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National Parks United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Ener.

Tongass National Forest : hearing before the Subcommittee on Public Lands, National Parks, and Forests of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, first session, on S. 237 ... S. 346 ... H.R. 987 (Volume pt. 1) online

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Online LibraryNational Parks United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on EnerTongass National Forest : hearing before the Subcommittee on Public Lands, National Parks, and Forests of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, first session, on S. 237 ... S. 346 ... H.R. 987 (Volume pt. 1) → online text (page 1 of 37)
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S. Hrg. 101-30, Pt. 1

TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST






BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON
PUBLIC LANDS, NATIONAL PABKS AND FORESTS



OF THE



COMMITTEE ON

ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES

UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED FIRST CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION . _«



*\U\\



S. 237. ^' "'^^"

TO REFORM THE TONGASS TIMBER SUPPLY FUND

S. 346

TO AMEND THE ALASKA NATIONAL INTEREST LANDS CONSERVATION

ACT AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES



FEBRUARY 28, 1989



PART 1 .^ ,.




^ ll|T#.



m ii ju *" I I "^



Printed for the use of the
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources



arch
ary



Boston, hriA 02116



S. Hrg. 101-30, Pt. 1

TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST



HEARING

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON
PUBLIC LANDS, NATIONAL PARKS AND FORESTS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON

ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES

UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED FIRST CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

ON

S. 237

TO REFORM THE TONGASS TIMBER SUPPLY FUND

S. 346

TO AMEND THE ALASKA NATIONAL INTEREST LANDS CONSERVATION

ACT AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES



FEBRUARY 28, 1989



PART 1




Printed for the use of the
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
97-134 WASHINGTON : 1989

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402



COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES

J. BENNETT JOHNSTON, Louisiana, Chairman

DALE BUMPERS, Arkansas JAMES A. McCLURE, Idaho

WENDELL H. FORD, Kentucky MARK O. HATFIELD, Oregon

HOWARD M. METZENBAUM, Ohio PETE V. DOMENICI, New Mexico

BILL BRADLEY, New Jersey MALCOLM WALLOP, Wyoming

JEFF BINGAMAN, New Mexico FRANK H. MURKOWSKI, Alaska

TIMOTHY E. WIRTH, Colorado DON NICKLES, Oklahoma

KENT CONRAD, North Dakota CONRAD BURNS, Montana

HOWELL T. HEFLIN, Alabama JAKE GARN, Utah

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER IV, West Virginia MITCH McCONNELL, Kentucky

Daryl Owen, Staff Director

D. Michael Harvey, Chief Counsel

Frank M. Cushing, Staff Director for the Minority

Gary G. Ellsworth, Chief Counsel for the Minority



Subcommittee on Public Lands, National Parks and Forests

DALE BUMPERS, Arkansas, Chairman
TIMOTHY E. WIRTH, Colorado, Vice Chairman
BILL BRADLEY, New Jersey MALCOLM WALLOP, Wyoming

JEFF BINGAMAN, New Mexico MARK O. HATFIELD, Oregon

KENT CONRAD, North Dakota CONRAD BURNS, Montana

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER IV, West Virginia JAKE GARN, Utah

PETE V. DOMENICI, New Mexico
J. Bennett Johnston and James A. McClure are Ex Officio Members of the Subcommittee

Thomas B. Williams, Senior Professional Staff Member

Elizabeth J. Norcross, Professional Staff Member

J. David Brooks, Counsel

(II)



CONTENTS



Page

S. 237 3

S. 346 5

STATEMENTS

Anderson, Dr. David A., Southeast Regional Supervisor, Division of Wildlife

Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game 214

Banzhaf, William H., Executive Vice President, Society of American Foresters 201

Bumpers, Hon. Dale, U.S. Senator from Arkansas 1

Burns, Hon. Conrad, U.S. Senator from Montana 85

Edwards, Larry, President, Southeast Alaska Conservation Council 117

Finney, Donald, Manager, Alaska Loggers Association 183

Franklin, Dr. Jerry F., Chief Plant Ecologist, Pacific Northwest Forest and

Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, Department of Agriculture 232

