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£3 Seventeenth Annual Report



OF THE



NEW JERSEY STATE



Agricultural Experiment Station



AND THK



NINTH ANNUAL REPORT



New km Affiicntal College Eximent Station



FOR TMK YKAR KN'.JIN<;



Octobejr 31st, 1896.



TRENTON. N. J. :
The J.L.MrRPHY Pobushing Co., Printem.

1897.



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^v.



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TABLE OF CONTENTS.



m



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TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PAGES.

I. Oboanization of the New Jebset Aobicux<tu&al Experiment

Stations ^ •. xvii

11. Report of the Treasurer, State Experiment Station. xix

III. Financial Statement, Aoricultural College Experiment Sta-

tion xxi

IV. Report of the Director 1

V. Report of the Chemists 17

Fertilken.. 19

Fertilizer Statistics 19

QoaDtitj and Value of Fertilizers used in New Jersey in 1895.. 20

Comparison of Yearns Trade with that of Preceding Years.... 21

Market Prices of Fertilizers ^ 25

Chemical Examination of Fertilizers 32

Introduction 32

Fertilizer Law 32

Securing of Samples 33

Selection of Samples for Examination 35

ManufiEU!turers 36

Chemical Analysis 88

Trade Value of Fertilizing Ingredients for 1896 and Examina-
tion of Standard Materials Supplying them 39

Average Cost per i>ound of Plant-Food Constituents. 40

Chemical Analyses of Fertilizing Materials 43

Nitrate of Soda. 43

Sulphate of Ammonia. 48

Dried Blood 44

Dried and Ground Fish 44

Ground Bone and Tankage. 45

Bone Black, Bone Ash, etc. 46

S. C. Rock and other Mineral Phosphates 46

Muriate of Potash 47

Kainit 47

High-Grade and Double Sulphates of Potash 48

Examination of Home Mixtures and Special Compounds 48

Examination and Valuation of Manufactured Brands and

Sundry Materials 51

Complete Fertilizers 52, 62

Ground Bone .'. 59, 102

Miscellaneous Fertilizers. ., 60, 106

Wood Ashes. .'. 61,108

Sundry Materials. 61,108

(V)



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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS.

V. Refobt of the Chemists— Cbn(inu«(2. paoeb.

Analjtical Methods 110

Availability of Organic Nitrogeo 110

Solobilitj of Ammoniates in Pepsin Solution : 113

Permanganate of Potash Method 116

Volumetric ^imation of Phosphoric Acid.... 118

Fodders and Feeds .' 122

Analyses « 122

Market Prices of Ck>mmercial Feeds 126

Average Composition of Fodders and Feeds 127

Cost and Composition of Milk in Cities in New Jersey 134

Sampling ....v.'...». < 134

Cost per Quart....^ 134

Variations in Composition due to Natural Causes 135

Discussion of Qei^^ts. 137

Sources of Supply 138

Classification of Samples. 139

Character of the Dairies and Bations Fed 139

Relative Cost per Pound of Nutrients 141

Quality of the Total Solids 141

Fat Content of Creamery Samples 143

Analysis of Samples 145

From New Brunswick 145

From Newark ....^ 146

From Trenton 148

From Camden 149

Classification on Basis of Fat Content 151

VI. ReFORT of the AfHCSTANT IK HOBTICULTURE 159

Asparagus 162

Blackberries 162

Raspberries. 163

Currants 163

Gooseberries 163

Strawberries 1^

Plums 163

Cherries 164

Dwarf PeaiB. 164

Standard Pears 164

Apples. 164

Peaches 166

Vegetables 165

VII. Report of the Assistant in Dairy Husbandry ; 169

Laying Out of the Farm • •• 171

Soiling and Soiling Crops 171

Rye, Wheat and Crimson Clover 172

Oats and Pess. 172

Com. ^ 173

Cow Peas. 174

Soja Beans. 174



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TABLE OP CONTENTS. vu

VII. Rbpobt of the Assistant in Dairt HnsBANDBT—Cbntmiiei. p^ais.

Barley and Peas. 175

Adyantages of Soiling Orer Pasture 176

General Stadjvf the Dairy Herd 176

Methods of Seeding Crimson Clover 178

The Experimental Silo 179

Cost of Silo 180

YIII. A Bkpobt of Ibbioation ik New Jbbset 183

Need of Irrigation in New Jersey 187

Area Capable of Being Watered by Grayity in the Soathem Section of
the State, and Accessible Water-supply. Estimated Cost of Irrigation.. 206

