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Francis A.Countway
Library of Medicine


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A Journal Devoted to an
Understanding of Human Conduct

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3617 lOTH Street, N. W.


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-—7 Behavior.

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w«**'H- » M K.



AVA. AA«mi

Psychology of One Pantheist.
The Psychoanal3rtic Theory f roi

E. K. Tillman

Psychoanalysis and its Relatic


Sex and Hunger. I. H. Corla
Our Tainted Ethics. S. D. Sc
Another Comedy of Errors. S.
Some Considerations Bearing or

of Dementia Praecox. W. A.

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Original Articles


Unconscious Motives Underlying the Personalities of Great
Statesmen and their Relation to Epoch-Making Events
(i. A Psychologic Study of Abraham Lincohi). L. P.
Clark i

Some Reflections on the Possible Service of Analytical Psy-
chology to History. H. E. Barnes 22

A Psychoanalytic Study of Manic-Depressive Psychoses. L.
DooLEY 38, 144

A Dream Study. L. D. Hubbard 73

A Psychoanal3rtic Study of Shakspere's Coriolanus. J. E.

Religion in the Light of Psychoanalysis. C. Moxon 92

The Rudiments of Character. A Study of Infant Behavior.

D. Forsyth 117

The Group Treatment of Dementia Praecox. E. W. Lazell . . 168
The Death of Pan : A Qassical Instance of Verbal Misinterpre-
tation. J. S. Van Teslaar 180

A New Reading of Tennyson's "The Lotos-Eaters." M. K.

Strong 184

The Dream in Russian Literature. G. Stragnell 225

The Parataxes: A Study and Analysis of Certain Borderline

Mental States. T. V. Moore 252

An Autobiography. C. M. Haviland 284

Psychology of One Pantheist. T. Schroeder 314

The Psychoanal3rtic Theory from an Evolutionist's Viewpoint.

E. K. Tillman '. 349

Psychoanalysis and its Relation to the Neuroses. H. M.

Creasey 361

Sex and Hunger. I. H. Coriat 375

Our Tainted Ethics. S. D. Schmalhausen 382

Another Comedy of Errors. S. D. House 407

Some Considerations Bearing on the Diagnosis and Treatment

of Dementia Praecox. W. A. White 417


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Vol. Ill, No. 6 99

The Choice of a Mate in Marriage. H. Bluher.
Neurotic Exogamy. A Contribution to the Correspon-
dence in the Psychic Life of Neurotics and Savages. K.
The Dismemberment Motive in Myth. H. Silberer.
Sexual Prototypes in Simple Inventions. F. Giese.

Vol. IV, No. I 193

Reflections on War and Death. S. FteUD.
OEdipus at Colonus. E. Lorenz.

The *' Play " in Hamlet. A Contribution to the Analysis
and to the I)ynamic Understanding of the Work. O.
Some Relationships Between the Erotic and Mathematics.
H. V. Hug-Hellmuth.

Vol. IV, Nos. 2, 3 329

Schiller's " Geisterseher." Parts i, 2. H. Sachs.
The Tragic Hero and the Criminal. A Contribution to
the Psychology of the Tragic. L. Kaplan. The Con-
sciousness of Guilt and Punishment — Orestes — Mar-
meladow — Roskolnikow — Brynhild — The Scapegoat.
Puberty Rites Among Savages. Some Similarities in the
Mental Life of Primitive and Neurotic People. T.
Reik (Continued).
International Journal of Psycho-analysis.

Vol. I, Pt. I 187

Open Letter. S. Ferenczi.


Obituary. J. J. Putnam.

One of the Difficulties of Psychoanalysis. S. Freud.

On the Character and Married Life of Henry VIII. J. C.

Freud's Psychology. D. Bryan.

Review of Recent Psychoanal)rtic Literature in English.
C. S. Read.
Jahrbuch fur psychoanal3rtische und psychopathologische For-
Vol. Ill, Pt. II 423

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Investigations Concerning the Constancy and Variation of
Psychdogical Constellations in Normal and Schizo-
phrenic Subjects. W. Pfenninger.

Skin, Mucous Membrane and Muscle Erotism. J. Sadger.

Remarks on the Psychoanalysis of a Case of Foot and
Corset Fetichism.

Dream Interpretation and Insight Into Human Nature.
H. Sachs.

Supplementary Remarks to the Autobiographically De-
scribed Case of Paranoia (Dementia Paranoides). S.

Experimental Contributions to the Psychology of the
Psycho-galvanic Phenomenon. E. Aptekmahn.

Symbolism During Awakening and Threshold Symbolism
in General. H. Silberer.

