Nathaniel Lord Britton.

An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic ocean westward to the 102d meridian online

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regrions. Besides the following, some 7 others occur in the western parts of North America and i
in Mexico.

Bracts serrulate, mucronate, shorter than the scales.
Bracts aristate, reflexed, longer than the scales.

1. A. balsantea,

2. A. Fraseri.

Digitized by





i/<Abies balsame.i (L.) Mill. Balsam Fir. (Fig. 126.)

Pinus balsamea L. Sp. PI. 1002. 1753.
A hies balsamea Mill. Gard. Diet. Ed. 8. No. %.
1768. "^

A slender forest tree attaining a maximum
height of about 90° and a trunk diameter of
3**, usually much smaller and on mountain
tops and in high arctic regions reduced to a
low shrub. Bark smooth, warty with resin
** blisters.** Leaves fragrant in drying, less
than i^' wide, 6' ^-10^^ long, obtuse, dark
green above, paler beneath or the youngest
conspicuously whitened on the lower surface ;
cones cylindric, 2^-\^ long, ^^^-i^^^ thick,
upright, arranged in rows on the upper side-
of the branches, violet or purplish when
young ; bracts obovate, serrulate, mucronate,
shorter than the broad rounded scales.

Newfoundland and Labrador to Hudson Bay
and the Northwest Territory, south to Massa-
chusetts, Pennsylvania, along the AUeghenies to-
Virginia and to Michigan and Minnesota. As-
cends to 5000 ft. in the Adirondacks. Wood
soft and weak, light brown; weight per cubic-
foot 24 lbs. Canada balsam is derived from the
resinous exudations of the trunk. May-June.

2. Abies Friiseri (Pursh) Lindl.
Fraser's Balsam Fir. (Fig. 127.)

Finns Fraseri Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 639. 1814.
Abies Fraseri Lindl. Penny Cycl. i: 30. 1833.

A forest tree, reaching a maximum size
about that of the preceding species, the
smooth bark bearing similar resin ** blisters. **
Leaves, especially the younger, conspicu-
ously whitened beneath, ^'^-lo^' long, nearly
i'' wide, emarginate or some of them ob-
tuse at the apex ; cones oblong-cylindric or
ovoid-cylindric, 2'-}/ high, about V thick,
their scales rhomboid, much broader than
high, rounded at the apex, much shorter
than the papery bracts, which are reflexed,
their summits emarginate, serrulate and
arista te.

On the high AUeghenies of southwestern Vir-
ginia, North Carolina and Tennessee. Wood
similar to that of the northern species, but
slightly lighter in weight. May.

6. TAXODIUM L. C. Rich. Ann. Mus. Paris, 16: 298. 1810.

Tall trees with horizontal or drooping branches, and alternate spirally arranged sessile
linear or scale-like leaves, deciduous in our species, spreading so as to appear 2-ranked,
some of the twigs commonly deciduous in autumn. Leaf-buds naked. Staminate aments
very numerous, globose, in long terminal drooping panicled spikes, appearing before the
leaves ; anthers 2-5-celled, the sacs 2-valved. Ovule-bearing aments ovoid, in small terminal
clusters, their scales few, bractless, each bearing a pair of ovules on its base. Cones globose
or nearly so, the scales thick and woody, rhomboid, fitting closely together by their mar-
gins, each marked with a triangular scar at its base. Seeds large, sharply triangular-
pyramidal. [Name Greek, referring to the yew-like leaves.]

Three known species, the following of southeastern North America, one Mexican, one Chinese.

Digitized by



I. Taxodium distichum (L.) L. C. Rich. Bald Cypress. (Fig. 128.)

Cnpressus disticha Iv. Sp. PI. 1003. 1753.
Taxodium distichum t. .C. Rich. Ann. Mus. Paris, 16:
298. 1810.

A large forest tree, attaining a maximum height

of about 150° and a trunk diameter of 14°, the old

bark flaky in thiu strips. Leaves narrowly linear^

flat, thin, ^''-\o'' longi Vi^^ or less wide, rather

light green, acute, those on some of the flowering

branches smaller, scale-like ; -cones globose or

slightly longer than thick, pendent at the ends of

the branches, very compact, about i^ in diameter ;

surfaces of the scales irregularly rugose above the

inversely triangular scar ; seeds ^^^-^^^ long.