Gray, Gerald, Director of Resource Policy, American Forestry Association 208

Johnston, Hon. J. Bennett, U.S. Senator from Louisiana 73

Laschever, Eric, Governor's Special Assistant for the Tongass, State of Alaska 110
Leonard, George M., Associate Chief, Forest Service, Department of Agricul-
ture 94

Loescher, Robert W., Senior Vice President, Resource Management, Sealaska
Corp., accompanied by Chris McNeil, Senior Vice President and General

Counsel, Sealaska Corp 239

McClure, Hon. James A., U.S. Senator from Idaho 14

Mrazek, Hon. Robert J., U.S. Representative from New York 79

Murkowski, Hon. Frank H., U.S. Senator from Alaska 34

Nelson, Gaylord, the Wilderness Society 156

Stevens, Hon. Ted, U.S. Senator from Alaska 15

Thomas, William A., Jr., Chairman, Klukwan Forest Products, Inc 268

Wallop, Hon. Malcolm, U.S. Senator from Wyoming 76

Wirth, Hon. Timothy E., U.S. Senator from Colorado 84

Young, Hon. Don, U.S. Representative from Alaska 86

APPENDIXES

Appendix I

Responses to additional questions 279

Appendix II

Additional material submitted for the record 322

(III)



TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST



TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 1989

U.S. Senate,
Subcommittee on Public Lands,

National Parks and Forests,
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources,

Washington, DC.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:37 a.m., in room
SD-366, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Hon. Dale Bumpers, pre-
siding.

OPENING STATEMENT OF HON. DALE BUMPERS, U.S. SENATOR

FROM ARKANSAS

Senator Bumpers. The committee will come to order. By now, a
long list of superlatives have been used to describe the Tongass Na-
tional Forest. It has been called by every superlative in the diction-
ary. I had the opportunity to visit the Tongass not too long ago,
and I too was impressed by its beauty and abundance.

Our Nation's largest national forest contains a diversity of natu-
ral resources found nowhere else in the country: centuries-old
trees, lush ferns, spongy mosses, alpine meadows, thousands of
lakes and one of the last remaining temperate rain forests in the
world. The Tongass also boasts a wide variety of fish and wildlife
species, including brown bears, deer, moose, wolves, seals, sea lions,
ravens, and the world's largest concentration of bald eagles and
grizzly bears. These resources deserve and need protection.

But the Tongass also supplies the timber to run two local pulp
mills and a number of saw mills which in turn provide jobs and tax
dollars to Southeast Alaska. In addition to timber-related employ-
ment, the forest provides jobs in the fishing and tourist industries.
The economic well-being of Southeast Alaska is an important
factor in the debate regarding the Tongass and should be included
in any discussion of Tongass reform.

The purpose of the hearing today is to consider two measures
currently pending before the subcommittee: S. 237, a bill to reform
the Tongass Timber Supply Fund, introduced by Senators Murkow-
ski and Stevens, and S. 346, the Tongass Timber Reform Act, intro-
duced by Senator Wirth. Both seek to reform timber management
practices on the Tongass, but they differ significantly in their ap-
proaches and the degree to which they would alter current Forest
Service management of the forest.

I have not yet taken a position on either of these measures since
I have not had the opportunity to thoughtfully consider the com-

(1)



plexities of each, and I might digress by saying they are immensely
complex.

As is so often the case with natural resource issues, we are
charged with the very difficult task of ensuring that competing re-
source uses are balanced and that the legitimate concerns are dealt
with fairly and responsibly.

I am looking forward to hearing from the witnesses today in
hopes that these experts can help clarify the very complicated
issues involved and assist us in making prudent decisions regarding
the future management of the Tongass.

I have also made a personal commitment that the subcommittee
will travel to Southeast Alaska to hear first-hand from the people
most directly affected by these two measures.

