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Annual report of the secretary of the State Horticultural Society ..., Volume 41 online

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name.

One agent will tell you he has just what you want and you give him
your order but when the trees come you. find they are coarse and un-
even, some trimmed up so that the first limb is four feet or more from
the root. They will never make good trees and a uniform orchard, you
want something that you can start about two to two and one-half feet
from the ground. If they are big and coarse they haven't good roots,
they were all cut off in digging. I have seen trees sold for two years
old that showed four years growth. Some of your trees will have big
bunches on the roots, crown-gall. Never set a tree that has a sign of
gall on it. It will never make a good tree, make them give you good,
clean stock. One-year-old stock is my favorite. They are all about the
same size, the roots are finer, don't suffer such a shock in transplanting
and you can head them as low as you please. Get your stock from the
nursery that grew them. They supply their regular trade first, from
their best stock and sell the surplus to jobbers and office men.

When the trees get to growing in good shape, keep them trimmed
down. Try and make them spread out and take the vase form. Tie sand
bags on the end of the branches to make them spread out and go where
you want them to. That takes time but a good start is half the race.

Spray the young trees with Bordeaux and Arsenate, don't let the
slugs eat them up. They will not grow if the leaves are covered with
scab.

When your trees come into bearing, spray in the spring, if you have
the scale, with lime sulphur. Then just before the blossom buds open,
spray again with Bordeaux or lime sulphur if it is summer or if the
weather is damp and warm. This spraying has been the saving of some
good crops but it is not essential where lime sulphur has been used for
the scale. But just as soon as you think the blossoms have set, or when
the petals begin to come down in good shape don't think about your
corn ground; don't think about what your neighbor is doing; don't go
to town but get right in those pears with your sprayer. Now is the
time to strike the scab a death blow and a blow that will keep it out of
sight for the rest of the season. You may say you do spray according
to the spray calendar "Within a week after the blossoms fall" but still
you have some scab. It comes on late in the season in little fine spots,
but that is because you didn't meet those petals coming down with your
spray going up. A pear with a very small scab will rot in storage and
is not No. 1, No. 2's and culls are not profitable.

The leaves are not in full when this spray is made and it takes a lot
of material to cover every stem and leaf but thoroughness is positively
necessary at this time.



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128 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.

A pressure of 125 lbs. makes a good spray but 155 to 200 makes a
very much better one.

Plenty of force to go through the trees and a fine spray to cover all
the surface is what is required at this time and I have found this best
obtained in a combination of nozzles, such as one of the friend type and
a long distance or cala nozzles on a large ''Y^' using the middle sized
holes in the slide of the cala nozzle.

For this spraying Bordeaux or lime sulphur is used arsenate of lead.
It is well to make another spraying with the same thing in about two
weeks, and the late pears should be sprayed for moth the last of July.

I find thinning is a very good way to make more No. 1 and less No.
2 and makes a yearly crop more sure.

You won't have much blight if you have grown your trees carefully
and not allowed them to over bear and grow too much in one season.
When it does appear, "Cut it out and forget it." Don't be afraid to put
plenty of stable manure on heavily bearing pear trees they will take
care of it and give you good returns.

Bearing pears do as well or even better under the mulch system than
under cultivation, when the mulch method is thoroughly and system-
atically carried out.

When you have raised a fine lot of pears don't sell them to the first
buyer. There is a good market for good pears and you can find it if
you look, I prefer to sell to the local buyer, when I get an honest price,
as a general rule I try to avoid the large markets especially in a year
of abundant crops.

As to varieties Clapp's Favorite, Bartlett, Howell, Bose, and Kieffers
make a very good combination.

Judging from what I have been able to gather and observe the setting
of pear trees has not kept pace with other kinds of fruit trees especially
the peach and apple, and in some of the older pear centers the industry
has been very much decreased by the ravages of blight and other causes.

So to those who have the proper soil and are willing to give it its re-
quired care, the pear offers as bright or even a brighter future than
many other kinds of fruit.

DISCUSSION.

A Member — I set out some Kieffer pears and they started in good
shape, and all at once the blight came in and killed the trees. Is that
regular blight? Or was it some fault of the setting?

Mr. Chatfield — It is very seldom that Kieffer pears blight at that age.
I have seen it on Kieffer pear trees at a later date, when they were
older. Perhaps they did not have moisture enough, may be dried out.

