New Mexico. Board of Exposition Managers.

New Mexico, the land of opportunity ... official data on the resources and industries of New Mexico--the sunshine state online

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next governor who routed the Navajos and was removed in
1712, upon charges preferred by ecclesiastics.

During the succeeding administration, that of Juan Igna-
cio Flores Mogollon, a formidable rebellion by the con-
federated Indian tribes was put down and victories were
won in the Ute country as well as over the Acomas and
the Navajos. But Mogollon, too, had to yield to ecclesi-
astical influence and resigned. He was not permitted to
go free and was imprisoned in the Old Palace, as had been

Felix Martinez, who succeeded Mogollon as governor
defacto, defeated the Moquis in two battles. During his
absence, the Utes partially destroyed Taos and were de-
feated upon his return in a bloody battle near Conejos, now
in Colorado. Fifty Spanish women and children and many
Indian women and girls of the Taos pueblos, who had been
taken captives by the Utes, were rescued. Martinez was
removed by force from his office and tried at Mexico City.

Governor succeeded governor in rapid succession. In
1 72 1 , the Franciscans, upon a decree from the King of
Spain, established the first free public schools in all the
Spanish towns and the Indian pueblos. In 1 743, the first
French colonists settled in New Mexico.

It was during the administration of Tomas Tellez that a
stinging defeat was inflicted upon the Comanches and that
silver was discovered in what is now Colorado.

In I 767, Santa Fe was almost totally destroyed by a
flood that caused $200,000 worth of damage and the loss
of 50 lives. In I 776, the year of the Declaration of Inde-
pendence, an expedition under Escalante discovered the
great Salt Lake, now in Utah. In the following year, New
Mexico, Durango, Sanora and Chihuahua were consolidated
into one province. In I 779, near where Hutchinson. Kan-
sas, now stands. Governor Juan Bautista de Anza, in one

of the bloodiest battles of New Mexico history, defeated
the Comanche chief Cuerno Verde.

During the term of Fernando Chacon, in 1 804, the first
merchants from the United States arrived. In 1805, Col.
Zebulon Pike and a military escort were taken captives by
the Spaniards near Alamosa, now in Colorado. They
wene serit to Chihuahua, tried and acquitted.

In 1810, New Mexico elected and sent to the Cortez
at Madrid, Spain, a representative, Pedro Bautista Pino,
who served for ten years when the independence of Mex-
ico also separated New Mexico from the dominion of the
King of Spain.

In 1812, mercantile traffic was established over the
Santa Fe Trail, between the Missouri and Santa Fe. The
first caravan was seized and its leader, McKnight, arrested
at Santa Fe and sent to Chihuahua to be tried as a spy.

In 1821, after 223 years of Spanish rule. New Mexico
fell under the rule of Iturbide, emperor of Mexico, who
sent two governors, Francisco Xavier and Antonio Vis-

Mexico became a republic in 1 824, and Bartolome
Baca was the first governor under the new order of things.
New Mexico being established a territory by a decree of
the congress at Mexico City.

After I 822, Ceran St. Vrain, David Waldo, Kit Car-
son, Charles and William Bent and other pathfinders,
trappers and frontiersmen came to New Mexico. In 1827
the placer gold deposits in southern Santa Fe County were
discovered. A provincial deputation was organized at
Santa Fe in I 822 and passed the first public school law.
The first newspaper was established about 1835. That
year New Mexico was made a department of the Republic
of Mexico.

In 1837, northern New Mexico rebelled again Gov-
ernor Albino Perez because of a tax law he had signed.
Perez and other public officials were assassinated near~ the
capital and the rebels occupied Santa Fe. The loyal citi-
zens organized at Tome and under the leadership of
Manuel Armijo defeated the rebels, and four leaders of
the latter were shot at Santa Fe on January 24, 1 838.

Texas, after separating from Mexico, set up a claim to
New Mexico and a Texas expedition invaded the depart-
ment near Fort Sumner in 1841, penetrating as far as Tu-
cumcari, where General Armijo took them prisoners with-
out firing a shot. Other raids by the Texans followed but
were all defeated.

A peace delegation of the Utes attacked Governor Ma-
riano Martinez de Lejanza in the Old Palace at Santa Fe,
and would have murdered him had not the governor's wife


— 15 —



rushed into the melee with an uplifted chair and held back
the excited Indian chiefs until soldiers came to her rescue.
In the light that followed many of the Utes were killed.