I would ask that today's witnesses keep their testimony to ap-
proximately 5 minutes to give everybody a chance to testify and
allow the opportunity for questions afterward. At this point I
would like to place copies of both measures in the hearing record.
The record will remain open for 2 weeks to receive additional
testimony.

[The texts of S. 237 and S. 346 follow:]



n



lOlST CONGRESS
1st Session



S.237



To reform the Tongass Timber Supply Fund.



IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

January 25 Gegislative day, January 3), 1989

Mr. MuRKOwsKi (for himself and Mr. Stevens) introduced the following bill;
which was read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural
Resources



A BILL

To reform the Tongass Timber Supply Fund.

1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa-

2 lives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

3 That the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act

4 (Public Law 96-487, as amended) is amended by striking

5 section 705(a) and inserting in lieu thereof the following sub-

6 section:

7 "Sec. 705. (a) Subject to available appropriations, the

8 Secretary of Agriculture is authorized and directed to carry

9 out a program of intensive management of the commercial

10 forest land of the Tongass National Forest m order to assure

11 the availability of a sufficient supply of timber to achieve an



2

1 allowable sale quantity of 4.5 billion board feet per decade.

2 For each fiscal year the Secretary of Agriculture shall pre-

3 pare and offer for sale or release timber volumes on the Ton-

4 gass National Forest based upon his estimate of the annual

5 demand of the dependent industry and the sustained yield

6 capacity of the forest. The Secretary of Agriculture shall

7 base his annual estimate upon projections of future timber

8 demand.".

O



8 237 IS



n



lOlST CONGRESS
1st Session



S.346



To amend the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act and for other

purposes.



IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

February 2 Oegislative day, January 3), 1989
Mr. WiRTH (for hunself, Mr. Leahy, Mr. Roth, Mr. Moynihan, Mr. Harkin,
Mr. Reid, Mr. Burdick, Mr. Lugar, Mr. Pell, Mr. Jeffords, Mr.
Fowler, Mr. Lieberman, Mr. Kerry, Mr. Sanford, and Mr. Gore) in-
troduced the following bill; which read twice and referred to the Committee
on Energy and Natural Resources



A BILL

To amend the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act

and for other purposes.

1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa-

2 tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

3 SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

4 This Act may be cited as the " Tongas s Timber Reform

5 Act".

6 SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

7 As used in this Act —

8 (a) The term "the Secretary" means the Secre-

9 tary of Agriculture.



2

1 (b) Unless otherwise specified, any other term has

2 the same meaning as used in the Alaska National In-

3 terest Lands Conservation Act as amended (Public

4 Law 96-487), hereinafter referred to as ANILCA.

5 TITLE I— ALASKA NATIONAL INTEREST LANDS

6 CONSERVATION ACT AMENDMENTS

7 SEC. 101. ANNUAL APPROPRIATIONS FOR TIMBER MANAGE-

8 MENT AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION ON THE

9 TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST.

10 Section 705(a) of ANILCA (16 U.S.C. 539d(a)) is

11 hereby rep • led effective September 30, 1989, and subsec-

12 tions (b) and (c) of section 705 are redesignated as subsec-

13 tio! s (a) and (b), respectively.

14 SEC. 102. IDENTIFICATION OF LANDS UNSUITABLE FOR

15 TIMBER PRODUCTION.



16 Section 705(d) of ANILCA (16 U.S.C. 539d(d)) is

17 hereby repealed.

18 SK< . 103. REPORTS ON THE TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST.

19 (a) MoNiTOEiNG.— Section 706(a) of ANILCA (16

20 U.S.C. 539e(a)) is hereby repealed.

21 (b) Status.— Section 706(b) of ANILCA (16 U.S.C.

22 539e(b)) is amended as follows:

23 (1) Strike out "(b)" and insert in lieu thereof

24 "(a)".



S 346 IS



3

1 (2) Strike out "and (4)" and insert in lieu thereof

2 "(4)".