The Member — They started all right.

Mr. Chatfield — If the ground was quite stiff clay, and was not well
cultivated, it would be pretty apt to be lack of moisture.

Mr. Rowe — I would like to know how you control the pear psylla?

Mr. Chatfield — We have not had much trouble with this since we began
to use lime-sulphur. Some of my neighbors have had it, and one in
particular I know does not spray very thoroughly.

A Member — ^AVhat time should we spray?

Mr. Chatfield — Spray when dormant.



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FORTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT. 129

A Member — Does that kill the nits and eggs?

Mr. Ohatfield — The eggs are deposited in the little buds, and they are
smothered underneath there — that is the theory. The pear psylla has not
made any advance in our districts since beginning to spray with lime-
sulphur.

Mr. Rose — We have had a little trouble, but we are on sandy soil.
I sprayed just at the time they were hatching. I am something like the
man bom blind and did not get his eyes open until he was fifty years of
age. Perhaps if we had done that earlier, it would have killed them.
We have a pear orchard eighteen years old, with 2,000 trees in it, and
it has been a good yielder, and i^ is on sandy soil.

A Member — What subsoil do you have?

Mr. Rose — ^We have some clay — we found it when driving our well,
75 feet below the surface. (Laughter.)

Prof. Green — We have had considerable experience with pear or-
chards, and we think the time to spray for the scab that gets on the
tree is just as soon as the petals drop.

A Member — ^The Kieffer and Bartlett has been named, why is not the
Seckel pear named.

Mr. Rose — It is the standard of excellence, but not the standard in
regard to returns in my experience. The Seckel will bear abundantly,
but it takes too many of them to make a bushel. However, I have 500
Seckel pears, and I get as many per acre as of anything else, and they
are on sandy soil.

A Member — ^What do you use, Mr. Rose, on that sand to fertilize your
pears?

Mr. Parrand — That subsoil 75 feet down. (Laughter.)

Mr. Rose — As a rule we have given the pear orchard no stable manure
of any kind, but we have during the last two or three years given it a
1,000 pounds of high grade commercial fertilizer. We do it on account
of the cherries, not so much on account of the pears. We always put
cover crops on every summer, which is turned under. We sow clover in
August in part of this pear orchard where the land is thin, with nothing
else, and harrow it in with a steel harrow, and then plow it under one
year from that time. We had a great deal of trouble in plowing it
under. We did not want to plow our orchards. We did not believe in
a plowed orchard. That orchard was never plowed before in fifteen
years. Generally we sowed Canada field peas, buckwheat, sometimes
oats. The green aphis was quite a menace to our pea crop.

Mr. Farrand — On this proposition of profit, Mr. Ohatfield has simply
given you the varieties that brought the most profit to him; Mr. Rose
has given what was profitable to him. In planting an orchard that is
the proposition that is up to each of us— we must plant the variety or
varieties that will bring us the most profit.

Mr. Munson — I had an order for Seckel pears, for canning purposes,
and I shipped them, and immediately I got a letter back complaining
of them, saying that they were so small that with them their size wag
against them.

Mr. Rose — Of course there is a difference as to where you market youj»
pears. If you had sent them to Pittsburg or some other point in the
east where they ar^ kWQWii and appreciated, it would have been different,
17



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130 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.

When I have a carload I send them east and always get a good price.
We have done fairly well in Minneapolis and St. Paul, but we have
found Pittsburg the best market for the Seckel pear that we know of.

Mr. Farrand — I ran across a man last season who was digging up an
orchard of Bartlett pears twenty-one years old. They had never had
any blight, and the reason why he was doing this was because the
orchard was not profitable. On the same farm was ten acres of Kieffer
pears that had always been profitable. But imagine a man digging up
ten acres of Bartlett pears, twenty-one years old, because they were not
profitable. It seemed like a shame.

Mr. Kose — ^The trouble must have been that there was some mistake
in handling them.

Mr. Keasey — I just want to tell a little incident. My wife and I one
day met two men who were on their way to Mr. Chatfield's, they said,
to make trouble, because he was spraying when his trees were in bloom.
I told them they need not go there if trouble was what they were after,
for I was doing the same thing and we drove on a little further and
stopped at . a neighbor and found he was doing the same thing. Mr.
Chatfield did not get into trouble, neither did we.

