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of the old life still glim-
mering in them. They
have been occupied by
famihes who clung to old
things because they liked
them. The very reserve
and quietness of these
families are proof that
ancestral traditions are
strong within them. But
perhaps the greatest proof
the old appealed to them more
than the new is found in the fact that
they cared for their old gardens.
Time could not tarnish their flowers,
and there was no reminder in them
of the dilapidation that threatened the
ancestral household. Larkspur and
Canterbury Bells were the same, rich
or poor. When poverty pressed hard,
the flower garden was the last thing
to give evidence of it, and the utili-
tarian uses to which the ground could
be put were allowed to encroach last
of all upon its precincts. To-day
when we go back among these old
country seats we may find occasional
traces of such gardens. They are not




that



to be found without search, for they
are few and they are tucked away be-
hind house and hedge. Many of them
are overgrown with grass, and the
outlines of the old walks are only to
be discovered by tufts of box edging
here and there. Many of them are
well preserved, and these constitute a
real resource to the household. They
are cared for like precious things. It
has been my good fortune to discover
several flower gardens of this kind in
northeastern Massachusetts, and I
have prepared a few sketch plans
made from paced measurements to
show their general relation to the
house and the broader details of their
desien.



424



OLD NEW ENGLAND FLOWER GARDENS.




TOOL MOUSE'
QUWCE TREES
CURRANTS
PI?V1ER BORDER.
■^Sl°PE OFTERRACET

GRAPEVINE ON FEKCe
ASPARAGUS QEO
PEAR TRE-PS
FLOVJER BORDERS
-4-Sl?PE Of TERRACer

■HOLLYHOCKS
POPPIES
„„ _„^ FOUR O'CLOCK
RPWERS LARKSPURS
PANSVE3
LPN&ON PRVOF
SWEET \a/\LLIAPI
ASTERS

WISTARIA ARaoR.



FL<VERS



Roses



CANTERBURT BELLS

BALSAM

^^ORGETMENOr

Monks hooo

LILACS

SMAPDRA<30N

PRSMROSe-

ROSK OF SHARON
CINNAMON Rose-
DAMAStC ROSF^
DUTCH ROSe-

ygLLo-w Rose-



HouSF



V



FIGURE S



\

NORTH
»0 20 50 -4-0



X.L.



Figure i is a plan of a whole estate,
showing a house, garden, stable, ser-
vice yard and vegetable garden. As
a usual thing, the relation between the
house and garden is never less inti-
mate than that in this example, while
the design of the garden itself is
rarely as simple. The garden is
placed upon a terrace slightly lower
than the house, and it is entered
through a vine-clad arbor which over-
looks all the walks. The usual intru-
sion of a vegetable garden upon the
space which appears by right to be-
long to the flower garden is well ex-
emplified in this instance, and it is an
indication of the narrow limits to



w h i c h the old
property has been
reduced.

Figure 2 shows
a garden belong-
ing to another es-
tate which is in a
remarkable state
of preservation. It
lies near the house,
upon a gently-
sloping hillside,
and it is broken by
terraces which are
mounted by short
flights of steps. It
is surrounded by a
high close fence
heavily clothed in
vines, and no one
could imagine
from without that
such a garden
existed ; it is as
much removed
from the street and
its traffic as a
room in the house
itself. Old-fash-
ioned flowers of all
kinds flourish in
it, and an arbor
makes it a pleasant
resting place even
at high noon.
There is every evi-
dence that the
regarded by the house-
part of the establishment



A*S



garden is
hold as a
necessary to their daily life, and there
is no suggestion that it is a place for
display or that it is a fanciful orna-
ment. A few of the more common
flowers cultivated in this garden are
named upon the plan. It is worthy of
notice that few of the modern flowers
and extravagant double forms are to
be found among them. The rose
garden is pretty in design, and as it is
the most elaborate portion of the gar-
den, it is fittingly placed near the
house. The walks which separate the
beds are bordered with neat box edg-
ings. This garden may fairly be



OLD NEW ENGLAND E LOWER GARDENS.



