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National Institutes of Health (U.S.). Nutrition Co.

Annual report : National Institutes of Health. Program in Biomedical and Behavioral Nutrition Research and Training (Volume 1982) online

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"Research Career Awards" enable institutions to finance positions favor-
able to the intellectual growth and research productivity of established
investigators of high competence for the duration of their careers.

21



"Academic/Teacher Awards" create and encourage a stimulating approach
to disease curricula that will attract high-quality students, foster aca-
demic career development of promising young teacher-investigators, develop
and implement excellent multidiscipl inary curricula through an interchange
of ideas, and enable the grantee institution to strengthen its existing
teaching program. The academic and teacher investigator awards are not
used by all of the B/I/D's.

"Clinical Investigator Awards" provide the opportunity for promising medi-
cal scientists (with demonstrated aptitude to develop into independent
investigators) or faculty members who will pursue research aspects of
categorical areas applicable to the awarding unit, and aid in filling
the important academic faculty gap in these shortage areas within health
professional institutions of the country.

Recipients of these awards conduct nutrition research in the areas of
basic metabolism, human growth and development, nutrition and cancer, and
cardiovascular disease.

Metabolic studies include research on: metabolic and endocrine aspects
of obesity; regulation of human gastric responses to meals; hypothalamic
control of body weight and feeding; evaluations of dietary alterations
and treatments; epidemiology of digestive diseases; neural and humoral
control of mucosal transport; study of nutritional and hemolytic anemias;
gastrointestinal digestion and absorption of fats; metabolic role of
cobalamin and folate; folate supply and utilization; glycerol -3-phosphate
dehydrogenase and egg yolk avidin; metabolic effects of burn injury and
sepsis; nutrition and drug metabolism in man; methods and techniques for
localizing and quantifying ions and trace elements in soft biological
tissues for application to the evaluation of retinopathies; vitamin A
transformations in the light and dark adapted photoreceptor cell, i.e.,
regulation of U-cis-retinaldehydrogenase; the intracellular transport
role of binding proteins; the physiological role of esterified vitamin A
in photoreceptor cells, and the interaction between photoreceptors and
pigment epithel ial cells; resonance raman microscopy of visual photo-
receptors; and the biochemistry of oral tissues, secretions and diseases.

Studies on human growth and development include research on: the pattern
of development of fatty aci^ oxidation capacity by the neonatal liver
that would help to standardize techniques for radiological binding,
necessary to measure beta-adrenergic receptors in purified liver plasma
membranes; nutrition and development of adipose tissue, i.e., lipoprotein
lipase activity related to feeding behavior; the role of glucose produc-
tion in the developmental maturation of neonatal carbohydrate homeostasis;
developmental aspects of renal transport and experimental models of Fan-
coni syndrome; maturational and adaptive changes in intestinal carbohy-
drate absorptive capacity during the postnatal period with emphasis on the
effects of breast feeding, defined nutrient formulas, and gastrointestinal
dysfunction; the composition of weight loss and weight gain in human sub-
jects; the development of an instrument to measure the electrolyte content
in infants; the appropriate forms and levels of vitamin D supplements for
pre-term and term infants; dietary habits during childhood and etiology of
breast cancer or other diseases in later years; and pathogenic mechanisms



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for impaired leukocyte mobility in pediatric patients having severe
protei n-cal orie mal nutri tion .

Investigations on nutrition and cancer include research on: the bio-
synthesis of mammalian glycoproteins, lipids and membrane structures of
leukemic leukocytes; thymidine transport in normal and leukemic lympho-
cytes; asparagine biosynthesis in normal and tumor cells; hexosaminidase
levels and diet; human mucosal structure and function; and normal and
tumor cell regulation of folate polygl utamate synthesis.

In the area of cardiovascular disease , research includes: the regulation
of cholesterol metabolism in cultured cells; coronary risk, family life-
style and behavior change; outcomes of behavioral programs for chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes; the effects of diet on blood
pressure; lung hyperoxia; and the effects of nutrition, age, and drugs
on cardiovascular disease.

New Investigator Research Awards (NIRA) are used also by the NIH as a
mechanism for manpower development in nutrition. The NIRA (R23) encour-
ages new investigators (including those who have interrupted early
promising research careers) in basic or clinical science disciplines to
develop their research activities within the program interests at NIH.
This special grant supported program provides research grant funds to
help bridge the transition from training status to that of established
investigator. In FY 1982, 60 new investigator research awards were
awarded for a total obligation of $1,900,000 supported by all of the
Institutes except NIEHS.