A Member — ^We raise pears on sandy as well as on clay soil. I can
raise as good pears on one kind as on another. I had a failure and then
I began spraying just before the blossoms opened. So far as the matter
of soil is concerned, I do not know how to account for the difference.
Perhaps the difference is due to location, but I have never seen pears
blight to any extent on sandy soil, while I have seen on clay soils whole
orchards taken off by blight.

Question — I would like to inquire if the Kieffer is self-fertilizing? I
have an orchard of 1,000 Kieffer pears, an ideal orchard, very healthy,
but they have never borne 100 bushels of pears, and the orchard is fif-
teen years old.

Mr. Farrand — I could not answer the question.

A Member — There are many in our neighborhood who are raising
Kieffer pears all right, and they are profitable.

A Member — I planted an orchard, taking for my authority a Washing-
ton Bulletin, and in this I planted every fourth row running north and
south in Bartletts, and the trees fertilized all right. Since then I have
learned the same high authority that they would not fertilize. But to-
day the Kieffer pears from this orchard are selling for fifty cents a peck
in Chicago. And here I would like to say that I do not think many are
catering to a select enough market — we can do something better than
many are doing.

Mr. Farrand — It would be my advice that Mr. Keasey would do well
to graft his trees to Bartletts rather than pull them out. In this way
he could save the years of growth.

Mr. Keasey — I think I will.

A Member — What is the best market pear?

Mr. Chatfield— The Bartlett, by all means.

A Member — Is it absolutely certain that the Kieffer can be top-
worked to another kind?

Mr. Chatfield— Yes . it is.

A Member — Is it a success?

Mr. Chatfield— No; at least that is my opinion. I have grafted



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FORTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT. 131

Kieffer pears when set two years, and they grew at least three feet that
season, and that winter they all winter-killed. I have seen all the dif-
ferent kinds of varieties grafter on Kieffer, the top would outgrow the
trunk to such an extent that they would not stand a crop.

A Member — In how many years?

Mr. Chatfield — These trees are about fifteen years old.

Mr. Bassett — I top-worked the Kieffer pears, the Seckel, the Bartlett.
Sheldon, etc., and the results have been fairly good but the union is bad,
a big knobby union. Then another thing we lost quite a number by
blight. I do not know whether it was because the Kieffer throws so
much sap, but we lost a great deal of the top. I hesitate to advise people
to top-work Kieffers.

A Member — Some says, "Give all the manure the ground can take,
and you will have lots of fruit." I tried it for three years sprayed
thoroughly, and the trees were loaded every year but one, and that year
the frost hit them. So I say, give the trees all the manure the ground
will take, and you will get lots of fruit.

A Member — I have one hundred trees of Kieffer pears, not come into
bearing, and I changed and grafted the most of them into Bartlett and
Seckel. In this way I got rid of my Kieffer pears and in this I think
I had that much sense anyhow.

Question — How long have they been grafted? And how do they look?

Answer — They look first rate.

A Member — This point was brought up last year at Benton Harbor,
and I would like to have yoli come out to my place and see this pear-
grafting proposition on Kieffers. I have some trees that are grafted on
Bartletts mostly, and I would not care to see anything that looks any
more satisfactory that those trees, yet Mr. Bassett says they have not
done well in his orchard.

Mr. Parrand — I think a good way to leave this is that if you have
Kieffer pears, and have planted them, and do not want to go on and
grow Kieffer pears, you can decide as to whether you will graft them
over to some other variety, and then if they do not do all right take them
out.



COLD STORAGE FOR FRUIT.

Following a very interesting address on "Cold Storage" by Prof. H.
J. Eustace, which was illustrated by a number of charts, the following
discussion was held:

A Member — ^Do you use sawdust on the ice?

Prof. Eustace — ^No, we do not.

Q.— How often is this filled?

Prof. Eustace — Two or three times a week during the season when we
are putting in very much warm fruit.

A Member — ^How cool could you make the room?

Prof. Eustace — Thirty-two degrees and you can make it ten to twenty
degrees less, depending upon the amount of salt used.

The more salt you use the colder the room can be mad^,

A Member — ^How often do you fill that box?



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132 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIBIT.

