New Jersey. Adjutant-General's Office.

Official register of the officers and men of New Jersey in the revolutionary war online

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Somerset county, five companies.
Morris county, six companies.
Sussex county, five companies.
Hunterdon county, eight companies.
Burlington county, five companies.
Gloucester county, four companies.
Salem county, three companies.
Cumberland county, three companies.
Cape May county, one company.

These companies of militia, called "Minute Men," were
■" held in constant readiness, on the shortest notice, to march
to any place where assistance might be required, for the defence


of this or any neighboring Colony." They were to continue in
service four months, and they had precedence of rank over the
"common militia" of the Province. The companies from each
county formed a battalion — in all, ten battalions — the " Minute
Men" of Cumberland and Cape May being independent com-
panies of light infantry and rangers.

On the 31st of August, 1775, it is noted that the "Minute
Men" were directed to adopt for their uniform, hunting frocks,
as near as may be to the uniform of riflemen in Continental

The Congress of New Jersey passed more stringent regulations
for the militia, October 28th, 1775. Men capable of bearing
arms who were "requested" to enroll themselves by the first
military ordinance were now " directed " to do so. They were
directed with all convenient speed to furnish themselves with
" a good musket or firelock and bayonet, sword or tomahawk, a
steel ramrod, worm, priming-wire and brush fitted thereto, a
cartouch-box to contain twenty-three rounds of cartridges, twelve
flints, and a knapsack." They were also directed to keep "at
their respective abodes, one pound of powder and three pounds of
bullets. Fines, if not paid, were ordered to be collected by war-
rants of distress, levied on the goods and chattels of the offender.
In case of an alarm, the " Minute Men" were directed to repair
immediately to their captains' residences, and he was to march his
company instantly to oppose the enemy. Companies of light-
horse were ordered to be raised among the militia.

In February, 1776, the Committee of Safety of New York
called upon the Provincial Congress for a detachment of militia
to assist in arresting tories in Queens county, Long Island, and
on Staten Island, New York. On the 12th of February, three
hundred men of the militia of Middlesex, three hundred of
Essex, and one hundred of Somerset were ordered out for that
purpose, the following officers commanding :

Nathaniel Heard Colonel.

Edward Thomas Lieutenant Colonel.

John Dunn Major.

Another detachment of "Minute Men" was ordered February
iSth, 1776, to proceed to New York, under command of

Charles Stewart Colonel.


Mark Thompson Lieutenant Colonel. ■'


Frederick Frelinghuysen First Major.

Thomas Henderson Second Major. ^r.

This order, however, was countermanded February 2 2d. iS

Many of the "Minute Men," as such, having entered the \\

Continental Army, the battalions thereof became so reduced II

that on the 29th day of February, 1776, they were ordered to be II

dissolved and incorporated in the militia of the districts where \\

they resided. Vs
On the 3d day of June, 1776, the Continental Congress

"Resolved, That thirteen thousand eight hundred militia be i,,

employed to re-enforce the army at New York." ;.,.;

"Resolved, That the Colony of New Jersey be requested to 1^'^

furnish, of their militia, three thousand three hundred men." ,,

According to this resolve, an ordinance was passed June 14th, :j,j:

1776, by the Provincial Congress, to raise the number of men '

required. This force was ordered to be divided into five battal-
ions, consisting of eight companies, of seventy-eight men each,
and the service was limited to December ist, 1776. A bounty
of three pounds was allowed each man who should enlist in this
brigade. i

The following was the organization, the first officers, and the : ;,

changes which took place in this brigade during its term of
service : H

Joseph Reed Brigadier General Commanding.

Robert Hoops Brigade Major.

Both officers declined, and the offices were filled by the pro-
motion of

Colonel Nathaniel Heard Brigadier General. -

Captain Peter Gordon Brigade Major.

The battalion consisting of three companies from Bergen,
three from Essex, and two from Burlington :

Philip Van Cortland Colonel.

David Brearley Lieutenant Colonel.

Richard Dey Major.

John Condit Surgeon.



John Hammell Surgeon's Mate.

Andrew Hunter Chaplain.