3 (3) Strike out the period at the end of the section

4 and insert in Ueu thereof "; (5) the impact of timber

5 harvest on subsistence resources, wildlife and fisheries

6 resources, commercial fisheries, recreation resources

7 and tourism; (6) effects of timber harvest on biological

8 diversity and measures to conserve biological diversity;

9 (7) effects of timber harvest on the old growth rain

10 forest ecosystem, especially in areas of high volume,

11 and measures to conserve the old growth ecosystem;

12 (8) timber supply and demand in southeastern Alaska;

13 and (9) costs and revenues of the timber sale

14 program.".

15 (c) Consultation.— Section 706(c) of ANTLCA (16

16 U.S.C. 539e(c)) is amended as follows:

17 (1) Strike out "(c)" and insert in lieu thereof

18 "(b)".

19 (2) Strike out "and the Alaska Land Use Coun-

20 cil" and insert in lieu thereof "the southeast Alaska

21 commercial fishing industry, and the Alaska Land Use

22 CouncU".



S 346 IS



8



4

1 SEC. 104. TERMINATION OF LONG-TERM TIMBER SALE CON-

2 TRACTS IN ALASKA.

3 Title V of ANILCA is amended by adding at the end

4 thereof the following new section:

5 "SEC. 508. TERMINATION OF LONG-TERM TIMBER SALE CON-

6 TRACTS IN ALASKA.

7 "No later than 90 days after the date of enactment of

8 this section, the Secretary shall terminate the long-term

9 timber sale contracts numbered 12-11-010-1545 and

10 AlOfs-1042 between the United States and Alaska Pulp

11 Corporation, and between the United States and Ketchikan

12 Pulp Company, respectively.".

13 TITLE n— MANAGEMENT OF THE TONGASS

14 NATIONAL FOREST

15 SEC. 20L FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.

16 (a) Findings.— The Congress finds that—

1'^ (1) natural resources of the Tongass National

18 Forest possess outstanding natural characteristics of

19 high value and benefit to the American people, and

20 these resources are essential for subsistence activities

21 and for the commercial fishing, recreation, and tourism

22 industries which contribute significantly to the economy

23 of southeast Alaska;

24 (2) the Tongass National Forest contains one of

25 the last largely intact rain forests in the world's tem-

26 perate latitudes, and must serve as an example of the

S 346 IS



5



1 type of protection, preservation and management that

2 will be required to stop the destruction of rain forest

3 resources in other nations;

4 (3) current Forest Service management of the

5 Tongass National Forest, in particular the amount of

6 high volume of old growth timber offered for sale and

7 harvested, gives priority to timber harvest over other

8 uses of the forest and thus is not consistent with the

9 principle of multiple use or with requirements of the

10 Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning

11 Act of 1974 and the National Forest Management Act

12 of 1976, and cannot be sustained without jeopardizing

13 natural resources that are of national significance and

14 upon which the commercial fishing, recreation, and

15 tourism industries and subsistence users of southeast

16 Alaska depend; and

17 (4) the Tongass National Forest Land Manage-

18 ment Plan of 1979, as amended, which guides current

19 Forest Service management practices, is predicated on

20 sections of ANELCA that are repealed or amended by

21 this Act and therefore should be revised consistent

22 with the provisions of this Act and with other laws ap-

23 plicable to the National Forest System, to significantly

24 increase protection and enhancement of fish, wildlife,

25 watershed, recreation, cultural, biological diversity, and



S 346 IS



10



6

1 old grtfwth forest ecosystem resources, and to support

2 the long-term best interest of '^ll natural resource de-

3 pendent industries and subsistence communities in

4 southeast Alaska.

5 (b) PuEPOSE. — The purpose of this title is to require

6 revision of the Tongass National Forest Land Management

7 Plan of 1979, as amended, in conformance with this Act and

8 other laws applicable to the National Forest System, to sig-

9 nificantly increase protection of resources that are critical to

10 the long-term best interests of the commercial fishing, recrea-

11 tion, and tourism industries, and the subsistence users in

12 southeast Alaska, and which are of high value and benefit to

13 the people of the United States. These include the fish, wild-

14 life, watershed, recreation, cultural, biological diversity, and

15 old growth ecosystem resources and subsistence values of the

16 Tongass National Forest.

17 SEC. 202. DIRECTIVE AND REPORTS.

18 (a) In furtherance of the purpose of this title, the Secre-

19 tary is hereby authorized and directed to fully revise the Ton-

20 gass National Forest Land Management Plan of 1979, as

21 amended, to conform with provisions of this Act and other

22 laws applicable to the National Forest System. This revision

23 shall supersede the Forest Plan revision currently underway.