Concerning the Formation of Symbols. H. Silberer.

Concerning the Treatment of a Psychosis in Justinus
Kemer. H. Silberer.

The Psychological Solution of Religious Glossolaly and
Automatic Cryptography (continuation and conclu-
sion). O. Pfister.

The Radical Treatment of Chronic Paranoia. P. Bjerre.

Alcohol and the Neuroses. E. Bleuler.

Alcohol and the Neuroses (an answer to the criticism of
Prof. Dr. E. Bleuler). S. Ferenczi.

Miscellaneous Abstracts

El Psicoanalisis en la Escuela (Psychoanalysis in the School).

H. F. Delgado 200

A Study of the Socially Maladjusted. L. P. Clark 201

A Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Group Formation and Be-
havior. T. D. Eliot 202

Some Mechanisms of Paraphrenia. M. K. Isham 204

A Case of Mixed Neurosis with some Paraphrenic Features.
M. K. IsHAM 208


The Apple of Hell. A Phantasy. C. Dreher 211

A Crystal Age. M. K. Isham 214

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Jeremiah. T. D. Eliot 215

Nexo. T. D. Eliot 215

Aeschylus. T. D. Eliot 215

War-Time Erotic Symbolisms. J. B. Alemany 215

Book Reviews

The Book of the Damned, by C. Fort 108

Primitive Society, by R. H. Lowe 109

Modern Spiritism, by A. T. Schofield no

The Problem of the Nervous Child, by E. Evans in

Psychical Surgery, by J. Ralph in

Psychoanalysis, by B. Low in

Sanity in Sex, by W. J. Fielding in

Dementia Praecox, by E. Kraepelin 112

Manual of Psychiatry, by H. J. Rosanoff 112

Treatment of the Neuroses, by E. Jones 112

The Sympathetic Nervous System in Disease, by L. Brown . . 113

The Problem of Nervous Breakdown, by E. L. Ash 113

Fundamentals in Sexual Ethics, by S. Herbert 114

Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland, by Lady Gregory 114

Auto-Erotic Phenomena in Adolescence, by K. Menzies 218

Dream Psychology, by S. Freud 218

Mental Self-Help, by E. L. Ash 218

Old at Forty or Young at Sixty, by R. S. Carroll 219

The Psychology of Functional Neuroses, by H. L. Holling-

worth ' 219

The Psychology of Dreams, by W. S. Walsh 220

The New Psychology and Its Relation to Life, by A. G.

Tansley 221

The Secret Springs, by Harvey 0*Higgins 221

The Major Symptoms of Hysteria, by P. Janet 222

Text-Book of Nervous Diseases, by C. L. Dana 223

The Adolescent Girl, by P. Blanchard 224

Jurgen, by J. B. Cabell 337

The Foundations of Spiritualism, by W. W. Smith 339

Phenomena of Materialisation, by von S. Notzing 340

The Sex Factor in Human Life, by T. W. Galloway 340

Manic-Depressive Insanity and Paranoia, by E. Kraepelin . . 341
The Elements of Practical Psycho-analysis, by P. Bousfield . . 341
Taboo and Genetics, by Knight, Peters, and Blanchard 342

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August Strindberg, by A. J. Uppvall 343

The Origin and Development of the Nervous System from a

Physiological Viewpoint, by C. M. Child 344

Repressed Emotions, by I. H. Coriat 345

Mental Hygiene, by L. J. Martin 345

Types of Mental Defectives, by M. W. Barr 346

Mysticism, Freudianism, and Scientific Psychology, by K.

DuNLAP 346

Mind and Its Disorders, by W. H. B. Stoddart 346

Psychopathology, by E. J. Kempf 445

The Unconscious, by M. Prince 446

Addresses on Psychoanalysis, by J. J. Putnam 448

Psychoanalysis and the War Neuroses, by Ferenczi, Simmel,

and Jones 448

Social Aspects of the Treatment of the Insane, by J. A. Gold-
berg 449

Anxiety Hysteria, by C. H. L. Rixon and D. Matthew . 450

The Psychology of the Special Senses and Their Functional
Disorders, by A. F. Hurst 45i

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Nov I 1921



Volume VIII January, 1921 Number i







By L. Pierce Clark, M.D.