The battalion consisting of four companies from Middlesex
and four from Monmouth :

Nathaniel Heard Colonel.

David Forman Lieutenant Colonel.

Thomas Henderson Major.

Melancthon Freeman Surgeon.

Benjamin Stockton Surgeon's Mate.

Colonel Nathaniel Heard, promoted Brigadier General.
Lieutenant Colonel David Forman, promoted Colonel.
Major Thomas Henderson, promoted Lieutenant Colonel.
Captain Samuel F. Parker, promoted Major.

The battalion consisting of four companies from Morris and
four from Sussex :

Ephraim Martin Colonel.

John Munson Lieutenant Colonel.

Cornelius Ludlow Major.

Joseph King Adjutant.

Joshua Gordon Quartermaster,

Jonathan Horton Surgeon.

David Ervin Surgeon's Mate.

The battalion consisting of three companies from Somerset
and five from Hunterdon :

Stephen Hunt Colonel.

Philip Johnson Lieutenant Colonel.

Joseph Phillips Major.

Cornelius Baldwin Surgeon.

Colonel Stephen Hunt, resigned.

Lieutenant Colonel Philip Johnson, promoted Colonel — killed.
Major Joseph Phillips, promoted Lieutenant Colonel, after-
wards Colonel.

Captain Piatt Bayles, promoted Major.

The battalion consisting of two companies from Burlington,
two from Cumberland, two from Gloucester, and two from Salem :
Silas Newcomb Colonel.


Bowes Reed Lieutenant Colonel.

Ebenezer Howell Major.

Abijah Holmes Quartermaster.

Thomas Ewing Surgeon.

Robert Patterson Surgeon's Mate.

Philip Vickers Fithian Chaplain.

Major Ebenezer Howell, declined.
Captain William Ellis, promoted Major.
Chaplain Philip Vickers Fithian, killed.

By a return from General Heard's brigade, in and near the
city of New York, September, 1776, the strength of this com-
mand appears to be one hundred and sixty officers and one thou-
sand seven hundred and sixty-two enlisted men.

On the i6th day of July, 1776, Congress requested the Con-
vention of New Jersey to supply with militia the places of two
thousand men of General Washington's Army, who had been
ordered to march into New Jersey to form the flying camp. On
the 1 8th of July, an ordinance was passed detaching that number
from the militia for that purpose. It was resolved that the two
thousand militia should compose four battalions, consisting of
thirty companies, of sixty-four men each. They were only to be
held for one month from the time of their joining the flying camp.

The battalions of this brigade were organized and officered in
the following manner :

The battalion consisting of two companies from Bergen, three
from Essex, and two from Morris :

Edward Thomas Colonel.

Ellis Cook Lieutenant Colonel.

John Mauritius Goetschius Major.

Samuel Hayes Adjutant.

William Winants Surgeon.

The battalion consisting of two companies from Somerset,
two from Sussex, and four from Hunterdon :

Mark Thompson Colonel.

Abraham Bonnell Lieutenant Colonel.

Enos Kelsey Major.

Jacob Jennings Surgeon.


The battalion consisting of three companies from Middlesex,
three from Monmouth, and two from Salem :

George Taylor Colonel.

Whitton Cripps Lieutenant Colonel.

John Duychinck Major.

Colonel George Taylor refused to qualify, and deserted.
Samuel Forman, appointed Colonel.
Major John Duychinck, declined.
John Dunn, appointed Major.

The battalion consisting of three companies from Burlington,
three from Gloucester, and one from Cumberland :

Charles Read Colonel.

Josiah Hillman Lieutenant Colonel.

William Ellis Major.

Bodo Otto, Jr Surgeon.

One-half of the militia were ordered to be detached August
nth, 1776, and called out for immediate service, to be relieved
by the other half every month. One division of the militia,
detached from every organization in the State, was ordered to
march with all dispatch to join the flying camp, for one month's
service. The second division was held ready to relieve them, to
be themselves relieved in turn. On this basis of monthly classes
in active service the militia were held during the continuance of
the war.