Use of Irrigation in the State, Methods Used»and Besults Secured. 217

Irrigation Experiments 229

IX Rkpobt of Biologist 283-285

I. Outline of the Year's Work 286

II. Experimental Work 236-262

(a) Discussion of Tables. 286-239

Repeated Injection of Cattle. 236

Cnratire Action of Tuberculin 237

Autopsy of No. 58 237

(6) Germs in Milk 238

(«) Tables 240-262

Cow Temperatures, 1896, Table 1 240-244

Morning and Evening Temperatures, Table II 245-253

Injection Temperatures, May, Table III 254-255

Injection Temperatures, June, Table IV 256-257

Injection Temperatures, August, Table V 258-259

Tuberculin Test of Additions to Herd, Table VI 260

Germs in Fore-milk of Experiment Cows, Table VIL 261*

Germs in Fore-milk of Cow 26, Table VIII 262

III. Suppression and Prevention of Tuberculosis 263-285

Introduction ^ 268

Death-rate from Consumption « 264

Proportion of Tuberculous Cows. 265-266

Statistics from Meat Inspection... 265

Statistics from Veterinary Inspection 265

Statistics from Tuberculin Tests 266

What is Tuberculosis? 266-268

Description of the Tubercles 266

Development of a Tubercle 267

Location of Tubercles 267

Varieties of Localized Tuberculosis 267

What Causes Tuberculosis 268-272

Different Kinds of Tubercles Due to Different Pftrasites. 268

The Tubercle Germs 268

The Germ Theory of Disease 269

Susceptibility and Immunity 270-271

Work of the White Cells 270

Number of Germs Entering 270



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viii TABLE OF CONTENTO.