24 (b) In revising the Forest Plan, the Secretary shall sig-

25 nificantly increase the protection of fish, wildlife, watershed,

S 346 IS



11



7

1 recreation, cultural, biological diversity, and old growth eco-

2 system resources and subsistence values of the Tongass Na-

3 tional Forest. Planning and management of old growth re-

4 sources shall give specific attention to areas of high volume

5 old growth timber (30,000 board feet per acre or greater) and

6 shall consider both individual species of plants and animals

7 and the old growth ecosystem as a whole.

8 (c) In revising the Forest Plan, the Secretary shall

9 ensure that priority is given to the protection of fish, wildlife,

10 watershed, recreation, cultural, biological diversity, and old

11 growth ecosystem resources and subsistence values of the

12 areas Hsted in section 302(b) of this Act.

13 (d) Within 30 days after this Act takes effect, the Secre-

14 tary shall provide the Committee on Energy and Natural Re-

15 sources of the Senate and the Committee on Interior and

16 Insular Affairs of the House of Representatives with a report

17 on the schedule for revision of the Tongass Land Manage-

18 ment Plan, including the expected dates of publication of the

19 draft and final plans.

20 (e) Within one year after this Act takes effect, and each

21 year thereafter until the revised Tongass National Forest

22 Land Management Plan is complete and ready for implemen-

23 tation, the Secretary shall provide the Committee on Energy

24 and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on

25 Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of Representatives

S 346 IS



12

8

1 with a report describing the steps taken in furtherance of

2 section 201(b) of this Act.

3 TITLE m— MORATORIUM ON TIMBER SALES AND

4 HARVEST

5 SEC. 301. PURPOSE.

6 The purpose of this title is to impose a moratorium on

7 the sale or commercial harvest of timber in certain areas

8 having special values for fish and wildlife, subsistence, recre-

9 ation, old growth, and other resources, pending revision of

10 the Tongass National Forest Land Management Plan to con-

11 form with the new management directives provided in this

12 Act.

13 SEC. 302. MORATORIUM.

14 (a) MOEATOEIUM. — During the revision of the Tongass

15 National Forest Land Management Plan there shall be no

16 sale or harvest of timber, nor any associated development

17 (including timber sale preparation or road construction),

18 within any area specified in subsection (b) of this section.

19 This moratorium shall remain in effect until 90 days after

20 publication of the Record of Decision for the Forest Plan.

21 (b) Abe AS Affected. — The moratorium shall apply to

22 lands administered by the Forest Service, as generally de-

23 picted on ^>propriately referenced maps, as foUows:

Approximate
Area Acreage

Anan Creek 37,331

Bemers Bay „ 35,379

Calder-Holbrook 62,33.5

Chichajfof 353,540

S 346 IS



13



9

Chuck River 125,574

Kadashan 33,641

Karta River 38,fi71

Kegan Lake 23,858

Naha River 31,926

Nutkwa 53,635

Outside Islands 95,524

Pleasant Island-Lemesurier Islands 15,527

Port Adolphus-Mud Bay 72,091

Port Houghton-Sanborn Canal 59,712

Rockey Pass 74,423

Sarkar Lakes 23,500

South Etolin Island 81,939

South Kuiu 190,301

Sullivan Island 3,985

Trap Bay , 6,446

West Duncan Canal 118,812

Yakutat Forelands 232,962

Young Lake 18,173

1 Copies of maps depicting these areas shall be on file and

2 available for public inspection in the offices of the Chief of the

3 Forest Service in Washington, District of Columbia, and the

4 Regional Forester in Juneau, Alaska.

O



S 346 IS



14

Senator Bumpers. Senator McClure, do you have an opening
statement?