The areas under study by the 60 recipients of these awards include
basic metabolism in growth and development, fat metabolism and obesity,
vitamin and trace mineral metabolism, immune function, eye disorders,
trauma, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Examples
of studies in each of these areas are as follows:

° basic metabolism in growth and development - intestinal membrane
structure and fiTnctional development; hepatic regulation of leu-
cine metabolism; the effects of malnutrition during pregnancy
or lactation; developmental aspects of hepatic bile and transport
in human infants and developing rats; the effect of nutrition on
neonatal intestinal metabolism, specifically those factors con-
trolling substrate oxidation in rat intestine during suckling,
weaning and postweaning periods; the effects of diet on attention
span, activity level, anxiety, hyperactivity, aggression and tan-
trums in 4-year-old children.

° fat metabolism and obesity - effects of dietary intervention on
weight loss in obese (FA/FA) rats; the role of beta endorphins on
feeding and obesity; the effect of weight loss and exercise on
lipoprotein lipase; opioid peptides' effects on food intake,
selection and obesity; biliary tract motility in the fasting and
fed state; the regulation of experimental obesity via the sym-
pathetic adrenal axis; regulation of fat and protein synthesis;
regulation of cholesterol esterification in the intestine; lipid



23



esterification in the liver and mammary gland; molecular dynamics
of lipoprotein lipase; the regulation of enzymes in triacylglycerol
metabolism; phospholipid metabolism in plasma lipoproteins; kine-
tics of lipolysis in the plasma of normal and hyperlipemic individ-
uals; serum lipoprotein levels of rabbits fed atherogenic diets;
the effects of thermal environment on growth and energy balance
in premature infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units;
the effect of energy intake on the rate and composition of weight
gain in premature infants; aerobic training and efficiency of
energy utilization; and neurobehavioral analysis of glucagon on
satiety.

° vitamin and trace mineral metabolism - dietary regulation of
vitamin D in health and uremia; the effects of changes in vitamin
D metabolism during pregnancy on fetal growth and skeletal develop-
ment; factors that influence the choline and methionine content
in milk and tissue choline concentrations; the influence of trace
metals on dental health; trace mineral bioavailability and metabo-
lism studies; metabolism of dietary sulfur in altered liver func-
tion; mechanisms of chloride transport by rabbit colon; and bio-
logical utilization of molybdenum.

° immune function - the effect of Schistosoma hematobium infection
on nutritional status, i.e., anemia, growth and physical fitness
of school -age children in Kenya and the benefits of a safe and
inexpensive oral drug on nutritional status; mitogen and antigen
induced production of two lymphokines in human milk; the transfer
of cellular immunity to tuberculin antigen via breast milk to the
nursing neonate; the investigation of reduced host defense and
nutritional status in the elderly determined by complete nutri-
tional, hematological and immunological assessments; intestinal
membrane structure and functional development; and the immunology
of ocular surface cells of mesenchymal origin that possess char-
acteristics of macrophages in terms of their response to corneal
irritants and vitamin A deficiency.

° eye disorders - the study of cytosol retinoid binding proteins
{from the retina, pigment epithelium, testes, and liver of several
species of animals) in order to understand their molecular struc-
ture, functions in the eye, and effect of deficiencies on altered
retinol binding specificity and affinity; the role of excitatory
amino acids in the visual process vis-a-vis the photoreceptors
and bipolar cell transmitters in the retina of fish, amphibians
and mammals; the corneal uptake and metabolism of topically
applied retinoids with respect to their efficacy in the treat-
ment of xeropthalmia and promotion of corneal wound healing;
the role of phosphorylation of the vitamin A pigment rhodopsin
in vision and the role of calcium levels in regulating the phos-
phorylation process; and epidermal lipids and disorders of kera-
tinization.

° trauma - hypermetabolism after severe head injury in children.



24



° hypertension and cardiovascular disease - blood pressure levels
and the role of common residence and network dynamics as a diag-
nostic unit; the measurement of cardiovascular parameters during
maximal exercise (i.e., oxygen consumption, cardiac output, stroke
volume, heart rate, and O2 extraction), as well as the measurement
of pulmonary function, serum lipids, body composition, glucose
tolerance, and echocardiographic left ventricular function in
young (<25 years) and older (>50 years) athletes matched on the
basis of training and performance; the effect of exercise training
on 60-year-old sedentary individuals in terms of O2 uptake,
glucose tolerance, plasma insulin levels, and the development of
coronary artery disease.