IX. Report of Biolooist— O^nimuecf. pages*

Amount of Strain 271

Anti-toxine 271

Tuberculin and Anti-tuberculin 271

Heredity 272

De^ees of Tuberculosis 272-273

Modes of Entrance of Germs in Primary TuberculoHis 272

Secondary Tuberculosis , 27S

Milk as a Source of Infection 274

Symptoms of Advanced Tuberculosis 274

The Tuberculin Test 276-277

Is the Test Injurious? 275

Procedure in Making the Test 276

Limitation and Failures of Test 277-278

Advanced Cases 277

Cases of Slight Reaction 277

Cases Previously Injected 277

Cases of Recent and Latent Infection 277

Presence of Other Diseases 277

The Danish Method of Eradication of Tuberculosis 278-280

How to Keep Tuberculosis Away from Ourselves 280

Contagiousness of Tuberculosis 281-283

Literature 288-285

X. Repobt of the Botanist. 289-480

Outline of Subjects Considered 280

The Experiment Area 290

Experiment with Turnips 294

Summary of Turnip Experiments. 304

Further Experiments with Turnips « 306

Box Experiments with Turnips 308

Testing Other Plants for Club-Root 308

Experiments with Potatoes 809

Further Experiments with Potatoes. 815

Potatoes in Turnip Land 819

Experiments with Sweet Potatoes 319

Additional Experiments with Sulphur 825

The Stem Rot of Sweet Potato 327

Sweet Potatoes Upon the Experiment Area 328

Experiments with Beans 328

Summary for the Past Two YearsL 828

The Second Bean Crop for 1896 382

Beans upon New Land 882

Experiments with Tomatoes 333

Experiments in 1896 334

Summary • , 33d

Experiments with Peppers. ». 836

Experimento in 1896 337

Summary 337



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. ix

X. BspoET OF THE B0TA.NI8T— Cbnttnued pagbb*

£zi>eiiments with Egg^-plants , 387

Summary 840

£zi>erimeDt8 with Cucamben 340

EzperimeDts for 1896 341

Summary 343-

Experiments with Celery... 344

Experiments for 1896 844

Experiments with Peas 345

Experiments with Beets 346

Scab upon Beets. 349

Experiments with Sunflowers. 350

Experiments with Onions 852

Experiments with Com Smut 352

Fungicides and Spraying. 352

Experiments with Bordeaux Mixture 85S

Bordeaux with Potatoes 355

Bordeaux with Beans.. 856^

Bordeaux with Tomatoes 857

Bordeaux with Peppers 857

Bordeaux with E^-plants. 358

Bordeaux with Cucumbers 858-

Bordeaux with Celery 35^

Bordeaux with Beets 860

Bordeaux with Sweet Potatoes 860

Bordeaux with Cosmos 860

Bordeaux with Sunflowers 361

Bordeaux with Hollyhocks. 861

Bordeaux with Cercis 861

Bordeaux with Peonies 361

Bordeaux with Gladiolus 362

Experiments with Soda-Bordeaux 862

Soda-Bordeaux with Potatoes 86a

8oda*Bordeauz with Beans 368

8oda*Bordeanx with Tomatoes 864

Soda-Bordeaux with Peppers 364

Soda-Bordeaux with Egg-plants 864

Soda-Bordeaux with Cucumbers. .' 365

Soda-Bordeaux with Celery 365

Soda-Bordeaux with Beets. 865

Soda-Bordeaux with Sweet Potatoes. 866

Soda-Bordeaux with Cosmos. 866

Soda-Bordeaux with Sunflowers. 866-

Soda-Bordeaux with Hollyhocks 366

Soda-Bordeaux with Cerds. 366

SodarBordeanz with Peonies 866

Experiments with Potash-Bordeaux 867

Potash-Bordeaux with PoUtoes. 86^



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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Report of the BoTANiST^Cbneinuaci. pages.