In swamps and along rivers, Delaware (possibly in
soiithem New Jersey) to Florida, west to Texas, north
in the Mississippi Valley region to southern Indiana,
Missouri and Arkansas. Wood soft, not strong, brown,
very durable; weight per cubic foot 27 lbs. The roots
develop upright conic " knees " sometimes 4° high and
__ _ 1° thick. March-April.

7. THUJA L. Sp. PI. 1002. 1753.

Evergreen trees or shrubs with frond-like foliagej the leaves small or minute, scale-like,
appressed, imbricated, opposite, 4-ranked, those of the ultimate branchlets mostly obtuse,
those of some of the larger twigs acute or subulate. Ameuts monoecious, both kinds ter-
minal, the stamiuate globose; anthers opposite, 2-4-celled, the sacs globose, 2-valved.
Ovule-bearing aments ovoid or oblong, small, their scales opposite, each bearing 2 (rarely
2-5) erect ovules. Cones ovoid or oblong, mostly spreading or recur^^ed, their scales
6-10, coriaceous, opposite, not peltate, dry, spreading when mature. Seeds oblong, broadly
or narrowly winged or wingless. [Name ancient.]

About 15 species, natives of North America and eastern Asia. Besides the following, another
occurs from Idaho and Oregon to Alaska.

I. Thuja occident^lis L. White Cedar.
Arbor Vitae. (Fig. 129.)

Thuja occidenialis L. Sp. PI. 1002. 1753.

A conical tree, reaching a height of 65° and a
trunk diameter of 5°, the old bark deciduous in
ragged strips. Scale-like leaves of the ultimate
branchlets nearly orbicular, obtuse, I'^-i)^''^
broad, the two lateral rows keeled, the two other
rows flat, causing the twigs to appear much
flattened ; leaves of the older twigs narrower and
longer, acute or acuminate ; mature cones ^^^-6^^
long, their scales obtuse ; seeds broadly winged.

In wet soil and along the banks of streams, form-
ing impenetrable forests northward, New
Brunswick to James' Bay and Manitoba, south to
New Jersey, along the Alleghenies to North Caro-
lina and to Illinois and Minnesota. Ascends to
3500 ft. in the Adirondacks. Wood soft, brittle,
weak, coarse-grained, light brown; weight per cubic
foot 20 lbs. May-June.

8. CHAMAECYPARIS Spach, Hist. Veg. 11 : 329. 1842.

Evergreen trees, similar to the Thujas, with minute opposite appressed 4-ranked
scale-like leaves, or those of older twigs subulate, and small monoecious terminal aments.
Staminate aments as in Thuja, but the filaments broader and shield-shaped. Ovule-bearing
ameuts globose, their scales opposite, peltate, each bearing 2-5 erect ovules. Cones glo-
bose, the scales thick, peltate, each bearing 2-5 erect seeds, closed until mature, each with
a central point or knob. Seeds winged. [Greek, meaning a low cypress. ]

About 7 species, the following of the eastern United States, 2 in western Nortli America, 3 or 4

Digitized by



I. Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P. Southern White Cedar.

(Fig. 130.)

Cupressus thyoides X,. Sp. PI. icx)3. 1753,
Chamaecyparis sphaeroidea Spach, Hist. Veg, 11 : 331.

Chamaecyparis thyoides B.S.P. Prel. Cat. N. Y. 71.


A forest tree, reaching a maximum height of
about 90° and a trunk diameter of 4>^ °. Leaves of
the ultimate branchlets ovate, acute, scarcely y^^^
wide, those of the lateral rows keeled, those of the
vertical rows slightly convex, each with a minute
round discoid marking on the centre of the back,
those of the older twigs narrower and longer, subu-
late; cones about 3^'' in diameter, blue, each of
, their closely fitting scales with a small central
point ; seeds narrowly winged.

In swamps, Massachusetts to northern New Jersey,
south to Florida and Mississippi, mostly near the coast.
Wood soft, weak, close-grained, light brown; weight
per cubic foot 21 lbs. April-May.

rg^WT 1

9. JUNIPERUS L. Sp. PI. 1038. 1753.

Bvergmr trees or shrubs with opposite or verticillate, subulate or scale-like, sessile
leaves, commonly of 2 kinds, and dioecious or sometimes monoecious, small globose axil-
lary or terminal aments. L^af-buds naked. Staminate aments oblong or ovoid; anthers
2-6^celled, each sac 2-valved. Ovule-bearing aments of a few opposite somewhat fleshy
scales, or these rarely verticillate in 3*s, each bearing a single erect ovule or rarely 2. Cones
globose, berry-like by the coalescence of the fleshy scales, containing 1-6 wingless bony
seeds. [Name Celtic]

About 30 species, natives of the northern hemisphere, some of them extending into tropical re-
gions. Besides the following, 4 or 5 others occur in the western parts of North America.