In 1 846, during the war with Mexico, General Stephen
Kearny with 300 regulars, 700 volunteers and 900 cav-
alry under Col. Doniphan, followed by 1 ,800 men under
Col. Sterling Price, invaded New Mexico, annexing the
department to the United States. Kearny entered Santa
Fe on August 1 8, 1 846, Governor Armijo disbanding his
troops at Apache Pass and fleeing without striking a blow.

Doniphan marched southward and defeated the Mexi-
can army at Brazito. Gen. Kearny, with Kit Carson as
guide, proceeded to California with a large portion of the
American army of invasion. Doniphan continued to Chi-
huahua. An insurrection broke out among the Mexicans
still loyal to the government of Mexico. Governor Charles
Bent, who had been appointed by General Kearny, was
assassinated at Taos on January 14, 1847, together with
a number of Americans.

Col. Sterling Price vfith 300 men and a company of
Spanish-American volunteers under Captain Ceran St.
Vrain defeated the rebels at Santa Cruz and at Embudo.
At Taos, a stubborn battle was fought in which 1 50 of the
rebels were killed or wounded, while the Americans lost
in killed one officer and six soldiers and in wounded 46 men.

On December 6, 1847, and before the formal cession
of New Mexico by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,
signed February 2, 1 848, the first legislature met in Santa
Fe. A convention, the following year, asked for the es-
tablishment of a territorial form of government in place of
the military rule. In May, 1 850, after a bitter factional
fight, a state government was organized, a constitution
adopted, state officials and a congressman as well as a
state legislature elected which in turn chose two United States
senators, Francis Cunningham and Richard Weightman.
But this effort to establish a state government at that time
was not sanctioned by congress, and New Mexico and
Utah were admitted as territories and California as a state
on September 9, 1 850.

In 1853, Governor William Carr Lane provisionally
annexed the Mesilla Valley, until then claimed by the
State of Chihuahua. The annexation was" ratified by the
Gadsden treaty signed with Mexico on December 30,
1853, the United States paying $10,000,000 for the
strip taken.

During the Civil War, New Mexico was in the main
loyal to the Union, in fact, in proportion to population,
furnished more volunteer* than any other state or territory.
Several battles were fought on American soil, the most

notable at Glorieta, twenty miles east of Santa Fe, at Per-
alta and at Valverde in the southern part of the State. The
Confederate advance unchecked at Valverde enabled them
to hold Santa Fe and the country south until the battle of
Glorieta in 1 862 re-established the Union officials in
power. On August 7, 1 862, the California Column, after
a march now famous in history, reached the Rio Grande
and all of the military posts in Arizona, southern New
Mexico and northwestern Texas were re-occupied by this
column. In 1 868 came the final submission of the
Navajos but it was not until 1 886 that the Apaches were
finally conquered, Geronoimo being captured, which put an
end to Indian raids in New Mexico.

In 1871, another constitutional convention was held at
Santa Fe and a state constitution formulated but the move-
ment for statehood failed again. From 1878 to 1881,
General Lew Wallace was governor of New Mexico and
during his term wrote in the Old. Palace a portion of his
famous book Ben Hur. It was during his term that the
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad entered New

In 1 889, during the administration of Governor L.
Bradford Prince, another constitutional convention met at
Santa Fe but the constitution failed of adoption.

On June 20, 1910, Congress passed the Enabling Act,
admitting New Mexico to statehood. A constitutional
convention met at Santa Fe on October 3, 1910, and
drafted a constitution which was adopted by popular vote
in January, 1911. It was August 29 before President
Taft issued his proclamation, after a memorable contro-
versy in Congress over the constitution adopted by the peo-
ple and it was not until January 6, 1912, that the president
signed the proclamation formally admitting New Mexico
into the sisterhood of states. On January 15, WilHam C.
McDonald was inaugurated governor and on March 27,
the legislature elected Thomas B. Catron and Albert B.
Fall to represent the State in the Senate.

New Mexico has made comparatively rapid growth and
progress since the St. Louis Exposition in 1904, at which
it had a notable exhibit. The 1910 census showed an in-
crease of population of 67.8 per cent in ten years, exceeded
by only five states of the Union. The increase in the
number of farms in that decade was 189.8 per cent, of
improved lands in farms 348.9 per cent, value of farm
property 196.8 per cent, in farm buildings 265.3 per cent,
in farm land values 470.4 per cent. The amount of capi-
tal in manufacturing increased more than 200 per cent,
while the mineral production has increased more than a
hundred per cent the past two years.