4-'5



called a type of the old-fashioned
garden : the long narrow plan, the
central walk, the terraces, the pres-
ence of flowering fruit trees in the
flower borders, the arbor, and the
seclusion of high border screens
are to be found in nearly every ex-
ample. Although the old design-
ers of gardens realized the value of
formality in design and its direct
relation to the rectangular lines of
'the house plan, yet they seem to
have thought it unnecessary to
centre their gardens upon a par-
ticular window or door of the
house. They placed them where
convenience dictated, and consid-
erations of economy in the uses of
their land often prevented an axial
relation of house and garden. The
garden was always made to adjoin
the house, however, and anything
approaching informality as a chief
motive in the design was avoided.
Figure 3 shows the present con-
dition of one of those ruined flower
gardens which are often found in
old communities. It is somewhat
remarkable in design and it gives
a suggestion of the elaboration
which often pleased our ancestors.
This pleasure in elaboration is
often discovered in the interior
decoration of old houses, and it is not
surprising that it should show itself





in the arrangement of the- grounds
about the house. An architectural
feature of some sort doubtless oc-
cupied the central circle, but no
traces of it are to be found to-day.
In its present state this garden is
nearly obliterated by grass, and
the general arrangement of walks
is only to be discovered by occa-
sional tufts of box edging and
clusters of flowers. The garden is
surrounded by a high fence and it
is even separated from the house
by a close hedge. It was the in-
tention of the designer to make it
a place of quiet and seclusion.
Despite the ruin which is present
on every hand, there is a peculiar
charm about this place, and one
finds more than the interest of an
antiquarian in searching for the



426



THE CATHEDRAL WOODS.



definite form of
the old design.

There are vari-
ous traditions re-
lating to the dates
of these gardens
which ascribe
them widely dif-
f e r e n t ages.
Some of them are
said to belong to
houses which
antedate the pres-
ent dwellings, but
it is generally
agreed that the
majority of them
are no older than
the houses to
which they be-
long. In that

case, they have enjoyed many a sum-
mer in the last century. Tradition
also records something of their design-
ers, — that one was designed by "the
minister," and another by the daugh-
ter of the owner of the estate, and still
another by an English architect. The
designs have doubtless undergone
changes since those days, but the fact
that the flowers have not suffered by the
intrusion of modern varieties, and that




the cast-iron foun-
tain and urn are
not to be found in
them, are some
evidence that ex-
cept for the devas-
tation of time they
remain substantial-
ly unmodified in
design.

The old gardens,
although now gone
to decay, are filled
with a glory which
is lacking in new
gardens. The an-
cient trellises and
ruined hedges have
about them a
glamour of the
sunshine of olden
only to be lived
books or within
their own boundaries. One feels the
presence of the old worthies in the
gardens as it is not felt in the houses.
The flowers planted by my bonneted
dame and her rough-cheeked garden-
er are still blooming, and the weeds
are guilty with fear that fingers long
since stilled will pluck them out from
among the roses.



days which
over again



are
in



THE CATHEDRAL WOODS.

By Alice D'Alcho.

A TEMPLE of the Lord is here,
Uplifting to the sky ;
And in His praise, its feathered choir
Continually do cry.
Column on column stately rise,

More fair than sculptured stone;
Arch upon arch re-echoes back
The sea's deep monotone.

Down through its roof's green tracery

The mellowed sunlight falls ;
The shadow of its leafy aisles.

To prayer and worship calls.
The trailing vines their banners swing

In rich emblazonry ;
And gleams from many a shining wing

Heaven's own bright heraldrv.



THE CATHEDRAL WOODS.



427




From a photograph. by tdward C Hartahorn



The fragrant needles of the pines
Bestrew its mossy floor;

While myriad bloss ^ms, day by day,
Their sweetest in :ense pour.

Lift up your hearts ! — they seem to say-
As each its ofiferi ig brings;

Lift up your hearts— this temple fair
Is His, the King of kings!








,/,



1 |[>'..'tt^rM;

l^p ancient f | zV^Sk."^^*.
ni a n u -
^?^ script
"Book of
Possessions," the
earliest of the land
records of the town
of Boston in New
England, contains,
upon page 76, this
entry:

"Thomas Millard, his possessions
within the limits of Boston.

"i. One house and garden bound-
ed with Francis Lyle north ; Thomas
Grubb south ; Arthur Perry west ;
and the streete east."

There are other possessions of
Thomas Millard recorded in this an-
cient book, for he was evidently a
man well to do among the early set-
tlers of the colony of Massachusetts
Bay; but none of them have the his-
toric interest which clusters about
this house and garden, which the early
maps set down as upon High — now
Washington — Street, opposite Milk
Street.