Potash-Bordeaax with Beans 368

Potash-Bordeaux with Tomatoes 368

Potash-Bordeaax with Peppers 369

Potash-Bordeaax with Egg-plants 369

Potash-Bordeaux with Cucumbers 369

Potash-Bordeaux with Celery 369

Potash-Bordeaux with Beets. 369

PoUsh-Bordeaux with Sweet Potatoes 369

Potash-Bordeaux with Cosmos 370

Potash-Bordeaux with Sunflowers. 370

Potash-Bordeaux with Hollyhocks 370

Potash-Bordeaux with Cercis 370

Potash-Bordeaux with Pseonies 370

Experiments with Ammonia-Bordeaux 370

Ammonia-Bordeaux with Beets. 371

Ammonia-Bordeaux with Potatoes 372

Ammonia-Bordeaux with Sweet Potatoes 372

Ammonia-Bordeaux with Cosmos... 372

Experiments with Cupram 372

Experiments with Lime 374

Experiments with Corrosive Sublimate. 374

Experiments with Kainit 376

Experiments with Copper Sulphate 377

Experiments with Sulphur. 377

Experiments with Carbonate of Lime 378

Experiments with Carbonate of Soda 378

Irrigation of Garden Crops 378

Summary of Results for 1895 379

Irrigation of Turnips 380

Irrigation of Potatoes 381

Further Experiments in Irrigating Potatoes 382

Irrigation of Peppers 386

Irrigation of Tomatoes 387

Irrigation of Egg-plants 388

Irrigation of Cucumbers 388

Irrigation of Beans '. 389

Irrigation of Peas 390

Irrigation of Celery 391

Irrigation of Beets. 391

Experiments with Mulching 393

Experiments with Depths of Sowing and Planting 396

Experiments with Ornamental Plants. 396

Experiments with Peonies. 397

Experiments with Japanese Redbud... 397

Experiments with Hollyhocks ! 398

Experiments with Gladiolus ^ 398

Experiments with China Asters. 399



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. xi

X. Report of the Botanist — Omlinued, pages.

Experiments with Sweet Peas 399

Experiments with Cosmos 400

Experiments with Lawn Grass 400

The Herbarium 401

Work with Weeds 402

A Weed Seed Holder 402

The Rnssian Thistle 403

IX)dder upon Garden V^etables 404

Experiments with Water-Ldly Blight 405

Diseases of the Asparagus. 407

An Chitbreak of the Asparagus Rust 407

Nasturtium Blight 410

An Ampelopsis Blight 410

The Chestnut Blight 412

The Blight of the Linden. 41S

Experiments with Peach Root Galls 413

Siftings from Other Sources 415

Soil Irrigation 415

Soil Treatment of Orchards for Drought 416

Detasseling Com 416

Prevention of Smut in Oats 417

Muscardine Disease of Chinch Bugs 417

Bacteriosis of Rnta-Bagas 418

Potato Culture 418

Hastening Maturity of Potatoes 419

Crimson Clover Good for Potatoes 419

Potash for Potetoes 419

Variety-Testing of Potatoes 419

Scab and Internal Brown Rot 420

Early and Late Potato Blights 420

The Potato Scab 421

Potato Diseases upon Long Island 421

GK>vernment Farmers' Bulletin 422

Treatment of Peach Rot and Apple Scab 422

Plum Leaf Spot 423

Bacteriosis of Carnations. 423

Combating Carnation Rust 424

Damping Off. 424

Recent Apple Failures 425

Black Knot of Plums and Cherries. 425

Artificial Pollination of Squashes. 425

The American Persimmon 426

Electro-Horticulture 426

Sub-Irrigation in the Greenhouse 427

Plants that Look Like the Russian Thistle 428

Weed Seeds in Winter Winds 428

Legislation Against Weeds 429



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xii TABLE OF CONTENTS.

XI. Rbpobt of the Emtomolooist 481-462

General Review 483-443

San Joe6 Scale 433

Army-worm 433

Melon-louse 434

Heasian-fly. 434

Strawberry Insects 436

Cut-worms 436

Wire-worms 486

Cabbage-worms 436

Potato-beetle... 437

Currant Span-worm 437

Dendrolene 437

Oak-pruners 438

Bag-worms. 439

Pear-midge. 439

Pine Saw-fly 440

Orape Leaf-hopper 440

Elm Leaf-beetle. 441

Cottony Maple-scale 441

Tulip Soft-scale. 441

Click-beetle on Sweet Potatoes 441

Locust Leaf-beetle. 442

Harlequin Cabbage-bug , 442

Acknowledgments 443

Correspondence. 443

Entomology in the Crop Bulletin 444-448

The Army-worm 449-458

Habits and Natural History 449

Distribution of Injury Done 452

Natural Enemies 454

Remedial Measures 455

The Harlequin Cabbage-bug. 458-461

Habits and Natural History 458

Remedial Measures... 460

Report of iNYEsnoATioNS on the Sak Jose or Pernicious Scale. 463-563

Historical Review , 463

Narrative of the Journey 469

Information Received 471

Personal Observations. 488

Conclusions. 502

The Relation of Injurious Insects to their Enemies 509

Disease Checks.. 510

Natural Enemies of the San Jo66 Scale. 517-530

Aphelinus fuscipennis • 517

Lady-birds. 519

Chilooorus bivulnerus 521

Exochomus pilatii 522



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. xiii

Report of Ikvbbtioations on the San Jose or Pernicious Scale— 0>fU. PAaEs.

Orcus chalybeus 528

Bhizobius ventralia. , 524

Bhizobius lophantce 525

Scymnus marginicollis 527

Smilia misella. 527

Cybocephalus califoraicus 529

Summaiy 530

DifieaseBof the Scale 530

Record of Insects Introdaoed into New Jersey 531

Life History of the Scale. 540

InJQzy Caused 545

Food Plants 547

Distribution of theScale 548

Temperature Becords 549

Remedial Measures • 551-563

Lime, Sulphur and Salt Washes 551

Resin Washes 554

Kerosene 556

Flsh^il Soaps 558

Hard Laundry Soap i 561

Lime 561

Fumigation 561

Recommendations 563



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7b His ExeeUmcy John W. OriggM, LL.D., Oovemor of the State of
New Jersey :
Sm — ^I have the honor to sabmit herewith the seventeenth annual
report of the New Jersey State Agrioaltaral Experiment Station, as
required by the law establishing the Station, which was approved
March 10th, 1880, and which is chapter CVI. of the laws of that
year,

ABEAHAM W. DUEYEE,

Presideiit.