While no one would have the temerity in the present status of
the development of historical science to revive the rather discredited
theory of Carlyle that history is but the collective biography of a
few conspicuous public figures, it cannot be denied that there is
often a residuary influence to be detected in the course of events
which must be assigned to the part played by the dominating per-
sonalities of the time. The present article will be concerned with
suggestions r^arding a more intensive and scientific study of the

Critical periods in national life are often imperfectly understood
because current events only are considered in their interpretation.
Intensive study of the personalities of great statesmen of any epoch
has but recently become an object of psychological research. When
the events in the political and social order are properly coordinated
with the conscious and unconscious personal motives and desires of
its contemporary leaders, we may then expect a sounder and broader
view of historic interpretation. At the culmination of a crisis in
national life we find there have often been comparatively few issues
that have shaped a final national outcome, and that two or three

1 Read before N. Y. Psychiatrical Society, March 5, 1919.


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powerful leaders have forged the ideas and sentiments of the people
en masse and forced the crisis to a decision. We thus find it said
that "the time was not yet ripe," or that "events waited upon a
leader sufficiently powerful," etc. Too much reliance, therefore,
would seem to have been placed upon current issues and events to
explain epochal history, and not enough upon the innate attitudes of
certain great contemporaries. These, largely because of their fun-
damental reactions to certain deeper unconscious personal motives
which control human behavior, seize upon the more or less obvious
issues of their time and devote themselves to a particular cause with
an assiduity altogether out of proportion to any casual reason. In-
stances bearing out such a contention might be multiplied indefinitely.

True historical interpretation, therefore, of any great epochal
moment is not possible imtil we make a careful psychological study
of the people of that particular period, especially its great men and
leaders. The position in the main is not a new one, but heretofore
historians have made a study of the more obvious characterolpgy of
the great statesmen and either have not been able, or were unwilling,
to study such historic personages in the more scientific manner now
possible, although this has already been done in several instances by
those trained in methods of intensive mental analysis. The his^
torian, therefore, has not fully exhausted the possibilities of his sub-
ject, because of inadequate psychological training, while the psy-
chologist for the most part has not coupled up his accurate personal
analyses with the events to which his characterological study forms
a necessary part. Those interested in the two methods of approach
in historic study should cooperate more than has been done in the
past. This viewpoint is worthy of a more extended investigation
than this brief outline will permit- When we shall have made a
broader, more intensive analysis of men and events we can possibly
comprehend why the souls of certain great leaders seem literally to
have caught fire, and they have exhibited an almost supertiuman
energy in their lifelong devotion to a particular cause.

One may properly inquire, what are some of these deeper
motives in the individual which serve the purpose of advancing
social consciousness in a practical manner? Modem psychology has
unearthed a host of primitive and infantile motives which, though
they seem to disappear from the individuals' lives as they grow up,
are really found not to have been lost, but are transformed and be-
come operative to the more adult purposes of existence. Simple
illustrations are found in creative genuises whose preoccupation in

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childhood early portended a fruition in later life. The boy Stephen-
son made toy engines, while Newton in his early youth was observ-
ant of natural phenomena. But such obvious data are still more
deeply analyzable, and to these primary and more genetic instincts
modem psychology has already devoted much time and fascinating
research. To make such intimate studies immediately serviceable
in historic, literary and artistic interpretation, a group of investi-
gators have collected data and published their studies in a journal
devoted exclusively to this domain. From a historic point of view
it would seem desirable to select the prominent leaders of an epoch
and proceed to analyze their characters as to salient personality
traits and life reactions, and then examine the previous succession
of events in their childhood which may have led up to the main
traits of the adult character. In order to confine the issue at this
time to a concrete instance^ I have undertaken a tentative study of
the depressive personality of Abraham Lincoln and the possible de-
velopmental causes that might account for such a personality, and
have briefly sketched the influence which such character-traits may
have had upon the events and issues of his time.

That Lincoln suflFered lifelong from periodic depression — ^in-
deed, that he never seemed entirely free from some vestiges of the
more intense episodes, is well known to all, but an attempt to eluci-
date the deeper, more genetic causes for such states has not hereto-
fore been undertaken. The difficulties of such a study are in more
than one direction ; first, in mental medicine we have only too re-
cently formulated a tentative explanation of how retarded or peri-
odic depressions occur. This formulation is still under investiga-
tion, as sufficient data upon many points are still lacking. Naturally
in our present thesis such studies have to be made upon historic data
which, while recorded accurately, were collected for quite other
purposes than an innate delineation of the mental traits which might
be considered essential for the precise purpose of making a clinical
diagnosis. Often, too, as in the case of Lincoln, there is a natural
and sublime reserve which great personages draw about their more
intimate life. As has been said, the great often lead solitary lives
and defy analysis in more ways than one. There seems to be
little doubt, however, that if we could have employed the modem
methods of mental analysis to the heroic life of Lincoln, almost pro-
fane as such a scientific inquiry would now seem to be, we might
have acquired sufficient facts to have completely substantiated our
present thesis. We are obliged, however, to rest the main tenets of

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our conclusions upon reliable historic documents. We shall develop
the study by first giving a simple statement of the nature and cause
of periodic, or retarded, depressions as psychiatry has come to know
them through long experience. Next, we shall state the psychdogic
mechanisms or unconscious motives seemingly underlying the lives
of individuals thus afflicted, and finally we shall examine such por^
tions of Lincoki's life as have a bearing up<m this view of the cause
of his depressions.

