast from
Maine to Florida, in saline soil througfhout the inte-
rior, and on the Pacific coast north to British Columbia.
The main figure is that of the staminate plant. June-
Aug.



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GRASS FAMILY.
74. BRIZA L. Sp. PI. 70. 1753.



199



Annual or perennial grasses, with flat or convolute leaves and open or rarely contracted
panicles. Spikelets large, flattened, tumid, many-flowered, nodding, the flowers perfect.
Scales thin-membranous, strongly concave, the 2 lower empty, 3-5-nerved, somewhat un-
equal; flowering scales imbricated, broader than the empty ones, 5-many-nerved; uppermost
scales often empty; palets much shorter than the scales, hyaline, 2-keeled or 2-nerved.
Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas plumose. Grain usually free, enclosed in the scale
and palet. [Greek name for some grain, perhaps rye.]

About 12 species, natives of the Old World and temperate South America.



Perennial; ligule 14" long or less, truncate; spikelets 5-12-flowered, 2"-2M" long.
Annual; ligule i" long or more, acute; spikelets 3-6-flowered, i"-i54" long.



B. media.
B. minor.



I. Briza media L. Quake-grass. Quaking Grass. (Fig. 455.)

Briza media ly. Sp. PI. 70. 1753.

Smooth and glabrous, culms 6^-2° tall, erect,
from a perennial root, simple. Sheaths shorter
than the internodes; ligule %'' long or less,
truncate; leaves 1^-3^ long, \''-2y^'' wide; pan-
icle ij^'-s' in length, the capillary branches
spreading or ascending, 1^-2%' long; spikelets
2'''-2^'^ long, orbicular to deltoid-ovate, 5-12-
flowered; scales scarious-margined, the lower
ones about V^ long; flowering scales \^'-
\%'' long, broader than the lower ones, widely
spreading.



In fields and waste places, Ontario to Massachu-
setts and Rhode Island. Naturalized from Europe.
Native also of Asia. June-July.





2. Briza minor L. lesser Quaking
Grass. (Fig. 456.)

Briza minor L. Sp. PI. 70. 1753.

Smooth and glabrous, culms Af-^h^ tall, erect
from an annual root, simple. Sheaths shorter
than the internodes; ligule \''-2/' long, acute;
leaves 1^-5' long, V^-\*' wide, sometimes sca-
brous; panicle 2^-5^ in length, open, the capil-
lary branches spreading or ascending, i^-2>^''
long; spikelets 3-6-flowered, V-yYi'' long,
about 2^' broad, truncate at the base; scales
scarious-margined, the lower ones about i^'
long; flowering scales much broader and deeply
saccate, about ^^^ long.

In ballast and waste places about Camden, N. J. ;
common in California, and widely distributed m
tropical America. Adventive or naturalized from
Europe. June-July.



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200



GRAMINEAE.



75. DACTYLIS L. Sp. PI. 71. 1753.

A tall perennial grass, with flat leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 3-5-flow-
ered, short-pedicelled, in dense capitate clusters, the flowers perfect or the upper staminate.
Two lower scales empty, thin-membranous, keeled, unequal, mucronate; flowering scales
larger than the empty ones, rigid, 5-nerved, keeled, the midnerve extended into a point or
short awn; palets shorter than the scales, 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles distinct. Stigmas
plumose. Grain free, enclosed in the scale and palet. [Name used by Pliny for some grass
with finger-like spikes].

A monotypic genus of Europe and Asia.

I. Dactylis glomer^ta L,, Orchard
Grass. (Fig. 457.)

Dactylis glomerata ly. Sp. PI. 71. 1753.

Culms 2°-4° tall, tufted, erect, simple, smooth
and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the inter-
nodes, smooth or rough; ligule V^-i^' long;
leaves 3^-9^ long, i''-^/^ wide, flat, scabrous;
panicle 3^-8'' in length, the branches spreading
or ascending in flower, erect in fruit, the lower
\'-2y2^ long, spikelet-bearing from above or be-
low the middle; spikelets in dense capitate clus-
ters, 3-5-flowered; lower scales 1-3-nerved, the
first shorter than the second; flowering scales
2//_3// long, rough, pointed or short-awn ed,
ciliate on the keel.