Prof. Eustace — That depends upon the amount of fruit you desire to
cool. When we have lots of fruit it takes twice the amount that it
would otherwise.

A Member — ^How many tons of ice are required for a thousand bushels
of apples?

Prof. Eustace — It will require 125 to 175 tons of ice.

A Member — Does it take as much ice to run this gravity plant system
as it does the ice and salt in pipes run through the house itself?

Prof. Eustace — ^No, it does not, that is our advantage of it.

A member — Is there any objection to putting these pipes for refrigera-
tion in the cellar?

Prof. Eustace — ^No, you must have the tank room higher than the
room in which the crates are.

A Member — How about ventilation?

Prof. Eustace — You must provide for that. Arrange to admit the
cold air at the bottom of the room and let the warm air out at the
opening at the top.

A Member — ^Where are those pipes?

Prof. Eustace — ^Bight up against the wall.

Question — What objection is there to the snow accumulating on the
pipes?

Prof. Eustace — After it has been allowed to accumulate and get thick
you don't get as much cold from the pipes as you should. It acts as a
kind of insulator on the pipes and has to be gotten off in order to get
the best cooling effects from the pipes.

Question — ^How low a temperature is it safe to go for apples packed
in barrels, or unpacked?

Prof. Eustace — ^Water will freeze at 32°. An apple will freeze at
28 or 29 degrees. The apple is not just the same as water but it is not
safe to go below 28 or 29 degrees with apples. An apple that is frosted
will come out all right provided thawed out gradually but the trouble is
that they thaw out too quickly.



THE MICHIGAN FRUIT GROWER'S OPPORTUNITY.

C. B. COOK^ OWOSSO.

Michigan is pre-eminently a fruit-growing state. The vast extent of
her lands, adapted to a wide range of hardy fruits emphasizes her mag-
nificent opportunity. While she leads all other states in the Union in
the production of other vital products, her fruit areas are her choicest
heritage. To bring Michigan to her own and develop to a reasonable
degree those areas that will make it possible for her to successfully
lead the world against all comers in her favored lines of fruit production
is the duty of her fruit-growing fraternity.

With a soil adapted to all of the best of our hardy fruits ; with a lat-
itude that insures the production of the highest quality that can be pur-
chased and with a magnificent water frontage that defies all other
areas, where are tempered alike the northern and southern portions of



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FORTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT. 133

her commonwealth; all these combine to place within her grasp possi-
bilities that are just beginning to be comprehended.

With such qualifications at her door, it is indeed pleasant to contem-
plate the development that is rapidly taking place. Her proximity on
all sides to the best markets of the New World readily solves a great
problem in the successful marketing of her fruit products.

The ever swelling tide of city consumption calls for more and better
production in all fruit-growing lines. Never before was the time so op-
portune for the fruit-growing fraternity of our State to branch out and
develop a system of production unprecedented in all history.

Severe lessons, dearly learned in the fruit fields of Michigan, have am-
ply demonstrated the supreme importance of congenial soils, suitable
elevations, proper varieties, careful soil maintenance, vigilant care and
business methods in marketing. The business fruit grower recognizes
today as never before that constant attention to details in every branch
of fruit-growing can alone make good in the fruit-growing profession.
The time has come when profitable fruit production has gone supremely
into the hands of the specialists, leaving the indifferent grower to look
to other agricultural lines for a livelihood.

Pew lines of business enterprise offer the painstaking citizens, who
wish to gradually grow into a delightful and profitable life, a better op-
portunity.

The fruit-growing opportunity then calls as never before for earnest,
honest workers ; men who are devoted to the cause they espouse and pro-
pose by loyal effort to push it through to a termination that brings a
comfortable profit, a satisfaction well worth while, and a life-long em-
ployment in a line of industry that makes for health, happiness, inde-
pendence, a good home and wholesome surroundings.

Such is the Michigan fruit grower's opportunity. Royal in its setting,
glorious in its achievement and substantial in its results.



MICHIGAN THE BEST.



BY J. J. SNOOK, ROCHESTER.

To live, and where; is question great;
In town or country, or what state.
Where many kinds of work and wealth
Shall help the pocketbook and health.
So we this good advice will give,
In Michigan's the place to live.

Why? Cause of great variety.
The like of which no where you see;
Its soils, its factories, and its ores
That bring the markets to our doors.
So many things that profits give;
In Michigan's the place to live.