Leaves all subulate, prickly pointed, verticillate; aments axillary.

Small erect tree or shrub; leaves slender, mostly straight. i. J. communis.

Low depressed shrub; leaves stouter, mostly curved. 2. J. nana.

Leaves of 2 kinds, scale-like and subulate, mostly opposite; aments terminal.

Tree; fruit on short straijfht branches. 3. /. Vir^iniana.

Depressed shrub; fruit on short recurved branches. 4. J. Sabina.

I. Juniperus communis L. Juniper. (Fig. 131.)

Juniperus communis L. Sp. PI. 1040. 1753.

A low tree or erect shrub, sometimes attaining a
height of 25° and a trunk diameter of 10^, usually .
smaller, the branches spreading or drooping, the
bark shreddy. Leaves all subulate, rigid, spreading,
or some of the lower reflexed, mostly straight, prickly
pointed, verticillate in 3*s, often with smaller ones fas-
cicled in their axils, s-^'-io'' long, less than i^^ wide,
channeled and commonly whitened on the upper sur-
face; aments axillary; befry-like cones sessile or very .
nearly so, dark blue, z''~^^' diameter.

On dry hills, Nova Scotia to British Columbia, south to
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Michigran, western Nebraska
and in the Rocky Mountains to New Mexico. Ascends
to 900 ft. in Pennsyh'ania. Also in Europe and Asia.
The fruit is used for flavoring gin. April-May. Fruit
ripe Oct. * — ^

Digitized by



2. Juniperus n^na Willd. Low Juniper. (Fig. 132.)

Juniperus Sibirica Buiigrsd. Anleit n. 272. 1787. ?
Juniperus nana Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 854. 1806.
Juniperus communis var. aipina Gaud. Fl. Helv. 6r
301. 1830.

A depressed rigid shmb, seldom over 18^ high,,
forming circular patches often 10° in diameter.
Leaves similar to those of the preceding species,
but stouter, similarly channeled and often whitened
above, appressed-ascending, rather rigid, spin3r
tipped, 4^'-6'^ long, mostly incurved, densely
clothing the twigs, verticillate in 3*3 ; aments axil-
lary; berry -like cones blue, \^^-^^' in diameter.

In dry, open places, Labrador to British Columbia,
south to Massachusetts, New York, Michig^an and in the-
Rocky Mountains to Colorado and Utah. Also in
Europe and Asia. The characteristic gfrowth in a de-
pressed circular patch gives the plant a very difTerent
aspect from the true Juniper. April-May.

3. Juniperus Virgini^na L. Red Cedar. Savin. (Fig. 133.)

Juniperus Virginiana L. Sp. PI. 1039. 1753.

A tree, reaching a maximnm height of about
100° and a trunk diameter of 5°, conic when yonng,
but the branches spreading in age so that the out-
line becomes nearly cylindric. Leaves mostly
opposite, all those of young plants and commonly
some of those on the older twigs of older trees
subulate, spiny-tipped, 2'^-^'' long, those of the
mature foliage scale-like, acute or subacute, closely
appressed and imbricated, 4-ranked, causing the
twigs to appear quadrangular ; aments terminal ;
berry-like cones light blue, glaucous, about 2/^ in
diameter, borne on straight peduncle-like branch-
lets of less than their own length, i-2-seeded.

In dry soil, New Brunswick to British Columbia,
south to Florida, Texas, northern Mexico and Arizona.
Also in the West Indies. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Vir-
ginia. Wood soft, not strong, straight-grrained, com-
pact, odorous, red, the sap-wood white: weight per

cubic foot 31 lbs.; used in large quantities in the manufacture of lead pencils. April-May,
Fruit ripe Sept. -Oct.

4. Juniperus Sabina L. Shrubby Red
Cedar. (Fig. 134.)

Juniperus Sabina L. Sp. PI. 1039. '753-
Juniperus Sabina var. procumbens Pursh, Fl. Am.
Sept. 647. 1814.