In fields and waste places, New Brunswick to
Manitoba, south to South Carolina and Kansas.
Naturalized from Europe and cultivated for fodder.
June-July.



76. CYNOSURUS L. Sp. PI. 72. 1753.

Annual or perennial tufted grasses, with flat leaves and dense spike-like inflorescence.
Spikelets of two kinds, in small clusters; lower spikelets of the clusters consisting of nar-
row empty scales, with a continuous rachilla, the terminal spikelets of 2-4 broader scales,
with an articulated rachilla and subtending perfect flowers. Two lower scales in the fertile
spikelets empty, i-nerved, the flowering scales broader, 1-3-nerved, pointed or short-awned;
upper scales narrower, usually empty. Scales of the sterile spikelets pectinate, spreading,
all empty, linear-subulate, i -nerved. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, short. Stigmas loosely
plumose. Grain finally adherent to the palet. [Greek, signifying dog*s tail, referring to
the spike.]

About 5 species, natives of the Old World.

I. Cynosurus crist^tus L. Dog's-tail
Grass. (Fig. 458.)

Cynosurus cris tains ly. Sp. PI. 72. 1753.

Culms i°-2>^° tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth
and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the internodes;
ligule }^^^ long, truncate; leaves lyz^S^ long, yi"-2^*
wide, smooth, glabrous; spike-like panicle 2^-4'' in
length, lYz'^-d^^ wide, long-exserted; spikelets ar-
ranged in clusters, the terminal fertile, the lower
larger and sterile; scales of the former about \y2^'
long, pointed or short-awned, the scales of the sterile
spikelets very narrow, pointed, strongly scabrous on
the keel.

In fields and waste places, Quebec and Ontario to south-
ern New York and New Jersey. Adventive from Europe.
June- Aug.




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GRASS FAMILY. 20I

77. POAL. Sp. PI. 67. 1753.

Annual or perennial grasses with flat or convolute leaves and contracted or open pan-
icles. Spikelets 2-6-flowered, compressed, the rachilla usually glabrous; flowers perfect, or
rarely dioecious. Scales membranous, keeled; the 2 lower empty, 1-3-nerved; the flower-
ing scales longer than the empty ones, generally with a tuft of cobwebby hairs at the base, 5-
nerved, the marginal nerves usually pubescent, often also the dorsal one; palets a little shorter
than the scales, 2-nerved or 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles short, distinct Stigmas plumose.
Grain free, or sometimes adherent to the palet. [Name Greek, for grass or herbage.]

A genus of about 100 species, widely distributed in all temperate and cold regions. The Eng-
lish name Meadow-grass is often applied to most of the species. Besides the following some
50 others occur in the western parts of North America.
Low annual or biennial grasses, the culms 12' tall or less.

Flowering scales distinctly 5-nerved, not webby at the base. i. P. annua.

Flowering scales 3-nerved, or obscurely 5-nerved, webby at the base. 2. P. Chapmaniana.
Perennials, mostly with tall culms (Nos. 4-7 low).

Grasses of far northern or high mountain rej^ions, generally low.

Leaves short; panicle-branches short, generally widely spreading. 6. P. aipina.
Leaves longer, g^dually narrowed to the apex.
Spikelets less than 3" long.

Branches of the panicle erect, smooth, slender, lax.

Flowering scales glabrous or slightly pubescent. 5. P. laxa.

Flowering scales strongly pubescent all over. 4. P. ahbreviata.

Branches widely spreading, flexuous, smooth. 7. P. cenisia.

Branches of the panicle rough, erect or ascending.

Lower flowering scale i -15^" long. 12. P. nemoralis.

Lower flowering scale 2" long. 11. P. glauca.

Spikelets exceeding 3" in length. 22. P. glumaris.

Grasses not exclusively of far northern or high mountain regions; culms generally tall.
Culms strongly flattened. 3. P. compressa.