An act for the better regulating the militia was passed March
iS^h, 1777. It organized the force more strictly than formerly,
defined the duties and powers of officers, &c. This was still
further improved, and the last ordinance repealed, by an act of
April 14th, 1778. This also divided the militia into brigades,
as follows :

The militia of the counties of Middlesex, Somerset, Essex,
Bergen, Morris, and Sussex into one brigade — the militia of the
counties of Hunterdon, Burlington, Monmouth, Gloucester,
Salem, Cumberland, and Cape May into the other brigade.

This act was amended March i8th, 1780, and bounties, rang-
ing from five hundred dollars (Continental money), for the



colonel, to sixty dollars for the private, were ordered paid for
actual service of one month.

On the Sth of January, 1781, the militia were formed into
three, instead of two brigades, viz. :

" The militia of the counties of Bergen, Essex, Morris, and
Sussex, and of those parts of the counties of Middlesex and
Somerset lying on the northern and eastern side of the Raritan
river, and of the south branch of the same, shall compose the
Upper Brigade.

"The militia of the counties of Monmouth, Hunterdon, and
Burlington, and of those parts of the counties of Middlesex and
Somerset lying on the southern and western side of the Raritan
river, and of the south branch of the same, shall compose the
Middle Brigade.

"The militia of the counties of Gloucester, Salem, Cape
May, and Cumberland shall compose the Lower Brigade."

The Governor of the State, June 27th, 1781, was authorized
to call out a part of the militia, and continue them in service
■three months, for the purpose of co-operating with the Conti-
nental Army. Such men were exempted from service for nine
months next ensuing.

Companies of artillery and troops of horse were, from time to
time, organized in sundry townships or cities, by direction of
the Governor, or by special law enacted by the General Assem-
bly of the State.

The good service performed by the militia of this State is
'fully recorded in history. At the fights at Quinton's Bridge,
Har.cock's Bridge, Three Rivers, Connecticut Farms, and Van
Neste's Mills tlicy bore an active part ; while at the battles of
'Long I.,land, Trenton, Assunpink, Princeton, Germantown,
Springfield, and Monmouth they performed efficient service in
ft:-:;-porting the Continental Line.


T!ie following arrangement shows the State, field, and staff );

cff.ceis, and the organization of the militia by counties: js

Vv'illiam Livingston Governor, Captain General, ,■'•

and Commander-in-Chief.

Philemon Dickinson Major General Commanding- -'i


William Bott Adjutant General.

John Mehelm Quartermaster General.

Matthias Williamson Quartermaster General.

Charles Stewart Commissary General.

James Thompson Wagonmaster General.



Regiment :

Theunis Dey Colonel.

John Zabriskie Lieutenant Colonel.

Cornelius Van Voorst Lieutenant Colonel.

Feter Fell Lieutenant Colonel.

Richard Dey Captain, First Major.

John Mauritius Gcescliius Captain, Second Major.

George Ryerson Adjutant.

Abraham Van Boskirk Surgeon.

J^irsf Regi7ncnt :

Joseph Borden Colonel.

Bowes Reed Colonel.

William Shreve First Major, Lieutenant Colonel,


William Lewis Lieutenant Colonel.

Oakey Hoagland Captain, Second Major, First

Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

James Sterling Second Major.

Jacob Perkins Second Major.

Second Regiment :

Charles Read Colonel.

Thomas Reynolds Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Joseph Haight First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

John Ross Lieutenant Colonel.

Thomas Fenimore First Major.

Joseph. Budd Second Major.


Battalion :

John Mackey Colonel,

Nicholas Stillwell Captain, Lieutenant Colonel,


Henry Hand Lieutenant Colonel.

Enoch Stillwell First Major, Lieutenant ColoneL

Eli Eldridge First Major.

John Hand Second Major, First Major.

Thomas Learning Adjutant.

Nathan Hand Quartermaster.

J^i'rst Battalion .

Silas Newcomb ColoneL

Isaac Preston Colonel.

Elijah Hand Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Enos Seeley Lieutenant Colonel.

Samuel Ogden Captain, First Major, Lieutenant


Timothy Elmer First Major.

Derrick Peterson First Major.

Ezekiel Foster Captain, Second Major.