A depressed, usually procumbent shrub, seldom
more than 4° high. Leaves similar to those of the
preceding species, those of young plants and the
older t\%igs of older plants subulate, spiny-tipped,
those of the mature foliage scale-like, appressed,
4-ranked, acute or acuminate ; aments terminal *,.
berry-like cones light blue, somewhat glaucous,
4^^-5^^ in diameter, borne on recurved peduncle-
like branchlets of less than their own length,

On banks, Nova Scotia to British Columbia, south to
Maine, northern New York, Minnesota and Montana,
Also in Europe and Asia. April-May.

Digitized by



Family 2. TAXACEAE Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 316. 1836.

Trees or shrubs, resin-bearing except Taxus, Leaves evergreen or decid-
uous, linear, or in. several exotic genera broad or sometimes fan-shaped, the
^lien-sacs and ovules borne in separate clusters or solitary. Perianth wanting.
Stamens much as in the Pinaceae. Ovules wdth either one or two integuments;
when two, the outer one fleshy, when only one, its outer part fleshy. Fruit
drupe-like or rarely a cone.

About 8 genera and 75 species, of wide geographic distribution, most numerous in the southern
hemisphere. The Maiden-hair Tree, Ginkgo bilobay of China and Japan, with fan-shaped leaves,
is an interesting member of the group, now much planted for ornament.

I. TAXUS L. Sp. PL 1040. 1753.

Evergreen trees or shrubs, with spirally arranged short-petioled linear flat mucronate
leaves, spreading so as to appear 2-ranked, and axillary and solitary, sessile or subsessile
very small ameuts; staminate aments consisting of a few scaly bracts and 5-8 stamens, their
filaments united to the middle ; anthers 4-6-celled. Ovules solitary, axillary, erect, sub-
tended by a fleshy, annular disk, which is bracted at the base. Fruit consisting of the fleshy
disk which becomes cup-shaped, red, and nearly encloses the bony seed. [Name ancient]

Aout 6 species, natives of the north temperate zone. Besides the following, another occurs in
^Florida, one m Mexico and one on the Pacific Coast.

I. Taxij^ninor (Michx.) Britton. American Yew. Ground Hemlock.

(Fig. 135.)


Taxus bacca^KSc. minor Michx. Fl. Bor. Am.
2: 245. 1803.

Taxus Canadensis Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 856. 1806.
Taxus minor Britton, Mem. Torr. Club, 5: 19.

A low straggling shrub, seldom over 5°
high. Leaves dark green on both sides, nar-
rowly linear, mucronate at the apex, nar-
rowed at the base, 6''''- 10^'' long, nearly 1^^
wide, persistent on the twigs in drying; the
•staminate aments globose, 1^' long, usually
numerous; ovules usually few; fruit red and
pulpy, resinous, oblong, nearly ^^^ high, the
top of the seed not covered by the fleshy

In woods, Newfoundland to Manitoba, south
to New Jersey, in the Alleghenies to Virginia,
and to Minnesota and Iowa. Ascends to 2500
ft. in the Adirondacks. April-May. Very dif-
ferent from the Euroi>ean Yew, T. baccata, in
habit, the latter becoming a large forest tree, as
•does the Oregon Yew, T. brevi folia.


Ovules (mjicrosporanges) enclosed in a cavity (the ovary) formed by the
•infolding and uniting of the margins of a modified rudimentary leaf (carpel),
or of several such leaves joined together, in which the seeds are ripened. The
pollen-grains (microspores) on alighting upon the summit of the carpel (stigma)
germinate, sending out a pollen-tube which penetrates its tissues and reaching
:an ovule enters the orifice of the latter (micropyle), and its tip coming in

Digitized by



contact with a germ-cell in the embr>'^o-sac, fertilization is effected. In a few

cases the pollen-tube enters the ovule at the chalaza, not at the micropyle.

There are two sub-classes, distingruished as follows:

Cotyledon one; stem endogenous. Sub-class i. Monocotyledones.

Cotyledons two; stem (with rare exceptions) exog^enous. Sub-class 2. Dicotyledones.


Embryo of the seed with but a single cotyledon and the first leaves of the

germinating plantlet alternate. Stem composed of a ground-mass of soft tissue

(parenchyma) in which bundles of wood-cells are irregularly imbedded ; no

distinction into wood, pith and bark. Leaves usually parallel- veined, mostly

altern)ate and entire, commonly sheathing' the stem at the base and often with

no distinction of blade and petiole. Flowers mostly 3-merous or 6-merous.