Of Millard himself the records tell
us but little, and for our present pur-
poses we need to know nothing save
that in the year 1672, after his death,
his house and garden passed to
the possession of Colonel Samuel
Shrimpton, who, in turn, sold it, in
the year 1676, to Peter Sargeant.
Concerning this man the records
yield information more lavishly. He
was a man of wealth, which he is said
to have acquired as a merchant in
London. He was a prudent council-
lor and, when the witchcraft excite-
428



mMim



ment raged in Sa-
lem, he was one of
those men who
were erected into a
special court of
judges for the trial
of the accused. We
know, too, that he
was a patriotic citi-
zen, for we find
record that in 1692,
after the close of the French and
Indian war, he with ten others
humJDly petitioned the Great and
General Court for the reimburse-
ment of moneys advanced to the
colony, for the prosecution of hos-
tilities. We know, too, that he was
a man of afTairs, for upon the site of
the modest home of Thomas Millard
he, in the year 1679, erected a lordly
mansion, which in after years was
destined to become historic. But
little remains to-day of this stately
mansion, to tell of its pristine gran-
deur ; nothing save the shabby brick
walls, in places sheathed with wood,
and dingy with the weather stains of
more than two centuries. There is
nothing to remind the casual passer-
by, through a squalid court in the
heart of Boston, of the old-time mag-
nificence of this ancient building, or
of the historic scenes witnessed with-
in its walls when it was known as the
Province House, the palace of the
royal governors of his Majesty's
province of Massachusetts Bay.

In the stately dwelling which Peter
Sargeant here erected, he and his wife
no doubt established a social centre,
and were the leaders of the fashion of



THE PROJ^INCE HOUSE.



429



the town. We may feel sure that — in
common with Judge Samuel Sewall,
who, openly in the congregation at
the Old South Meeting-House, made
his confession of error for his part in
the witchcraft trials at Salem — Sar-
geant must have repented his part in
the condemnation of those who suf-
fered on Gallows Hill ; for it was but



witch judge, which gave to the man-
sion its celebrity and which made of
it a central point of American history.
Even to the present day, in all its
dilapidation, hidden from the sight of
the passer-by on Washington Street
by a cheap building of tawdry red
brick, now the home of minor arti-
sans, tinkers and jobbers in various







SM iii.;n







-J



THE PROVINCE HOUSE.



a year or two after the delusion had
passed, that he took for his third wife
one who had, in those dark days, been
"cried out upon" as a witch. This
was no less a person than the widow
of Governor Sir William Phips, who
thus became the mistress of the man-
sion.

But it was not its erection and oc-
cupancy by Peter Sargeant, the old



trades, — even in its decay is the old
mansion known as the "Province
House." History has preserved its
memory ; the greatest of American
writers has surrounded it with a halo
of romance ; and now, forgotten and
to many unknown, still stand the
walls of the ancient Province House.
While yet the mansion was in its
youth, an English nobleman arrived



430



THE PROJ^INCE HOUSE.



at Boston to assume the control of
the affairs of the province, in the
king's name. This was the Earl of
Bellomont, who soon after his arrival
sought to impress upon the minds of




NORTH WALL OF THE PROVINCE HOUSE, NOW STANDING
From a sketch by Prof. Alfred E. Burton.

the magistrates and people the dig-
nity of his viceregal office and of his
own person. He urged the payment
of a salary adeciuate to the proper
maintenance of a court, and especially
urged that a palace be provided for
his occupancy. To a certain extent



he succeeded, for the magistrates
made ample provision for the support
of the earl ; but the requirement of
a palace he was obliged to meet from
his own resources. The mansion of
Peter Sargeant,
fronting "east upon
the street," met his
utmost needs, and its
owner graciously
consented to vacate
for a time, in favor
of his lordship.
W hen, therefore,
after the death of
Lord Bellomont,
which occurred in
New York but four-
teen months after his
assumption of the
rule of the province,
Mr. Sargeant re-
turned to the occu-
pancy of his mansion
and a few years later
brought thither as
his bride the widow
of Governor Phips,
that lady's occupan-
cy of the mansion as
it's mistress was well
in accord with the
use to which it had,
for a brief period,
been devoted.

It was during the
rule of Governor, the
Earl of Bellomont, it
should be noted, that
energetic measures
were taken for the
suppression of pi-
racy ; and it was
from out this man-
sion that were sent
the orders by which
were effected the
capture and subsequent execution of
the notorious Captain Kidd.

In the year 1 714, Mr. Sargeant, the
founder of the mansion, died within
its walls, and from its portals was
borne forth to his burial. A year after
his demise his widow took another



THE PROVINCE HOUSE.



431




WEATHER VANE FROM THE

PROVINCE HOUSE.