° cancer - pineal -endocrine-dietary influence on mammary tumors;
relaxation training to reduce aversion to chemotherapy; sodium
ions and mitogenic signaling; lymphocyte carcinogen metabolism
in acute leukemia; growth and differentiation of mast cells and
T cells; oxygen radicals and anticancer quinones; screening for
inhibitors of N-nitrosamine carcinogenesis.

Program Development

A major responsibility of the NCC is to identify areas for further re-
search and bring them to the attention of the scientific community through
the development and publication of program announcements, requests for
applications, and requests for proposals.

A PA is a formal statement of an NIH extramural research activity or of
the initiation of a new or modified mechanism of support. It may describe
new or modified program interests, or simply be a reminder or continuing
interest.

A RFA is a formal statement which (a) invites grant applications in a
well-defined scientific area to accomplish specific program purposes,
(b) generally identifies only one application receipt date, and (c) indi-
cates whether or not funds have been set aside for the competition and,
if so, the amount of funds and/or the expected number of awards to be
made. A RFA may be reissued as necessary.

pa's and RFA's often lead to the receipt and funding of many applications.
For instance, 35 grant applications were received in response to the PA
on "Adolescence Research."

An RFP is the Government's invitation to prospective offerors to submit
a contract proposal based on the terms and conditions set forth in the
RFP by the statement of work that describes the nature of intended procure-
ment. The number of contracts awarded as a result of an RFP is smaller.

Table V lists the 15 PA's, RFA's, and RFP's in nutrition published in FY
1982, with the origin and date of each announcement, the type of announce-
ment, and its title. A brief description of each announcement follows
the table. Included in the table are 7 PA's, 7 RFA's, and 1 RFP.



25



TABLE V



pa's, RFA's, and RFP's in Nutrition Research and Training
Published In The NIH Guide For Grants and Contracts, FY 1982



ISSUED BY DATE



NIADDK

NICHD

NIAID

NICHD



NICHD



11/6/81

11/16/81

(9/17/82!
2/26/82



NHLBI 2/26/82

NIA, NIAID,
NIADDK,
NICHD, NIGMS



NCI



3/26/82



TYPE



PA



RFP



PA



PA



RFA



NIDR


3/26/82


PA


NIAID


4/23/82


RFA


NICHD


4/23/82


PA


NIAID


4/23/82


RFA


NHLBI


4/23/82


PA


NIDR


4/30/82


PA


NIDR


7/16/82


RFA


NCI


8/13/82


RFA


NCI


8/13/82


RFA


NCI


8/13/82


RFA



TITLE

"Research Grant Support in Nutrition:
Environmental and Host Factors Affecting
Nutritional Requirements"

"Long-term Effects on Infants of Hypochlor-
emic Metabolic Alkalosis Resulting From
Infant Formulas Deficient in Chloride"
(Amendment of Solicitation)

"Successive Small -For-Gestational Age Births;
A Longitudinal Study of Fetal Growth and
Perinatal Outcome"

"Studies on Nutritional Support of the
Patient"



"The Role of Natural Inhibitors in the
Prevention of Cancer"

"Epidemiology of Oral Diseases in Minorities"

"Asthma and Allergic Disease Centers"

"Adolescence Research"

"Centers for Interdisciplinary Research In
Immunologic Diseases"

"Dietary Sodium and Its Role in the Prevert-
tion and Management of Hypertension"

"Clinical Trial of the Effect of Prenatal
Fluoride Supplements in Preventing Dental
Caries"

"Fluoride and the Prevention of Root
Surface Caries"

"'Accuracy' of Questionnaire Derived His-
toric Dietary Information"

"Epidemiologic Studies of Rare Tumors"

"Biochemical Epidemiology"