Monocotyledonous nlants are first definitely known in Triassic time. They constitute between
one-fourth and one-thira of the living angiospermous flora. The families are grouped in about 10
orders (see Introduction).

Family i. TYPHACEAE J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. i: 60. 1805.*


Marsh or aquatic plants with creeping rootstocks, fibrous roots and glabrous
erect, terete stems. Leaves linear, flat, ensiform, striate, sheathing at the base.
Flowers monoecious, densely crowded in terminal spikes, which^^fcmbtended
by spathaceous, usually fugacious bracts, and divided at inter^^^B^ smaller
bracts, which are caducous, the staminate spikes uppermost. Pera^S of bris-
tles. Stamens 2-7, the filaments connate. Ovary i, stipitate, 1-2-celled. Ovules
anatropous. Styles as many as the cells of the ovar>^ Mingled among the
stamens and pistils are bristly hairs, and among the pistillate flowers many sterile
flowers with clavate tips. Fruit nutlike. Endosperm copious.

The family comprises only the following genus:

I. TYPHA L. Sp. PI. 971- i753-

Characters of the family. [ Name aucient.]

About 10 species, widely distributed in temperate and tropical regrions. Besides those here de-
scribed, another occurs in California.

Spikes dark brown or black, the pistillate and staminate usually contiguous, the former without
bractlets; stigmas spatulate or rhomboid; pollen 4-grained. i. T. lalifolia.

Spikes light brown, the pistillate and staminate usually distant, the former with bractlets; stigmas
linear; pollen in simple grains. 2. T. anguslifolia.

I. Typha latifdlia L. Broad-leaved Cat-
tail. (Fig. 136.)

Typha latifolia L. Sp. PI. 971. 1753.

Stems stout, 4°-8° high. Leaves 3^^-12^' broad;
spikes dark brown or black, the staminate and
pistillate portions usually contiguous, each 3''-! 2^
long and often i'' or more in diameter, the pistil-
late without bractlets ; stigmas rhomboid or spatu-
late ; pollen-grains in 4's ; fruit furrowed, bursting
in water ; seeds with a separable outer coat.

In marshes, throughout North America except the
extreme north. Ascends to 1600 ft. in the Adirondacks
and to 2200 ft. in Virginia. Also in Europe and Asia.
June-July. Fruit, Aug. -Sept.

♦Text coDtributed by the late Rev. Thomas Moron g.

Digitized by



2. Typha angustifdlia L. Narrow-leaved
Cat-tail. (Fig. 137.)

Typha angustifolia L. Sp. PI. 971. 1753.

Stems slender, 5°-io° high. Leaves mostly nar-
rower than those of the preceding species, 2''-6^'
wide; spikes light brown, the staminate and pistil-
late portions usually distant, the two together
sometimes 15^ long, the pistillate, when mature,
2^'-%^' in diameter, and provided with bractlets ;
stigmas linear or linear-oblong ; pollen-grains sim-
ple; fruit not furrowed, not bursting in water; outer
coat of the seed not separable.

Abundant in marshes along the Atlantic Coast from
Nova Scotia to Florida and Cuba, but also occurring
rather rarely inland. Also in Europe and Asia. June-
July. Fruit, Aug.-Sept.

Family 2. SPARGABIACEAE Agardh, Theor. Syst. PL 13. 1858.*

Bur-reed Family.
Marsh or pond plants with creeping rootstocks and fibrous roots, erect or
floating simple or branched stems, and linear alternate leaves, sheathing at the
base. Flowers monoecious, densely crowded in globose heads at the upper part
of the stem and branches, the staminate heads uppermost, sessile or peduncled.
Spathes linear, immediately beneath or at a distance below the head. Perianth
of a few irregiilar chaffy scales. Stamens commonly 5, their filaments distinct;
anthers oblong or cuneate. Ovary sessile, mostly i -celled. Oxmles anatropous.
Fruit mostly i -celled, nutlike. Embr>'o nearly straight, in copious endosperm.

The family comprises only the following genus.

I. SPARGANIUM L. Sp. PI. 971. 1753-
Characters of the family. [Greek, referring to the ribbon-like leaves.]
About 10 species, of temperate and cold regions. Besides the following, one occurs in California.
Fruit sessile. i. 5. eurycarpum.

Fruit stalked.

Inflorescence branching. 2. 5". androcladum.

Inflorescence simple.