And such great lakes, on three sides round.
With waters clear its sides to bound;
Where steamers glide and barges sail.
Competing traffic with the rail.
Now this true statement we will give.
It pays in Michigan to live.



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134 STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.

She has a thousand miles of shore.
Perhaps 'tis less— it may be more,
Which need no fences there about
To keep stock in, or stray ones out.
Now why not take the advice we give,
In Michigan, to come and live?

Where inland lakes on highland plane
By hundreds laugh in glad refrain;
There shiners you may catch with joy.
Like father caught, wlien but a boy.
These charms, with others, we might give;
In Michigan, come, fish, and live.

And fruits, well say, these great fresh seas
Temper the winds to soothing breeze
That shield the bud and save the bloom
For happy wife and thrifty groom
These fruits you'll have to sell and give,
In Michigan's the place to live.

And best of all, the people here

Will welcome you with help and cheer;

So you will find 'twill surely pay

To say, right now, we'll go that way

'Mongst friends that good advice did give.

And in grand Michigan we'll live.

Rochester, Mich., Jan. 12, 1912.



VAKIETY LIST FOR MICHIGAN.

T. A. FARRAND^ EATON RAPIDS.

In looking over this list the reader must take into consideration the
fact that the value of this or that variety depends somewhat upon the pur-
pose for which it is wanted, and also very much upon local or long dis-
tance markets. The list must necessarily be long to cover all conditions
and the different sections of the state and those varieti^ should be chosen
which have the characteristics most desirable for the purpose for which
they are being planted. The recommended variety list is also subject
to change more or less as the years go by. The popular variety of today
may not be such ten years hence.

The lists should be divided, one list being for market purposes and
one for home use. The list for home use should contain those varieties
best adapted for cooking and dessert purposes and should cover the
season. Some of the desirable characteristics for market fruits are
hardiness of tree and early bearing tendencies, high color, reasonably
firm in texture, coupled with good quality if possible.

APPLES.

Why should we in Michigan plant varieties of good quality, elimin-
ating varieties of the Ben Davis type? For the very reason that we
cannot compete with many other sections, where this is a standard



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FORTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT. 135

variety, but we can grow many other varieties of fine quality to per-
fection.

For market: — Yellow Transparent, Duchess of Oldenburg, Wealthy,
Wagener, Hubbardston, Mcintosh or Fameuse, Grimes Golden, Jona-
than, Baldwin, Northern Spy, Red Canada, King, Rhode Island Green-
ing, Ontario.

For Home Use: — Yellow Transparent, Sweet Bough, Wealthy, Old-
enburg, Fameuse, Mcintosh, Spitzenburg, Jonathan, Spy, Grimes
Golden, Red Canada, Hubbardston, Tblman Sweet.

Crab Apples: — For market, Hyslop; for home use, Martha and Dart-
mouth,

PBABS.

For market: — Clapp's Favorite, Bartlett, Duchess, Seckel, Dana's
Hovey, Clairgeau, Keiffer.

For Home Use: — Summer Doyenne, Bloodgood, Clapp's Favorite,
Bartlett, Manning, Elizabeth, Duchess, Bell Lucrative, Sheldon, Bosc,
Seckel, Lawrence, Dana's Hovey,

PEACHES.

For Market: — Admiral Dewey, St. Johns, Conklin, Engle Mammoth,
Kalamazoo, Elberta, Gold Drop, Smock, Salway.

For Home Use: — Admiral Dewey, Lewis, Engle, Champion, Kalama-
zoo, Gold Drop.

PLUMS.

Market Varieties : — Japan — ^Red June, Abundance, Burbank, Satsuma,
October Purple; European — Lincoln, Lombard, Bavay Green Gage,
Bradshaw, Geuii, Grand Duke, Black Diamond, Monarch, Coe's
Gold Drop, Shropshire or French Damson.

For Home Use: — Red June, Abundance, Lincoln, Columbia, Lombard,
Bavay Green Gage, Fellemberg qr Italian Prune, Shropshire Damson.

CHERRIES.

Market Varieties: — Richmond and Montmorency for sour, Dukes,


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Online LibraryNew Hampshire. Insurance DeptAnnual report of the secretary of the State Horticultural Society ..., Volume 41 → online text (page 17 of 26)