IDWAY between the Pacific Coast and the
Gulf of Mexico, New Mexico, at the gate-
way to the Republic of Mexico, occupies a
commanding commercial and industrial posi-
tion. From time immemorial, it has been on
the great highways of commerce that spanned
the Continent in all directions.

Covering as it does, 12,000 square miles more than the
Kingdom of Italy, and varying in altitude from 3,000 to
I 3,000 feet, in the same latitude as Southern California,
Georgia, Southern Spain and Greece, it offers sufficient
range in climatic conditions, in resources and in opportuni-
ties, to fulfill the hopes of its early conquerors who were in
search of a new Eldorado. At present, with only three in-
habitants to the square mile as against 300 for Italy and
I 5 for California, it may be said to be still in the first

Climatically, New Mexico is especially favored. Not
in Florida, but in New Mexico, the Spaniards found the
Fountain of Youth. Thousands can attest that its climate
has restored them to health and they have truly named it
"The Land of Sunshine." Climate is destiny, for climate
prescribes the conditions under which people must live,
must pursue agriculture and other industries and even de-
cides the trend of art and literature. Civilization was born
in the arid valleys of the Nile and the Euphrates and the
countries that practiced irrigation were beehives of human
industry and progress at the very dawn of history.


New Mexico is first of all an agricultural state. Of
121,497 persons in gainful occupations in the last federal
census year, 66,887 were employed on farms. It is signi-


stages of development, although in point of settlement by ficant, that the value of products of farm and range is

white people, it is among the oldest of American common- twice that of mining and manufacturing taken together,
wealths, and as to occupation by sedentary town builders The com crop harvested in 1914, was 2,690,000

and cultivators of the soil, its prehistoric monuments show bushels; the wheat crop, 1,790,000 bushels; oats, 1,940,-

it to have been a land of fertility thousands of years ago. 000 bushels; potatoes, 1,100,000 bushels; hay, 510,000



— 17 —


tons; apples, 888,000 bushels; barley, 100,000 bushels;
beans, 100,000 bushels; sweet potatoes, 20,000 bushels;
broom corn, 750,000 pounds; cotton, 2,000 bales; kaffir
corn, 1,000,000 bushels; peanuts, 2,000 bushels; dry
peas, 50,000 bushels; peaches, 40,000 bushels; pears,
30,000 bushels; plums and prunes, 25,000 bushels; cher-
ries, 10,000 bushels; apricots, 4,000 bushels; grapes,
750,000 pounds; strawberries, 50,000 quarts; other ber-
ries, 60,000 quarts; nuts. 275,000 pounds. The total
value of the crops in 1914 exceeded $20,000,000, an
increase of 68 per cent, in five years, thus giving some evi-
dence of the rapid development of the resources of the
State and at the same time a glimpse of the possibilities
that the future holds in store.


The valleys of the large rivers and their tributaries,
naturally, were first occupied and cultivated. The Rio
Grande bisects the State from north to south, and along it
and its tributaries were the first irrigation systems and cul-
tivated fields. The longest tributary of the Rio Grande is
the Pecos, and it, too, furnishes water for irrigation of
tens of thousands of fertile acres.

Another large basin is that of the San Juan m the
northwestern part of the State. Smaller, only by compari-
son, are the valleys of the Arkansas drainage area, of the
Mimbres, Gila and lesser streams. The lower Pecos Val-
ley alone shipped 6,000 carloads of alfalfa, 1 ,000 car-
loads of apples, 400 cars of cantaloupes, 1 00 cars of to-
matoes, 50 cars of canned tomatoes, 20 cars of cotton, 22
cars of onions, 1 5 cars of honey, 1 ,000 cars of cattle,
2,500,000 pounds of wool this year.

Artesian and pumping wells supplement the water sup-
ply from running streams. The artesian belt in the lower
Pecos Valley is a wonder and a delight to every visitor
and it has transformed a portion of the forbidding Staked
Plains into a Paradise of Verdure. Here, alfalfa is king,
and orchards make fortunes. A net profit of .$10,000 a
year from a twenty-acre apple orchard, has been recorded,
and the yield from small parcels of land, mtensely culti-
vated, seems almost incredible.