Staminate heads 4-6, pistillate 2-6, 5"-8" in diameter. 3. 5". simplex.

Staminate heads 1-2, pistillate 1-3, 2" -5" in diameter. 4. S. minimum.

I. Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. Broad-fruited Bur-reed. (Fig. 138.)

Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. in A. Gray,
Man. Ed. 2, 430. 1856.

Stemsstout, 3°-8° high, branching. Leaves
linear, flat, slightly keeled beneath, the low-
est 3®-5° long, the upper shorter ; staminate
heads numerous ; pistillate heads 2-4 on the
stem or branch, sessile or more commonly
peduncled, hard, compact and 10^^-16''^ in di-
ameter when mature ; style i ; stigmas 1-2 ;
nutlets sessile, 2/'~h'' long, obtusely 4-5-
angled, narrowed at the base, the top rounded,
flattened or depressed, abruptly tipped with
the style ; scales as long or nearly as long as
the fruit and as many as its angles, often with
2 or 3 other exterior ones, somewhat spatu-
late, the apex rounded, denticulate or eroded.

In marshes and along streams, Newfoundland
to British Columbia, south to Virginia, Mis-
souri, Utah and California. Ascends to 2100 ft.
in Virginia. May- Aug.

♦Text contributed by the late Rev. Thomas


Digitized by




2. Sparganium andr6cladum (Engelm.)
Morong. Branching Bur-reed. (Fig. 139.)

sparganium simplex var. androcladum Engelm. in A.

Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 481. 1867.
sparganium androcladum Morong, Bull. Torr. Club, 15 :

78. 1888.

Stem slender, more or less branching, 10^-2^ high.
Pistillate heads 3-7, sessile or the lowest peduncled,
axillary or the peduncles and branches axillary; style
I ; stigma i ( rarely 2 ) ; fruiting heads 6^^-12'-' in di-
ameter; nutlets fusiform, 2^ ^-7/^ long, i^^^ thick,
usually even, often strongly contracted at the middle,
tapering into the style ; scales oblong, as long as the
nutlets or shorter, the exterior ones narrower ; stalk
of fruit V^ long or more.

In bogs or shallow water. Nova Scotia to Ontario and Brit-
ish Columbia, south to Florida and I/>uisiana. June- Aug.

Sparganium andrdcladom fluctuans Morong, Bull. Torr.

Club, 15: 78. 1888.

sparganium simplex var. fiuitans Engelm. in A. Gray,

Man. Ed. 5, 481 . 1867. Not Sparganium Jluitans Fries.

Floating in deep water with long slender stems, and thin leaves i"-2,W wide; inflorescence

usually si>aringly branched; fruiting heads 4" -6" in diameter. In cold ponds, New Brunswick to


3. Sparganium simplex Huds. Simple-
stemmed Bur-reed. (Fig. 140.)

sparganium simplex Huds. Fl. Angl. Ed. 2, 401. 1788.

• Stem slender, 11^^-24^ high, simple. Leaves more

or less triquetrous, 2^^-4^^ wide ; inflorescence 10^^-8^

long ; staminate heads 4-6; pistillate 2-6, sessile or the

lowest peduncled ; fruiting heads ^^^S^^ in diameter ;

nutlets fusiform or narrowly oblong, obtusely angled

at the apex, more or less contracted in the middle,

smaller than those of the preceding species and more

tapering at the summit ; scales denticulate, about

one-half as long as the nutlets ; stigma linear, as long

as the style or shorter, rarely 2 ; stalk of fruit about

1^^ long.

Borders of i>onds and streams, Newfoundland to British
Columbia, south to Pennsylvania, Montana and California.
Ascends to 2500 ft. in the Catskill Mountains. June-Aug.

Sparganium simplex angustifdlium (Michx.) Engelm.

in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 481.


sparganium angusti/olium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 189.

Floating in deep water. leaves very lonp:, W-iW wideT their sheaths often inflated at the

base; staminate and pistillate heads 1-4; fruiting heads 3"-7" in
diameter. In mountain lakes and slow streams, Newfoundland
to Oregon, south to New York and California.

4. Sparganium minimum Fries. Small Bur-
reed. (Fig. 141.)

sparganium minimum Fries, Sum. Veg. 2: 560. 1846.

Floating, stems very slender, 4^-3® long. Leaves thin and

Online LibraryNathaniel Lord BrittonAn illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic ocean westward to the 102d meridian → online text (page 9 of 79)