Culms terete or but slightly flattened.

Panicle lax; branches long, slender, naked half their length, usually widely spreading.
Basal leaves much shorter than the culm.

Pedicels commonly shorter than the spikelets.

Flowering scales obscurely nerved; spikelets iW-t!' long. 13. P. Jlava.
Flowering scales prominently nerved.
Lateral nerves silky-pubescent.

Spikelets 2"-2j4" long; flowering scales not pubescent between the

nerves; ligule truncate. 8. P. praiensis.

Spikelets 3-4" long; flowering scales minutely pubescent below
between the nerves; ligule acute. 9. P. pseudopraiensis.

Lateral nerves naked; spikelets iW long. 10. P. trivialis.

Pedicels commonly equalling or much exceeding the spikelets.
Flowering scales rounded or retuse at the apex:

Not webbed at the base, pubescent below. 15. P. autumnalis.

Webbed at the base, glabrous. 14. P. debilis.

Flowering scales obtuse or acute, webbed at the base.

Flowering scales about iVJ' long, often pubescent between the nerves

toward the base. 16. P. sylvestris.

Flowering scales 1 54"-2" long, glabrous between the nerves:

Obscurely ner\'ed, very acute, midnerve pubescent toward the base.

17. P. alsodes.
Plainly nerved; nerves pilose. 18. P. Wolfii.

Basal leaves about equalling the culm; culm leaves short. 19. P, brevifolia.
Panicle contracted; the branches short, erect or ascending, mostly spikelet-bearing
nearly to the base; western species.
Flowenng scales erose-truncate, very pubescent below between the silky-pubescent

nerves. 20. P. arida.

Flowering scales acutish, nearly or quite glabrous. 21. P. Buckleyana.

I. Poa dnnua L. Annual Meadow Grass.

Low Spear-grass. (Fig. 459.)
Poa annua L. Sp. PI. 68. 1753.

Culms 2^-1° tall, from an annual root, erect or
decumbent at the base, somewhat flattened, smooth.
Sheaths loose, usually overlapping; ligule about
\" long; leaves >^'-4' long, }i^^-\yi^' wide,
smooth; panicle %'-\^ in length, open, branches
spreading, %'-\%^ long, naked at the base; spike-
lets 3-5-flowered, \%'^-2y2'^ long; lower scales
smooth, the first narrow, acute, i -nerved, about
two thirds as long as the broad and obtuse 3-
nerved second one; flowering scales \%^'-\%^'
long, distinctly 5-nervcd, the nerves pilose below.

In waste and cultivated places nearly throughout
North America. Naturalized from Europe. Native
also of Asia. May-Oct.



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202



GRAMINEAB.



2. Poa ChapmanUna Scribn. Chapman's Spear-grass. (Fig. 460.)

Poa crisiaia Chapm. Fl. S. States, 562. i860. Not

Walt. 1788.
Poa Chapmaniana Scribn. Bull. Torr. Club, 21: 38.

1894.

Culms 3^-6^ tall, erect from an annual root,
simple, rigid, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths
tight, mostly at the base of the culm; ligule }i^^
long, truncate; leaves }i^-i^ long, yi^^ wide or less,
smooth; panicle 1^-2^ in length, the branches
usually erect, sometimes spreading or ascending,
}^^ long or less, naked at the base; spikelets 3-7-
flowered, i%^'-iyi^^ long; lower scales about
equal, 3-nerved, acute; flowering scales webbed at
the base, obtuse, 3-nerved, sometimes with two ad-
ditional obscure nerves, the prominent ones some-
times pilose for three-fourths their length.

In dry soil, Kentucky and Tennessee to Florida and
Alabama. April-May.



3. Poa compr6ssa L. Wire-grass. Flat-stemmed Meadow-grass. English
Blue-grass. (Fig. 461.)

Pi>a compressa h. Sp. PI. 69. 1753.