26



The PA, "Research Grant Support in Nutrition: Environmental and Host
Factors Affecting Nutritional Requirements," issued by NIADDK, NICHD,
and NIAID, encourages studies to quantitate the dietary requirements
for the essential nutrients that may be affected by age, state of
human development (from fetal life to adulthood), sex, and occupation,
and are known to be limiting in populations living under various ecolog-
ical conditions. The U.S. Malnutrition Panel of the U.S. -Japan Cooper-
ative Medical Sciences program has recommended that priority attention
be given to studies in research areas that include: the effect of
chronic infection, diarrheal disease and/or parasitism on digestion
and absorption of specific nutrients or diet components; the effect of
nutritional and non-nutritional dietary components on the bioavailabil-
ity (absorption and utilization) of limiting essential nutrients; the
determination of the functional significance of nutrients considered
to be potentially limiting under a variety of dietary and ecological
conditions. Dietary components of special interest include energy,
protein, essential amino acids, iron, zinc, vitamin A, and Bi2* Colla-
borative research between U.S. investigators and investigators in Asia,
or in other countries with nutritional problems similar to those in
Asian countries, is particularly encouraged.

The RFP, "Long-term Effects on Infants of Hypochloremic Metabolic Alka-
losis Resulting from Infant Formulas Deficient in Chloride," issued by
NICHD, sought proposals for a retrospective cohort study of children
with a documented history of exposure to chloride deficient Neo-Mull-Soy
or Cho-Free infant formulas during 1979 that resulted in metabolic
alkalosis. Specific objectives of the study are: 1) to review the
discharge diagnoses of metabolic alkalosis from hospitals for 1979
using the CPHA/PAS, CHAMP, and other similar sources in order to identify
children who suffered from metabolic alkalosis while exposed to the
chloride deficient Neo-Mull-Soy or Cho-Free diet; 2) to identify three
control groups: siblings of the exposed children; children on a soy
bean based formula other than Neo-Mull-Soy or Cho-Free matched by
race, sex, age, and parental socioeconomic status; and another matched
group of children who were breast fed or on a cow's milk based formula;
3) to obtain information about the past and current health and develop-
ment status of the children, and their status before and after exposure
to the chloride deficient formula; and 4) to follow the children at ages
5 to 6 and 9 to 10 years in order to obtain data on physical growth,
gross motor development, and on any major deviations, including neuro-
logical impairment and mental retardation. Schools will also be con-
tacted to obtain data regarding the child's school performance, class
standing, and other information aimed at identifying serious impairment
in learning ability. This RFP resulted from the Infant Formula Act of
1980 which directs that "the Secretary of Health and Human Services
shall conduct a study to determine the long-term effects on infants of
hypochloremic metabol ic alkalosis resulting from infant formulas defi-
cient in chloride. The Secretary shall report the results of this study
to Congress."

The PA, "Successive Small -For-Gestational Age Births: A Longitudinal
Study of Fetal Growth and Perinatal Outcome," issued by NICHD, is
seeking sources capable of performing a study of pregnant women at risk



27



of delivering small -for-gestational age births (defined as birth weight
less than 10th percentile for gestational age). The purpose of the study
is to identify epidemiological risk factors which predispose mothers to
have: a) repeated small -for-gestational age births and b) unexpected
nonrepeated small -for-gestational age births. The study will include
interviews for ascertaining nutritional and lifestyle factors from mothers
in the second and third trimester; fetal growth monitoring with diagnostic
ultrasound measurements at regularly specified intervals; and the collec-
tion of appropriate and uniform medical data, prenatal ly, perinatal ly
and throughout the first year of life.

The PA, "Studies on Nutritional Support of the Patient," issued jointly
by NHLBI, NIA, NIAID, NIADDK, NICHD, and NIGMS seeks applications on the
basic and clinical research aspects of the nutritional support of patients
needed in order to better understand when to institute parenteral or
enteral nutrition. Results from the research will help to maximize
therapy and avoid its indiscriminate use which increases medical costs
and patient risk and discomfort. Apart from its obvious therapeutic
importance, parenteral and enteral nutrition provides a powerful research
tool to probe and manipulate host metabolism and physiology, particularly
in animal models. Research applications are being sought in the following
areas: the impact of nutritional status on defense functions in the adult
and developing lung (NHLBI); the specification of the nutritional require-
ments of elderly patients and subsequently the enteral and parenteral nu-
tritional support in elderly patients in acute and long-term care facili-
ties; the assessment of the efficacy of current enteral and parenteral
therapies for elderly patients (NIA); the interaction of nutrition,
infection, and immunity with precise mechanisms mediating changes in
immunocompetence and resistance to infection clarified, and the effects
of infectious agents on nutrient metabolism elucidated (NIAID); the
nutritional support of the patient as it affects the nutritional status
of the whole individual (such as in cases of obesity, chronic renal
failure, end-stage renal disease, anorexia nervosa and surgical trauma);
nutritional status assessment methodologies; the effect of disease on
nutritional requirements and the effect of nutrient intake levels on the
course of specific diseases or conditions (e.g. organocentric or disease
oriented studies that primarily involve investigations related to kidney,
liver, pancreas, bone and digestive diseases) (NIADDK); the nutritional
support of the low-birth-weight infant and the nutritional management of
certain disease states of infancy and childhood in terms of the safety
and efficacy of intravenous administration of nutrients (NICHD); and
studies on the metabolic and nutritional response to accidental injury,
including burns (NIGMS).