New Brunswick, N. J., November 30th, 1696.



To His ExeeUeney John W. Origgs^ LL.D., Governor of Hie State of
New Jersey:
Sib — In compliance with an act of Congress, approved March 2d,
1887, and with an act of the L^islatnre of this State, approved
March 6th, 1888, 1 beg leave to sabmit, on behalf of the Tmstees of
Batgers College in New Jersey maintaining Eatgers Scientific School,
the New Jers^ State College for the benefit of Agricnltore and
Mechanic Arts, the ninth annaal report of the operations of that
department of the College which has been organized in accordance
with said act of Congress, and is known as ** The State Agricoltnral
College Experiment Station/'

AUSTIN SCOTT,

President

Naw Bbxtbbwiok, N. J., November 30th, 1896.

B (XV)



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NEW JERSEY AGRICULTORAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.



1. STATE STATION. ESTABLISHED 18S0.

BOARD OF MANAO-BRS.

Hn BxczLi.KfCT JOHN W. QRIGGS, LIj.D., TientOB, GoTernor of the State of New Jeraej.
▲TJBTIN SOOTT, PH.D., LL.D., . . New Bronflwick, Prastdent of the State Agxfcaltaial College.
BDWABD B. V00RHS1BB, A.M., . PzoltaBor of Agrioultare of the State AgrlcDltonl GoUese.

waarr ooKOBiessioirAii dzbtbigt. wiwra ooKOBaBsiONAL dibtbict.

Dakiu. W. HOBKXB, . MercfaantTille. 8AMnKLB.DmcABKBT,jB.,V.Pxea.,HackeDnck

Hkitbt Fkkdxbick, . Camden. Bobkbt M. Tobbkt, . Patenon.

BWOOXm OOMSIMBSIONAL DUTBICrT. SIXTH OONOBBBSIOKAL DISTBlCT.

Joshua Fobstth, . . Pemberton. Jbbsb B. Booxbs, .... Newark.

RAiaFH BaB, .... Hopewell. Chabijbs L. Jonbb, . Newark.

THIBO OOMSBBSSIOKAI. DDTBIOT. SBVBNTH OONGBBSSIOXAL DIBTBICT.

Datid D. DionaB, . . Freehold. Abbaham W. Ditbybb, Pres., New Durham.

Jahbb NxiiiK>N, . New Bnmswlck. Jambs Btbvbnb, .... Jersey City.

VOUBTH OOKQBBSSIOKAL DISTBIOT. BIOHTH OONQBBBSIONAL DISTBlCT.

WiLUAM H. Obbbit, . BaooasaiiDa. Wiixiah B. Wabd, Sec'7, . Newark.

BBHJAMnr S. ToTB, . Stanton. Obobob W. Doty, . Union.



STAFF.
BDWABD B. VOORHBEB, A.M., . . . Director.



IRVING & UFBON, A.M., .
L0X7IB A. VOOBHBBB, A.BC., .
JOHN P. STBSBT, !£.&,
ALVA T. JORDAN, B.a, .
GLARBNOE B. LANS, B.a,
ALFRIBD A. CANNON, .
MART WHITAKER,
RICHARD TTTCS,
VINOJCMT CARBERRY,



Chief Clerk and Treasaier of the Board of Managers.
Chief Chemist



Assistant in Hortiooltore.
Asslwtant in Dairy Hosbandiy.
Assistant Clerk.
Stenographer and Typewriter.
Janitor and Laboratory AttendanU
Laboratory Assistant



2. AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE STATION. ESTABLISHED 1888.

BOARD OF OONTROIi.

The Board of Trostees of Rutgers College in New Jersey.

BXEOnnVE OOMMITTEB OF THE BOARD.

AtJSrriN SCOTT, PH.D., LL.D., President of Rutgers College, Chairman, . New Brunswick.

Hon. GEORGE C. LVDLOW, LL.D New Brunswick.

HOK. HENRY W. BOOS8T AVER, LL.D., .... 14 East 67th Street, New York City.

HENRY B. BALDWIN, M.D., LL.D., New Brunswick.

JAMES NEIUaON, BsQ. New Brunswick.

PAUL COOK, Esq., • Troy, New York.