Ephraim Lummes Captain, Second Major.

Fithian Stratton Adjutant.

Josiah Seeley Quartermaster..

Second Battalion ;

David Potter ColoneL

Abijah Holmes Lieutenant ColoneL

Thomas Ewing First Major.

Daniel Maskell Captain, Second Major.

John Dovvdney Quartermaster.


First Regiment ;

Elias Dayton Colonel.

Edward Thomas Colonel.

Samuel Potter Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Moses Jaques Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Jeremiah Smith Lieutenant Colonel.

Oliver Spencer First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

Jacob Crane First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

\Ezekiel Woodruff, Jr Second Major, First Major.

Nehemiah Wade Second Major.

William Winants Surgeon.

Second Regiment — Divided into North and South Battalions ;

Philip Van Cortland Colonel.

Matthias Ward Lieutenant Colonel.

David Condict First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

Samuel Hayes Adjutant, First Major.

William Burnet Surgeon.

Uzal Johnston Surgeon, (North Battalion).

Nicholas Roach Surgeon, (South Battalion).


First Battalion :

Israel Shre ve Colonel .

Robert Taylor Captain, Major, Colonel.

Bodo Otto Colonel.

Samuel Tonkin Lieutenant Colonel.

Samuel Shreve Captain, Lieutenant Colonel.

Robert Brown : Captain, Lieutenant Colonel.

Samuel Flanningham Major.

Second Battalion :

Joseph Ellis Colonel.

Elijah Clark Lieutenant Colonel.

William Ellis Major.


Third Battalion :

Richard Somers Colonel.

Richard Westcott First Major.

George Payne Captain, First Major.

Jeremiali Smith Captain, Second Major.

William Smith Adjutant.

John Little Paymaster.

Thomas Hendry Surgeon.

J^irst Regiment :

Isaac Smith Colonel.

Joseph Phillips First Major, Colonel.

Abraham Hunt Lieutenant Colonel.

Joab Houghton Captain, Lieutenant Colonel.

Ephraim Anderson First Major.

Joseph Brearley Captain, First Major.

Isaac DeCou Second Major.

Benjamin Van Cleve First Lieutenant, Captain,.

Second Major.

Henry Phillips Captain, Second Major.

Elias Phillips Adjutant.

Second Regiment :

Nathaniel Hunt Colonel.

Joseph Beavers Colonel.

Abraham Bonnell Lieutenant Colonel.

William Chamberlain Lieutenant Colonel.

Nathaniel Pettit First Major.

Cornelius Stout First Major.

David Bishop Second Major, First Major..

Garret Albertson Second Major.

David Jones Second Major.

Cornelius Carhart Second Major.

Samuel Growendyck Captain, Second Major.

John Schanck Adjutant.

Reading Howell Quartermaster.

• Craven Surgeon.


Third Regiment :

David Chambers Colonel.

Thomas Lowrey Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

George Ely Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Cornelius Stout Second Major, First Major.

Daniel McDonald Sacond Major.

George Holcomb First Lieutenant, Captain, Sec-
ond Major.
David Bishop Adjutant.

Fourth Regiment :

John Mehelm Colonel.

John Taylor Captain, Second Major, Lieutenant

Colonel, Colonel.
John Tenbrook Captain, First Major, Lieutenant


John Stevens, Jr Second Major, First Major.

Godfrey Rinehart Captain, First Major.

Ebenezer Berry Captain, Second Major.

Oliver Barnet Surgeon.


Rirst Regiment ;

Nathaniel Heard Colonel .

John Webster Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Micajah Dunn Lieutenant Colonel.

Jonathan Deare First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

Thomas Hadden Captain, First Major, Lieutenant


Samuel Crow First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

John Dunn First Major.

Clarkson Edgar Captain, First Major.

Reuben Potter Second Major.

Samuel Randolph Captain, Second Major.

Second Regiment ;

John Wetherill Colonel.

John Neilson Colonel.

Azariah Dunham Lieutenant Colonel.


John Duychinck First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

[See Third Regiment].

Richard Lott Lieutenant Colonel.

John Taylor First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

John Van Emburgh Second Major, First Major.