Pumping wells have reclaimed thousands of acres in the
Portales and Mimbres Valleys and indicate possibilities that
had been only barely surmised ten years ago. The net
profit on an acre of cantaloupes in the Portales Valley in
1914, averaged $57.58. There sweet potatoes yield 200
to 300 bushels per acre. Dairying is proving a money-
making proposition and 1 ,500 acres in alfalfa irrigated
from wells attest to possibilities in raising forage crops.


But the mainstay of the irrigation farmers is the irriga-
tion project, big or small, that impounds the waters of the
flood season for the day that they are needed by the crops.



18 —

1. Alfalfa Field. 3. Cut AUalfa. 3. Ready to Stack. 4. Stacking. 5. At the Silo. 6. Storing In the Silo.




The largest irrigation system in the State is that which
suppKes the Mesilla Valley with water. It is a federal
Reclamation Project on which $8,000,000 are being ex-
pended and which supplies water to as many acres as were
irrigated in the entire State in the year I 900. Next in size
is the Carlsbad Reclamation Project in the lower Pecos
Valley, also in the hands of the Government. Both of
these valleys, being the lowest in altitude in New Mexico
and also the most southern, are marvelously productive, for
the soil is deep and fertile and the water supply perman-
ent and assured.

Private enterprise has built large irrigation systems in
Colfax County, and so-called community systems supply
the irrigationists m other counties. Careful stream mea-
surements indicate that New Mexico has sufficient running
water to irrigate 2,350,00 acres. Less than one-third of
that amount is under cultivation at present, thus demon-
strating that here is a promising field for further develop-
ment. The land is there, the water can be stored, the soil
is fertile and the climate favorable. All that is needed is
capital and enterprise to triple the area of irrigation farms
and the agricultural production. The College of Agricul-

enterprises, 50,000 acres; under co-operative enterprises,
300,000 acres; under the U. S. Reclamation Service,
1 50,000 acres. There are almost a thousand artesian
wells supplying 50,000 acres, 500 pumping wells supply-
ing nearly 10,000 acres. A thousand storage reservoirs
and ten thousand miles of canals and ditches pour their
waters upon the fertile lands during the growing season.

The United States Census Bureau gives the average
cost of construction in New Mexico of irrigation enter-
prises at $14.19 per acre and the cost of maintenance at
$1.36 per acre per year. The Census Bureau also has
found that irrigation increases the yield of corn 1 39 per
cent, over non-irrigated areas; oats, 34 per cent.; wheat,
1 68 per cent. ; barley, 98 per cent. ; dry edible beans, 191
per cent.; dry peas, 50 per cent.; timothy, 44 per cent.;
alfalfa, 168 per cent.; other forage plants, 11 per cent.;
wild grasses, 122 per cent.; coarse forage, 186 per cent.;
potatoes, 79 per cent.

Dona Ana County leads in the acreage irrigated for it
is the main beneficiary of the Elephant Butte Project.
The Mesilla Valley, which is the section reclaimed, re-
sembles in its productiveness the irrigated valleys of South-


ture and Mechanic Arts, the State Engineer's Department, em California. Chaves County, including part of the

each and every community to be benefited, are all eager to lower Pecos Valley, is second in its irrigated area, more

assist in developing and utilizing this latent resource. than 60,000 acres being under irrigation. Eddy County

Under individual and partnership irrigation enterprises, is a close third with more than 50,000 acres. It, too, has

200,000 acres are under cultivation; under commercial a federal reclamation project like Dona Ana County and


— 20 —


artesian wells like Chaves. Then come Rio Arriba and
Taos Counties with close to 50,000 acres each. Valencia
and Colfax Counties have almost 40,000 acres each. San
Juan County has more than 30,000 acres but water
enough for 300,000 acres. Santa Fe, Sandoval, Socorro,
Sierra, which is in part under the Elephant Butte Pro-
ject; Mora, San Miguel, Bernalillo and Grant, have from
20,000 to 25,000 acres under irrigation. There are only
two counties among the tweny-six, without any irrigation
system, Curry and Torrance, and these have small gar-
dens which are irrigated from wells.

Wherever water touches the soil in New Mexico there
is growth and promise of prosperity, and with intensive
cultivation, the Sunshine State will become the granary of
the Southwest.