It is well known that many individuals otherwise normal are
subject to more or less marked fluctuations in mood, and these
swings of emotional feeling may occur irregularly or periodically.
Heredity is the most common causative factor in the induction of
the temperament and personality from which such disorders are
recruited. At least some marked occurrence of such hereditary
traits is found in the family stock of neariy three fourths of these
patients (Kraepelin). Often the relatives have suffered from out-
spoken forms of the same mental disorder, or there is present a
constitutional bias to some degree of retarded depression.

Individuals who suflFer from periodic depressions possess evi-
dence of a peculiar type of personality previous to the onset of the
psychosis.* Some show an open, expansive temperament, while
others, predisposed to more marked depression, are of a depressive
makeup. In the majority frequent and causeless changes of mood
are in evidence; they arc excitable, excessively shy, or reserved.
The disorder usually appears independent of external causes, either
physical or mental. Even when such alleged causes are present, the
provoking factors are usually inadequate to account fully for the de-
pressed state. The condition is often recurrent, being based upon a
deep-seated constitutional mental makeup. It is essentially a benign
affliction, and recovery from individual attacks are the rule. The
first attack usually occurs in the first or second decade of adult life.
The real nature of the underlying morbid process in the brain, if any
exists, is most obscure. Several hypotheses have been formulated
to accotmt for the psychosis, but none have proven adequate. There
are no constant demonstrable or structural changes in the nervous

* As has been pointed out by Hoch and others, the fundamental tsrpc of
makeup of the manic depressive ps3rchotic is frequently found to be one of
either an open type of personality, or one of general moodiness. It is held,
however, that there are so many contributing physical and mental factors in
the induction of this mental disorder that one must not rely unduly upon the
typt of personality otherwise than to indicate the main trends of mental reac-
tions which may follow in such personalities.

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system which may be counted as characteristic of this condition. In
the absence of structural changes in the brain, psychiatrists have
lately turned their attention more specifically to the psychologic
factors playing a role in the evolution of the disorder. These will
be considered later.

For the sake of thost unacquainted with the condition we may
now hastily sketch the usual picture of the mental state. The onset
of depression is generally g^dual unless it follows acute illness or
definite mental shock. First there appears a mental sluggishness;
thought becomes slow and difficult Decisions are poorly made.
The patient has difiictdty in forming sentences and in finding words
with which to express his thoughts. It is hard for him to follow
ideas either in reading or in ordinary conversation. The process of
association of ideas is remarkably retarded. The patient does not
talk because he has nothing to say. There is a dearth of ideas and
a poverty of thought. Familiar facts are no longer at their com-
mand. Remembrance of most commonplace events is difficult. In
spite of the great slowness of apprehension and thought^ conscious-
ness and knowledge of surroimdings are well retained. The patient
appears dull and sluggish and may explain that he really feels tired
out. His usual daily activities are performed slowly, as though
under a feeling of inward restraint. If he is sent out to walk or to
work he loiters until the initial impetus has passed. His usual duties
loom before him as huge, impossible tasks because he lacks the will
to overcome the inner resistance. Sometimes a patient may beccnne
bedridden. Before the mental retardation becomes extreme, the in^
dividual may dwell upon and often attempt suicide. The majority
of patients say they are ** no good " and desire to die, and as they
pass into and come out of the deeper depression the possible fulfill-
ment of suicidal desires is most to be feared. As already stated, the
emotional attitude is that of a more or less uniform depression, and
the patient sees only the dark side of life. The past and future alike
are full of misfortune. All aims in life have lost their charm. The
patient feels himself unsuited to his environment, he has lost his re-
ligious faith and lives on day by day in gloomy submission to his
ordained fate. Often patients are ill humored, shy, are pettish or
anxious, and are frequently irritable and sullen. Compulsive ideas
are not uncommon, and they fed compelled against their inclination
to ponder over unpleasant scenes. They often possess insight into
the nature of their condition but fail to correct their faulty emo-
tional tone or the morbid trend of judgment. Often they sit help-

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Online LibraryNational Psychological Association for PsychoanalyThe psychoanalytic review, Volume 8 → online text (page 1 of 49)