Moses Scott.j Surgeon.

Third Regiment :

John Duychinck Colonel. [See Second Regi-

Jacob Hyer Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

William Scudder First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

Robert Nixon Captain, First Major.

Thomas Egbert Second Major.

First Regiment :

George Taylor Colonel.

Nathaniel Scudder Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Asher Holmes First Major, Colonel.

John Smock Captain, Major, Lieutenant Colonel,


Thomas Seabrook First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

Elisha Walton Ensign, Captain, Second Major,

First Major.

Thomas Hunn Captain, Second Major.

James Whitlock Second Lieutenant, Captain,

Second Major.

Keneth Anderson Adjutant.

David Rhea, Jr Adjutant.

John Stilwell Quartermaster.

John Campbell Quartermaster.

Richard Hartshorne Quartermaster.

Thomas Barber Surgeon,

Jacob Hubbard Surgeon.

John Scudder Surgeon's Mate.

Second Reginient :

David Brearley Colonel.

Joseph Salter Lieutenant Colonel.


Samuel Forman Captain, Lieutenant Colonel,


Elisha Lawrence, Jr First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

William Montgomery Captain, First Major.

James Mott Second Major.

John Cook Captain, Second Major.

TKrd Regiment :

Samuel Breese Colonel .

Daniel Hendrickson Colonel.

Auke Wikoff Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Dennis Denice First Major.

Hendrick Van Brunt Lieutenant, Captain, Second



Eastern Battalion :

Jacob Ford, Jr Colonel.

Ellis Cook Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Sylvanus Seeley Captain, First Major, Colonel.

Cornelius Ludlow First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

Eleazer Lindsley... Second Major, Lieutenant Colonel.
Benoni Hathaway... Captain, Second Major, Lieutenant

Richard Johnson Captain, First Major.

Daniel Brown Captain, First Major.

Joseph Lindsley Second Major.

John Doughty Adjutant.

Frederick King Quartermaster.

Timothy Jones Surgeon.

Western Battalion :

Jacob Drake Colonel.

William Winds Colonel.

John Munson Colonel.

Robert Gaston Lieutenant Colonel.

John Starke Second Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

Nathan Luse Captain, Lieutenant Colonel.


Samuel Sears, (or Sayres) First Major.

Daniel Cook Second Major.

Jacob Shuler Second Major.

Mahlon McCurry Quartermaster.

Matthew McCourney Quartermaster.

Jonathan HortoTV. Surgeon.


First Battalion, (or Western Battalioii) :

Samuel Dick Colonel.

Whitton Cripps Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

William Mecum First Major.

Edward Hall Second Major.

Thomas Carpenter Quartermaster.

Second Battalioti, (or Eastern Battalioii) :

John Holme Colonel.

Benjamin Holme Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

William Shute Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Thomas Mecum First Major.

Anthony Sharp First Major.

John Kelley Captain, Second Major.

Henry Sparks, Jr Second Major.

John Smith Adjutant.

Andrew Yorke Quartermaster.

William Worth Chaplain.

First Battalion :

William Alexander, (Lord Stirling) Colonel.

Stephen Hunt Captain, Colonel.

Frederick Frelinghuysen Captain, Colonel.

Abraham Ten Eick Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Derrick Middah.... Second Major, Lieutenant Colonel.
James Linn Captain, First Major.



Richard McDonald Captain, Second Major.

Thomas Hall Captain, Second Major.

Second Battalion :

.? Abraham Quick Colonel.

Hendrick Vandike Colonel.

Benjamin Baird First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

Peter D. Vroom Captain, First Major, Lieutenant

William Verbryck Captain, Second Major, First


William Baird Captain, First Major.

Enos Kelsey Second Major.

Abraham Nevius... Lieutenant, Captain, Second Major.

J^t'rst Regiment :

William Maxwell Colonel.

Mark Thompson Colonel.

Jacob West Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Matthias Shipman First Major, Lieutenant Colonel.

William Bond Captain, Lieutenant Colonel.

John B. Scott First Major.

John Van Vleet Captain, First Major.

Edward Demund Second Major.

Abraham Bescherer Lieutenant, Second Major.