Pale bluish-green, glabrous, culms 6^-2° tall, decum-
bent at the base, from long horizontal rootstocks, smooth,
much flattened. Sheaths loose, flattened, shorter than
the intern odes; ligule }i^^ long; leaves 1^-4^ long, about
i^^ wide, smooth beneath, rough above; panicle usu-
ally contracted, the branches erect or ascending, i^
long or less, spikelet-bearing nearly to the base; spike-
lets 3-9-flowered, i>^^^-3^^ long; lower scales acute, 3-
nerved; flowering scales i^^-i^'''' long, obscurely 3-
nerved, the nerves sparingly pubescent toward the
base.



Waste places and cultivated grounds and woods almost
throughout North America. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Virginia.
Naturalized from Europe. Native also of Asia. Varies from
weak and slender to quite stiff. June- Aug.




.^^■^^^S^^^^^



4. Poa abbrevi^ta R. Br. Low Spear-
grass. (Fig. 462.)

Poa ahbreviata R. Br. Bot. App. Parry's Voy. 287. 1824.

Culms 6' tall or less, erect, simple, smooth and
glabrous. Sheaths and leaves crowded at the base
of the culm; ligule %^' long; leaves ^'-i^ long,
Yz^' wide; panicle contracted, yi^-V long, branches
very short and erect; spikelets 3-5-flowered, ^%"^
long; lower scales acute, smooth and glabrous;
flowering scales about i>^^^ long, obtuse, strongly
pubescent all over, the intermediate nerves very
obscure.



Arctic America from Greenland and I^abrador to the
Pacific. Summer.



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GRASS FAMILY.



203



5. Poa l&xa Haenke.



Wavy Meadow-grass.
(Fig. 463.)



Mountain Spear-grass.



/^xj laxa Haenke, in Jirasek, Beob. Riesengeb. 118.
1791.

Smooth and glabrous, calms i® tall or less, erect,
simple. Sheaths often overlapping; ligule about
i'^ long; leaves 1^-3' long, %^^-\'^ wide, acumi-
nate; panicle V-j/ in length, the branches usually
erect, sometimes ascending, \' long or less; spike-
lets 3-5-flowered, 2^^-25^^^ long; lower scales usu-
ally 3-nerved, acute, glabrous, rough on the keel
at its apex; flowering scales \}i''-\}i'' long, ob-
tuse, 3-nerved, or sometimes with an additional
pair of obscure nerves, the midnerve pilose on the
lower half, rough above, the lateral ones pilose for
one-third their length.

Greenland to Alaska, sooth to the mountains of New
England, to Manitoba and in the Rocky Mountains to
• Colorado. Also in Europe and Asia. Summer.





6. Poa alpina L. Alpine Spear-grass.
(Fig. 464.)

Poa alpina ly. Sp. PI. (fj. 1753.

Smooth and glabrous, culms ^'-\W tall, erect,
simple. Sheaths shorter than the internodes; ligule
\'' long, truncate; leaves 1^-3^ long, i^^-2^^ wide,
abruptly acute; panicle 1^-3' in length, the branches
generally widely spreading, i^ long or less; spikelets
3-5-flowered, 2>^^'-3^^ long; lower scales broad, gla-
brous, rough on the keel, acute; flowering scales
about 2^' long, obtuse, pilose for half their length,
pubescent between the nerves toward the base.

lyabrador to Alaska, south to Quebec, I^ake Superior,
and in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado. Also in Europe
and Asia. Summer.



7. Poa cenisia All. Arctic Spear-grass. (Fig. 465.)



Poa cenisia All. Auct. Fl. Ped. 40. 1789.

Smooth and glabrous, culms 4^-15' tall, erect, slen-
der, simple. Sheaths shorter than the internodes; lig-
ule \'' long or less, truncate; leaves 1^-4' long, }i''-\''
wide; panicle 1^-4^ in length, open, the branches gen-
erally widely spreading and more or less flexuous, \'-
1%^ long; spikelets 3-5-flowered, lYz^'-^fW long;
lower scales acu.te or acuminate, i -3-nerved; flowering
scales about 2'^ long, faintly 5-nerved, the nerves short-
pilose on the lower half, minutely pubescent between
the nerves, somewhat webbed at the base.