STAFF.

EDWARD B. VOORHEBS, A.M Director.

JULIUS ITBLSON, PH.D., Biologist

BYRON D. HAL8TED, 8c.D., Botanist and Horticulturist

JOHN B. SMITH, SaD., Entomologist

JAMSS A. KELBEY, MJB., Field Asdstant

IRVING S. UPSON, A.M., Disbursing Clerk and Librarian.

ALFRED A. CANNON, Assistant Clerk.

AUGUSTA S. MEBKE, Stenographer and Typewriter.

(xvii)



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TREASURER'S REPORT.



Irving 8. Upson, in aoooant with the New Jersey Agrioultaral
Experiment Station, October Slst, 1896, to October 31st, 1896 :

RECEIPTS.
From Stote Treasurer 114,998 72

PAYMENTS.

Salaries and pay of chemists and assistants 18,493 70

Expenses of the Board of Managers • 36 96

Stationery, including envelopes for Bulletins and Beports 354 32

Printing 917 63

Postage 310 68

Furniture 99 67

Fuel 366 15

Gas and water ^ , 144 20

Laboratory expenses. 922 03

Field and^feeding experiments 760 80

Freight, express and cartage bills 154 22

Expenses collecting samples of fertilizers 469 66

Traveling expenses 94 51

General fittings, repairs and improvements. 971 32

Insurance 42 26

Buildings 648 00

Reference-books 61 12

Construction of greenhouse. 283 21

$14,998 72

Bespectfolly submitted,

IRVING 8. UPSON,

Treasurer.

The Auditing Committee of the Experiment Station have examined
the accounts of the Treasurer of said Station and find them correct.

SAMUEL R. DEMAREST, Jr.,
JESSE B. ROGERS,

Auditing Committee,
(xix)



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FINANCIAL STATEMENT.



ThS TBUSTXBS of RuTQBBB Ck)LL]»B
FOB

The New Jbwsy State Aobioultubal CoLLBai Experiment Station

nr aooount with

The United Statu Afpbopbiation, 1896-6.

Dr.
To raoeipts from the TreaBorer of the United States as per appropria-
tion for fiscal year ending Jane 30th, 1896, as per act of Congress
approved March 2d, 1887 fl6,000 00

By Salaries. $9,672 06

Labor 776 08

BibHcations 957 63

Postage and stationery 387 62

Freight and express... 88 80

Heat, light and water 196 04

Chemical supplies.. 128 72

Seeds, plants and sondry supplies. 177 93

Fertilisers 188 63

Feeding stnfls 69 66

Library. 626 37

Tools, implements and machinery 66 86

Fomiture and fixtures 74 09

Scientific apparatus. 491 23

live stock.

Traveling expenses • 466 79

Contingent expenses... 69 00

Building and repairs. 646 60

Totals $16,000 00 $16,000 00

We, the undersigned duly appointed auditors of the corporation, do hereby certify
that we have examined the books and accounts of the New Jersey State Agricultural
College Experiment Station for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1896; that we
have found the same well kept and classified as above, and that the receipts for the
year from the Treasurer of the United States are shown to have been $16,000.00, and
the oorreeponding disbursements $16,000.00, for all of which proper vouchers are on
file^ and have been by us examined and found correct, thus leaving no unexpended



And we foither certify that the expenditures have been solely for the purpose
set forth in the act of Congress approved March 2d, 1887.

Signed, AUSTIN SCOTT,

EDWABD B. VOORHEES,
Q. C. LUDLOW,

AudltOK.

(xxi)



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REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.



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REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.



The annual report for 1896 contains a record of the work finished
during the year ending with October 31st in the departments of
chemistry, biology, botany, horticulture and entomology, as well as
statistical matter concerning commercial fertilizers and concentrated
feeds for 1895, which could not be obtained until January 1st, 1896,
and was therefore omitted from the report of 1896. In all of the
departments the work has been prosecuted with energy, and those of
botany, horticulture and chemistry, including dairy work, have been
materially enlarged because of increased facilities acquired during the
year, llie chief addition is the College Farm, consisting of 97 acres,
which, with its entire equipment, was placed, in April last, at the



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