Robert Arnold Quartermaster.

Robert Cummins Surgeon.

Second Regiment :

Ephraim Martin Colonel.

Aaron Hankinson Colonel.

John Seward Captain, Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel.

Daniel Harker Lieutenant Colonel.

James Broderick Captain, First Major.

Francis Headly First Major.

Samuel Meeker Captain, Second Major.

Joseph Linn Adjutant.


Isaac Hull Quartermaster.

Henry Johnson Quartermaster.

Cornelius Baldwin Surgeon.

Third Battalion ;

John Cleves Symmes Colonel.

John Rosekranz Captain, Colonel.

Samuel Westbrook Captain, Major.

John Cortright Captain, Major.

J Avert Surgeon.


Official Roster


State Troops and Militia.


Dickinson, Philemon. Brigadier General, militia, October
igtli, 1775 ; resigned February 15th, 1777 ; Major General,,
militia, June 6th, 1777.


Ellis, Joseph. Colonel, Second Battalion, Gloucester; Briga-
dier General, militia, February 15th, 1777; declined Feb-
ruary 2ist, 1777.

FoRMAN, David. Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel Heard's battal-
ion, "Heard's Brigade," June 25th, 1776; Colonel, ditto;
Brigadier General, militia, March 5th, 1777; resigned No-
vember 6th, 1777 J commanded Jersey militia at the battle
of Germantown.

Heard, Nathaniel. Colonel, First Regiment, Middlesex;
Colonel, battalion, "Minute Men," February 12th, 1776;.
Colonel, battalion, "Heard's Brigade," June 25th, 1776;
Brigadier General Commanding, ditto ; Brigadier General,
militia, February ist, 1777.

Livingston, William. Brigadier General, militia, October
28th, 1775; commission vacated by his election as Gov-
ernor, August 31st, 1776.


Neilson, John. Colonel, battalion, " Minute Men ; " Colonel,
Second Regiment, Middlesex, August ist, 1776; Colonel,
regiment. State troops j Brigadier General, militia, Febru-
ary 2ist, 1777; also Deputy Quartermaster General.

Newcomb, Silas. Colonel, First Battalion, Cumberland; Col-
onel, battalion, "Heard's Brigade," June 14th, 1776;
Brigadier General, militia, March isth, 1777; resigned
December 4th, 1777; also Colonel, Continental Army.

Potter, David. Colonel, Second Battalion, Cumberland ; Col-
onel, battalion, State troops, November 27th, 1776; Briga-
dier General, militia, February 21st, 1777; declined March
iSth, 1777.

Reed, Joseph. Brigadier General Commanding brigade, June
14th, 1776; declined; Adjutant General, staff of General

Williamson, Matthias. Colonel, regiment, light-horse, Octo-
ber 27th, 1775; Brigadier General, militia, September 6th,
1776 ; Brigadier General Commanding brigade. State troops,
November 27th, 1776; resigned February 6th, 1777; As-
sistant Deputy Quartermaster General ; Assistant Quarter-
master General ; Quartermaster General.

Winds, Willia.m. Colonel, "Western Battalion," Morris, No-
vember 3otli, 1776; Brigadier General, militia, March 4th,
1777; resigned June loth, 1779; also Colonel, Continen-
tal Army.


Alexander, William, (Lord Stirling). Colonel, First Battal-
ion, Somerset ; also Major General, Continental Army.

Beavers, Joseph. Colonel, Second Regiment, Hunterdon.

Borden, Joseph. Colonel, First Regiment, Burlington ; re-
signed September 28th, 1776.


BoTT, William. Colonel and Adjutant General, November
28th, 1776; staff of Major General Dickinson.

Brearley, David. Lieutenant Colonel, battalion, "Heard's
Brigade," June 14th, 1776; Colonel, Second Regiment,
Monmouth ; also Lieutenant Colonel, Continental Army.

Breese, Samuel. Colonel, Third Regiment, Monmouth; re-

Online LibraryNew Jersey. Adjutant-General's OfficeOfficial register of the officers and men of New Jersey in the revolutionary war → online text (page 23 of 53)