Greenland and I^abrador to Alaska.
Summer.



Also in Europe.




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204



GRAMINEAE.



8. Poa prat^nsis L. Kentucky Blue-grass. June Grass. (Fig. 466. )

Poa pratensis ly. Sp. PI. 67. 1753.
Poa pratensis var. angustifolia Kunth, Knum. i: 353-
1833.

Glabrous, culms i°-4** tall, from long runnin^^
rootstocks, erect, simple, smooth. Sheaths often
longer than the intemodes; ligule ^^^ long or less,
truncate; leaves smooth or rough, %''-}/' wide,
those of the culm 2^-6^ in length, the basal mucli
longer; panicle 1%'-%' in length, usually pyram-
idal, the branches spreading or ascending, some-
times flexuous, 1^-2/ long, divided and spikelet-
bearing above the middle; spikelets 3-5 -flowered,
i'^-i%'^ long, exceeding their pedicels; scales
acute, the lower unequal, glabrous, rough on
the keel, the lower i-nervcd, the upper 3-nerved;
flowering scales \%^' long, webbed at the base, 5-
nerved, the marginal nerves and midnerve silky-
pubescent below, the intermediate ones naked.

In meadows, fields and woods, almost throughout North America, Widely cultivated for hay
and pasture. Also in Europe and Asia. In North America probably indigenous only in the northern
and mountainous regions. Variable. June-Aug.

9. Poa pseudoprat6nsis Scribn. & Ryd.
Prairie Meadow-grass. (Fig. 467.)

Culms i°-2>^° tall, erect, simple, smooth and
glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes,
smooth or slightly rough; ligule 1^^ long, acute,
decurrent; leaves \^'-}/^ wide, smooth beneath, a
little rough above and on the margins, those of
the culm i'-3>^^ long, the basal 6''-io' in length;
panicle 2^-5^ long, open, the branches spreading
or ascending, 1^-2^ long; spikelets 3-5-flowered,
^//-^/z long, exceeding their pedicels; lower scales
nearly equal, acute, 3-nerved ; flowering scales
acutish, about \%^' long, rough above, 5-nerved,
pubescent between the nerves below, the marginal
nerves and midnerve silky- pubescent about half
their length.

Manitoba and Assiniboia to Nebraska and Colorado.



10. Poa trivlMis L.




Roughish Meadow-grass. (Fig. 468.)

Poa triinalis ly. Sp. PI. 67. 1753.

Culms i°-3° tall, usually more or less decumbent
at the base, simple, smooth or slightly scabrous.
Sheaths usually shorter than the intemodes, rough;
ligule T.^f-'i/' long, acutish; leaves 2^-7' in length,.
\f^-2.^f wide, generally very rough; panicle 4^-6'' long,
open, the branches usually spreading or ascending,
\'-i^ long; spikelets 2- or sometimes 3-flowered, i %^^
long, exceeding their pedicels; scales acute, the empty
basal ones rough on the keel, the l^ower i -nerved,
shorter than the 3-nerved upper; flowering scales i^^-
i/^'^ long, webbed at the base, 5-nerved, the mid-
nerve silky-pubescent below, the lAteral nerves
naked, the intermediate ones prominent;.

In meadows and waste places, New Bl|mswick to-
Michigan and Virginia. Naturalized frorti Europe..
June-Aug. \



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GRASS FAMILY.



205



II. Poa glauca Vahl. Glaucous Spear-grass. (Fig. 469.)



Poa glauca Vahl, Fl. Dan. pi. 964. 1790.
Poa caesia J. K. Smith, Eng. Bot. pi. 1719.



1807.



Culms 6^-2® tall, erect, simple, rigid, glabrous,
somewhat glaucous. Sheaths overlapping, confined
to the lower half of the culm; ligule i'^ long; leaves
1^-2^ long, i^^ wide or less, smooth beneath, scabrous
above; panicle 1^-3'' in length, open, the branches |
erect or ascending, }i^-iyi' long; spikelets 2-4-
flowered, i}^'^-}/' long; empty basal scales acute,
3-nerved, glabrous, rough on the upper part of the
keel; flowering scales \yi"-\}i" long, obtuse or acut-
ish, rough, not webbed at the base, the lower half of
the midnerve and marginal nerves silky-pubescent,
the intermediate nerves obscure and occasionally
sparingly pubescent at the base.