The reproductions of the arms used as the heading for
this article and the weather vane are from the originals in
the Massachusetts Historical Society's collection, by
whose courtesy they are here used.

spouse in the person of Simeon Stod-
dard, himself a wealthy householder.
About this time it became known that
Elizeus Burgess had been appointed by
the king- to be governor of the prov-
ince. The General Court desired to
provide for him a commodious and
dignified residence, and a committee
was appointed to procure a suitable



mansion. On the third day of June,
1 71 5, "Capt. Noyes, from the Com-
mittee appointed to consider of a suit-
able place for the reception & enter-
tainment of Col. Burges upon his
arrival to this Government, Reported
that inasmuch as there is no suitable
house to be let, and the Mansion
House, land & garden, &c. of Peter
Sargeant, Esq. deceased is now upon
sale: The Committee are of opinion
that it would be for the interest and
benefit of this Province to purchase
the same for their use and improve-
ment."

The report of the committee was
adopted, and the sum of £2,300 was
appropriated for the purchase of the
mansion, which thenceforward was
known as the Province House.

Its appearance was imposing and
well befitting the official residence of
the governors of the province. It
was built upon a lofty basement, in
which were the wine cellars and rooms
for the storage of provisions. In
three stories it was finished above, the
main story being reached by a broad
flight of stone steps from the garden,
with lofty trees, which filled the space
in front. A massive portico was
crowned with a balcony of quaintly
twisted iron, into which were wrought





GOVERNOR WILLIAM BURNET.



GOVERNOR THOMAS POWNALL.



422



THE PROVINCE HOUSE.






GOVERNOR FRANCIS BERNARD.

the initials of the founder's name and
the date of its erection:

"i^P S— 79."
A lofty roof, with dor- ^

mers, a cupola and
above all a weather
vane, in the form of an
Indian with bow and ar-
row, in copper gilt,
completed the impos-
ing edifice. Above the
portico were placed the
royal arms, heavily and
skilfully carved in wood,
and finely colored and
gilded. The- weather __^

^ . -1^1 1 SIR WILLIAM

vane is said to have been
the handiwork of Deacon Shem
Drowne, a cunning worker in wood
and metals, whose name Hawthorne
iias preserved to all time in his story
of "Browne's Wooden Image." He it
was, too, who, tradition says, was the
maker of the famous grasshopper vane
which, for more than a hundred years,
has swung in the wind, upon the cu-
pola of Faneuil Hall.

Of the interior of the mansion little
in the way of description is preserved ;
and even when Hawthorne sat in the
old tap-room of mine host, Thomas
Waite, sipped his port sangaree and
listened to the babblings of old Bela
TifTany.but little remained upon which
the great romancer might base his
imagination. There remained, then,
indeed, — for so he tells us, — the quaint



GENERAL THOMAS GAGE.

blue tiles about the fireplace and the
carved and panehed wainscoting,
"covered with dingy paint." He tells
us, however, of the great
staircase, which "may be
termed, without much
hyperbole, a feature of
grandeur and magnifi-
cence. It winds through
the midst of the house,"
he continues, "by flights
of broad steps, each
flight terminating in a
square landing place,
whence the ascent is
continued toward the
cupola. A carved balus-
trade, freshly painted in the lower sto-
ries but growing dingier as we ascend,
borders the staircase with its quaintly




LON MORRIS.



THE PROVINCE HOUSE.



433



twisted and intertwined pillars, from
top to bottom." Wide chimneys af-
forded ample space for broad fire-
places, and rich furniture, brought
from England, tradition tells us, made
the ofificial mansion of the king's rep-
resentative an abode of luxury. At
the street, at either corner of the gar-
den, were erected small porter's
lodges, which added to the dignity of
the place.

The first viceroyal occupant of the
Province House, after it had been
purchased and formally set up as the
oiBcial residence of the governor, was
Colonel Samuel Shute, who had pur-
chased, for the consideration of one
thousand pounds, the commission as
governor of Massachusetts, which
King George I had issued to Colonel
Elizeus Burgess. The new governor
bearing the royal commission, issued
in his name — which is now preserved
in the library of Harvard College —
arrived at Boston, in a merchant ves-
sel, October 4, 1716. He was received
with all the pomp and parade which
the province had at its command, and
was duly escorted to his residence at
the Province House. For seven years
this was his home, years consumed in
constant contentions with those over
whom he had come to rule. It was
during this period that Boston was
visited by the scourge of smallpox,
which raged with the greatest vio-
lence, equally in the homes of the
proud and of the humble. Of its ter-
rors the great romancer has written
in that weird, frightful tale, "Lady
Eleanor's Mantle."