Of late years, more than a million acres, or almost twice
the area under irrigation, have been placed in cultivation
by so-called dry-farming methods. Entire new counties
and scores of towns and villages have been created in New
Mexico the past decade and a half, by dry farmers. The
success of dry farming has depended much upon the selec-
tion of drouth resistmg crops, the application of scientific

higher mountain valleys, where the ramfall is heavy enough
for what is called temporal farming, or the raising of crops
without irrigation or dry farming methods. In the Moreno
Valley, for instance, 15,000 pounds of potatoes per acre
are produced on temporal farms. In the Sacrarnentos, on
the upper Pecos, on Johnson's Mesa and in other sections,
thousands of acres are m temporal farms on which, despite
short seasons, satisfactory harvests are garnered.

Less than 2,000,000 acres out of the 78,000,000
acres in the State are under cultivation. Although there
are almost 10,000,000 acres in forest reserves, 15,000,-
000 acres of state lands, huge areas in private land grants
and Indian reservations, there remain subject to entry un-
der the public land laWs of the United States 30,000,000
acres, an area exceeding that of the State of New York.
Much of it is subject to the 320-acre Homestead Act and
will come under the proposed 640-acre Homestead Act,
which assures the homesteader a living even in the newest
of dry farming sections, by giving him sufficient pasture
for dairy and poultry purposes. There are five federal
land offices in the State at which entries may be made and
having jurisdiciion over a dsfinitely defined portion of the


methods, supplementary dairying, poultry raising and silos.
There have been lamentable discouragement and failure
occasionally, due to inexperience or lack of energy or
sufficient capital. Further experimentation is necessary to
make certain the growing of crops in sections with less rain-
fall than fifteen inches a year.

There are portions of New Mexico, especially in the

State. In the Las Cruces district, almost 1 2,000,000
acres are still subject to entry; in the Santa Fe land dis-
trict almost 8,000,000 acres; in the Roswell district, 7,-
500,000 acres; Fort Sumner district, 2,000,000 acres,
and the Clayton district, 750,000 acres.

The state lands covering almost 15,000,000 acres, are
open to lease and in part to purchase at competitive pub-


— 21 —


lie sales. There exist colonization projects under which
irrigated lands may be purchased on long-time payments.
Under the U. S. Reclamation projects, a long time is
granted to pay off the cost of water rights. Under com-
munity systems, the landholder pays his pro rata either in
money or in labor for maintaining the headgates and
ditches. Under irrigation, the farmer regulates his show-
ers to suit his crops; the sunshine which is so constant in
New Mexico helps him to produce the maximum that the
land can be made to yield, makes certain the garnering of

New Mexico has been one of the leading wool producers
of the Union. Conditions are very favorable for sheep
raising and the number of sheep in the State has been as
high as 6,000,000, though at present less than 4,000,000,
as the grading of flocks has a tendency to decrease them
numerically. The wool shipments exceed 20,000,000
pounds annually, yielding a return of $3,000,000. The
vast extent of the public range, the comparatively open
winters, the protection of the range and its equitable appor-
tionment by the forest service, all conduce to make the


1. The Round-up. 2. In the Branding Pen. 3. Cliuck Wagou and Cowboys at Mess

the crops in their season, to a large extent eliminating the business a profitable one. To it will be added sooner or

elements of uncertainty. It is the ideal method of farm-
ing. It makes possible the community life, for under irri-
gation the small farm unit is the most profitable.


Next to farming, the raising of livestock is the principal
industry of the Sunshine State. For several decades past,

later, the feeding of livestock for market. It is along this
line, that capital and enterprise would find profitable open-
ings immediately, for New Mexico has not only the public
range and large areas of state lands which can be leased
for a few cents an acre, but also raises the fodder and has
the farms on which the fattening of muttons and beeves
should be exceedingly profitable.




With a million cattle on its ranges. New Mexico is in 1910 it had 35,678 farms, according to the census
among the heaviest cattle growing states. Here the typical bureau, or an increase of 750 per cent, in twenty years.
cowboy of western song and story is still swinging his
lariat. To the larger cattle outfits have been added smaller
concerns and more than one cowboy, beginning with an
mvestment in a few head of stock, has prospered and is
now a cattle king.

More than half a million goats browse on the under-
brush of New Mexico foothills, delectable range for the

Online LibraryNew Mexico. Board of Exposition ManagersNew Mexico, the land of opportunity ... official data on the resources and industries of New Mexico--the sunshine state → online text (page 2 of 38)