White Mountains of New Hampshire. Also in Europe.
Summer.

12. Poa nemorMis L. Wood Meadow-grass.
Northern Spear-grass. (Fig. 470.)

Poa nemoralis L. Sp. PL 69. 1753.

Poa caesia var. sirictior A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 629. 1867.

Culms 6^-2° tall, erect, simple, slender, sometimes
rigid, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths usually shorter
than the intemodes; ligule ]4."-^'^ long, truncate;
leaves 1^-4' long, i^^ wide or less, erect, smooth or
rough; panicle 2^-5^ in length, open, the branches
erect or ascending, rarely spreading, i''-2^1ong; spike-
lets 2-5-flowered, \)^^'-2]^'' long; lower scales acute
or acuminate, 1-3-nerved; flowering scales obtuse or
acute, i^^-i X^'^'long, faintly 5-nerved, somewhat webby
at base, the midnerve and the marginal nerves silky-
pubescent on the lower half.

Anticosti Island to British Columbia, south to Maine,.
Minnesota, South Dakota, and in the Rocky Mountains
to Colorado. Also in Europe and Asia. Summer.

13. Poa fl^va L. False Red-top. Fowl Meadow-grass. (Fig. 471.)

Poajiava I,. Sp. PI. 68. 1753.

Poa serotina Ehrh. Beitr. 6: 83. 1791.

Culms i>^°-5° tall, erect, simple or rarely
branched, smooth, glabrous. Sheaths usually
shorter than the internodes, smooth and gla-
brous; ligule \^^-2'' long; leaves 2^-6^ long,
\ff-2^f wide, smooth or rough; panicle (>^-\2>
in length, open, the branches spreading or as-
cending, 2^-5^ long, divided and spikelet-bear-
ing above the middle; spikelets 3-5-flowered,
\yi^^-2'' long, exceeding their pedicels; lower
scales acute, glabrous, rough above on the
keel, the lower usually i -nerved, the upper
3-nerved; flowering scales obtuse, somewhat
webby at the base, \^'-\yi'' long, silky-pubes-
cent on the lower half of the marginal nerves
and the midnerve, the intermediate nerves ob-
scure or wanting.




In swampy places, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Vancouver Island, south to New
Illinois and Nebraska. Also in Europe aud Asia. July-Aug.



Jersey,.



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2o6 GRAMINEAE.

14. Poa d^bilis Torr. Weak Spear-grass. (Fig. 472.)

Poa debilis Torr. Fl. N. Y. 2: 459. 1843.

Culms i°-2^° tall, erect, slender, simple, somewhat
flattened, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths compressed,
much shorter than the intemodes; ligule yi^'-\'' long;
leaves I'-^yi^ long, \'' wide or less, erect, smooth be-
neath, rough above; panicle 2''-6^ in length, open,
often nodding at the top, the branches erect or ascend-
ing, sometimes spreading, \yi'-2/ long; spikelets 2-4-
flowered, i %^^-z'' long, their pedicels longer; empty
scales unequal, acute, the first i-nerved, shorter than
the 3-nerved second one; flowering scales i^^' long,
obtuse, sparingly webbed at the base, 5-nerved, the
nerves naked.

In woods, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Ontario
and Minnesota, south to Rhode Island, Pennsylvania and
Wisconsin. June-Aug.

Poa autumn^lis Muhl. Flexuons Spear-grass. (Fig. 473.)

Poa autumnalis Muhl.; Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. i: 159. 1817.
Poa Jiexuosa Muhl. Gram. 148. 1817. Not J. E. Smith.



Online LibraryNathaniel Lord BrittonAn illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic ocean westward to the 102d meridian → online text (page 26 of 79)