In 1723 Governor Shute sailed for
England, to procure, if he might, ad-
ditional authority, by which to hold in
greater subjection the people over
whom he had been sent to rule. For
four years the wrangle was waged in
England until, in 1727, the death of
the first George and the accession of
the second terminated the commission
of Governor Shute.

A new occupant now came to the
Province House, in the person of Wil-
liam Burnet, who passed its portals in



all his viceroyal pomp, in midsum-
mer of. the year 1728. He was re-
ceived with loud acclaim, with pro-
cessions, feasting and addresses of
welcome. Rev. Mather Byles, the
poet of the day, thus sung the praises
of the newcomer:

"While rising shouts a general joy pro-
claim,

And ev'ry tongue, O Burnet! lisps thy
name;

To view thy face while crowding armies
run,

Whose waving banners blaze against the
sun,

And deep-mouth'd cannon, with a thun-
d'ring roar.

Sound thy commission stretch'd from
shore to shore."

The Province House blazed with
light and good cheer. The treasury
of the province was taxed to the ex-
tent of £1,100, so it is recorded, to
emphasize the welcome which Massa-
chusetts gave to its new governor.

Here, in the Province House,
dwelt Governor Burnet for the
fourteen months of the occupan-
cy of his chair. "While he lived,"
says Drake, "he maintained in proper
state the dignity of his ofBce. His
negro valet, Andrew the Trumpeter,
stood at the portal of the Province
House, or drove his Excellency
abroad in his coach. His menage was
under the care of a competent house-
keeper. Betty, the black laundress,
had the care of twenty pair and one of
holland sheets, with damask napkins,
and store of linen to match. A goodly
array of plate garnished the sideboard,
and ancient weapons graced the walls.
Hobby, the cook, presided over the
cuisine, and coach, chariot and chaises
stood in the stables. He had a stew-
ard and a French tutor."

Here was begun that great struggle
between the people of the province
and the representative of royal au-
thority — that struggle which, half a
century later, culminated in open and
armed rupture. In the midst of the
dissensions the province was startled
by a tragedy. The governor, driving
from Cambridge to Boston, was over-



434



THE PROVINCE HOUSE.



turned in his carriage, while passing
the causeway, and thrown into the
water. The shock and the chill proved
fatal, and early in September, 1729,
Governor Burnet's funeral procession
passed out of the doors of the Prov-
ince House.

_ In pomp it was unsurpassed by any
similar circumstance in the history of
the province. As the sum of £1,100
was expended in his reception, so a
similar sum was drawn from the pub-
lic purse to defray the expenses of
his burial ; and, once again, the Prov-
ince House was without an occupant.
Dummer, and then Tailer, it is true,
filled the interregnum of a year or
two, after the death of Burnet. In
August, 1730, arrived a British ship of
war in the harbor of Boston bearing
the new governor of the province, in
the person of Jonathan Belcher, the
first of the royal governors, save
Phips, of American birth.

From the steps of the Province
House, during the years which fol-
lowed, were sent away the flower of
the province, to engage in the war
with Spain. It requires but little im-
agination to picture Governor
Belcher, as he stood upon the broad
portico of the mansion — even as stood
another governor upon the steps of
the State House, a century and a half
later — and delivered to the departing
soldiers the colors which they were
charged with their valor to defend.

Belcher was followed by Shirley,
who built for himself a lordly mansion
in Dorchester and made use of the
Province House only as an ofBcial
residence, where the business of the
executive magistrate was transacted,
formal receptions were held and audi-
ences given to those who desired to
reach the ear of the viceroy. It was
during his administration that the
memorable expedition was sent out
for the reduction of Louisburg; and
at the door of the Province House,
no doubt. General Roger Wolcott
and his men were given their final
orders and their Godspeed.

Thomas Pownall became the master



of the Province House in August,
1757. In the brief three years of his
administration the mansion saw the
fierce wrangle precipitated by the
Earl of Loudoun, who endeavored to
billet British troops upon the town.
Pownall is described as a man of
small stature and inclined to corpu-
lency. It was the fashion of his day
for a gentleman, on being presented
to a lady, to salute her with a kiss. It
is related of Governor Pownall that he
was upon one occasion presented to
a lady much his superior in height,
whom he requested to stoop that he
might greet her as courtesy required.



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