STATEMENT OF HON. JAMES A. McCLURE, U.S. SENATOR FROM

IDAHO

Senator McClure. I will be very brief, Mr. Chairman.

I was a member of this committee during consideration of the
Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in the late 1970s.
The Tongass timber controversy is certainly not a new issue to me.

We are now being asked to reconsider a bipartisan compromise
which eliminated one of the last remaining obstacles to the passage
of the Alaska Lands Bill. The compromise was a balance between
the needs of the Tongass timber industry and the demands of the
environmental organizations for wilderness designations.

After lengthy debate and negotiation by all concerned parties,
Congress through ANILCA not only sought but in fact designated
over 5 million acres of the Tongass as wilderness. In exchange, Sec-
tion 705A of ANILCA was created to provide the timber industry
with a viable market, guaranteeing that 4.5 billion board feet of
timber would be made available to dependent industry every 10
years.

Additionally, the Tongass Timber Supply Fund was established
to assure availability of economically viable timber. Only 10 per-
cent of the Tongass National Forest is scheduled to be logged over
the next 100 years. That works out to about one tenth of 1 percent
of the Tongass per year.

Far from destroying the Tongass National Forest, I believe a case
can be made that the Forest Service has been improving the
timber, fish, wildlife and community stability of Southeast Alaska.
There may be a need to fine-tune the management process to
ensure federal funding is not being wasted, but revisiting provi-
sions of ANILCA is not necessarily the best way to proceed.

I strongly support the maintenance of future opportunities to ex-
plore and develop Alaska's vast natural resources. This is especial-
ly true with regard to a situation like Tongass, where specific com-
promise legislation was adopted as a pledge to the people of South-
east Alaska.

I truly appreciate the efforts of both Senator Murkowski and
Senator Stevens toward resolution of this controversial issue. Adop-
tion of their bill would place us in a better position to exercise
proper oversight functions on the Tongass.

Use of the Tongass National Forest resources is recognized in
government contract law: the Alaska National Interest Lands Con-
servation Act and the National Forest Management Act. Each of
these provides the ways and means to appropriately identify the
necessary changes required by Tongass management.

Finally, Mr. Chairman, although I know there have been sever-
al — perhaps dozens — of articles written. In my judgment, many of
these contain errors of fact, and perhaps this one does too, but I
want to call the attention of the committee and others to a very
new publication, called "Our Land."

It is the opening publication of a new organization that features,
among other articles, one called "Myths of the Tongass", and after



15

having read that article I can commend it for at least a different
view of the background of the Tongass issue.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Senator Bumpers. Thank you. Senator Murkowski?

Senator Murkowski. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I am going to
defer to Senator Stevens, who has a conflict, and I would like to
proceed with my opening statement after Senator Stevens.

Senator Bumpers. Without objection, we will proceed in that
order. We are honored to have the senior Senator from Alaska this
morning to be our lead-off witness. Welcome to the committee, and
please proceed.

STATEMENT OF HON. TED STEVENS, U.S. SENATOR FROM

ALASKA

Senator Stevens. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman, Senator
McClure and Senator Murkowski. I sit on this side of the witness
table in this room and many memories come back from the days
that I spent on this committee. Some of them are very fond memo-
ries, others not so fond.

I remember so well the days that Senator McClure described— 10
years ago now, Mr. Chairman — that we started work once again on
the Alaska Lands Bill after it had been stopped in literally the last
minute of the preceding Congress in 1978.

It will do no good, really, to hash over all of the old arguments
that came up at that time. But gentlemen, I think that the real
problem that I have with the whole series of issues we face now is
that none of us are clairvoyant, and none of us can see ahead into



Online LibraryNational Parks United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on EnerTongass National Forest : hearing before the Subcommittee on Public Lands, National Parks, and Forests of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, first session, on S. 237 ... S. 346 ... H.R. 987 (Volume pt. 1) → online text (page 1 of 37)