The RFA, "The Role of Natural Inhibitors in the Prevention of Cancer,"
issued by NCI, seeks applications for studies to: 1) elucidate further
the protective effects of several natural inhibitors in reducing the
incidence of various site specific cancers; and 2) lead to a greater
understanding of the extent, or action, of several natural inhibitors
in the possible cancer prevention process in humans. Natural inhibitors
associated with the inhibition of carcinogenesis or with reduced cancer
incidence in epidemiological investigations include vitamin C, vitamin
A or its analogs, beta carotene, selenium and alpha tocopherol. The

28



following types of studies are considered appropriate research approaches
to this investigation: Case control studies of cancer patients and
matched controls on the relationship of designated inhibitors with cancer
incidence; cohort studies of populations that have consumed varying
levels of the inhibitors; studies to examine the long-term consequences
of chronic intake of various compounds in order to monitor possible
adverse health effects; and risk reduction clinical trials with designated
natural inhibitors administered to high risk populations free of neo-
plasia, or with identified precursory or precancerous lesions.

The PA, "Epidemiology of Oral Diseases in Minorities," issued by NIDR,
encourages applications for the support of epidemiological research re-
lated to oral health problems of racial and ethnic minority groups. Re-
search proposed may be directed toward the identification of the patterns
of occurrence, the factors and conditions, including behavioral factors,
responsible for or contributing to oral health problems, such as dental
caries (in terms of the prevalence of both coronal and root caries in
different age groups); periodontal diseases (with studies using new
methodologies for objective measurement of disease activity); congenital
craniofacial anomalies (including cleft palate); and oral malignancies;
other soft tissue diseases; and nutritional deficiencies with oral
manifestation.

The RFA, "Asthma and Allergic Disease Centers," issued by NIAID, seeks
new and renewal applications for the development of Asthma and Allergic
Disease Centers (AADC). The fundamental objective of the AADC program
is "acceleration of the application of emerging knowledge on the immune
system and from relevant biomedical sciences to clinical investigations
concerned with asthma, allergic diseases, and hypersensitivity disorders."
The requisite factors sought within a participating institution are
quality research in (1) basic science(s); (2) clinical investigation
supported by adequate clinical facilities, and staff expertise in diag-
nosis and management of asthmatic and allergic patients; and (3) access
to an appropriate patient population(s) within a suitable academic set-
ting designed to favor mul tidiscipl inary interaction. Areas of study
within the provision of this program may include those relevant to asthma
and its multifactorial aspects; atopic diseases (e.g. allergic rhinitis,
urticaria); pathological expressions, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and
genetic factors of allergic disease and inflammation; identification,
isolation and characterization of etiologic agents of allergy (e.g.
drugs, foods, airborne allergens); immune mechanisms and agents of
immediate hypersensitivity; and immunopharmacology, immunotherapy and
the development of specific pharmacological agents designed for the
prevention and treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

The PA, "Adolescence Research," issued by NICHD, seeks applications to
support fundamental research related to biomedical and behavioral aspects
of adolescence through two extramural research centers: The Center for
Research for Mothers and Children (CRMC), and the Center for Population
Research. One branch of the CRMC, the Clinical Nutrition and Early
Development Branch, is concerned with the special nutritional requirements
of the adolescent and those factors related to food choice and obesity.
Since the assessment of nutritional status of adolescents is particularly


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Online LibraryNational Institutes of Health (U.S.). Nutrition CoAnnual report : National Institutes of Health. Program in Biomedical and Behavioral Nutrition Research and Training (Volume 1982) → online text (page 4 of 21)