New Mexico. Board of Exposition Managers.

New Mexico, the land of opportunity ... official data on the resources and industries of New Mexico--the sunshine state online

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governor himself and the state superintendent of public
instruction being the other two. The first regents were
Elias S. Stover and Frank W. Clancy.

Former Governor E. S. Stover was the institution's first
president, being succeeded by Hiram Hadley as vice-presi-
dent in charge, then by C, L. Herrick, William George
Tight; Edward McQueen Gray and the present president.
Dr. David Ross Boyd.



The first building to be erected was the one now known
as Administration Hall, where in June, 1892, the first
course was offered, a summer normal course. In I 896 the
gymnasium followed, then the Hadley laboratory, since
destroyed, and the power plant, dormitories and other struc-
tures, including the new engineering building.

If three years of college work are done prior to the
work in the school of pedagogy, the degree of bachelor of
pedagogy is conferred upon its graduates. Otherwise cer-
tificates showing the amount of work done are given. These
entitle the holder to practice teaching for three years with-
out examination, are, in fact, equivalent to a second grade
teachers' certificate.

The school of applied science affords courses in elec-
trical, mining, mechanical, civil and chemical engineering,
with several variations. Ample laboratory facilities of the
finest grade are on hand and the University exhibits great
liberality in providing apparatus for special research work
by advanced students. The elementary work in the en-
gineering courses is largely standarized, specialization being
confined more to the later years.

The arts and letters college offers attractive courses in
ancient and modern languages, history, English, music and
other branches. The degree of B. A. is given in each
branch section of the University, but the requirements are
particularly difficult.

One hundred twenty hours of "A" work are demanded
for graduation of an arts and letters student, while slightly
more is asked of a science student. If the grading falls
below A, which is reckoned as ninety per cent or more, one
additional hour is demanded for each seven hours of such
delinquent work. If the grading falls below eighty per
cent, or the lower limit of the "B" grade, one additional
hour is demanded for each fourteen hours of such delin-
quent work.

The University has recently added materially to its
faculty and plans still further advancements in the near
future.

One of the most striking features of the institution is the
uniform application of an unique style of architecture. The
buildings are all designed in imitation of the dwellings of
the Pueblo Indians, and afford an attraction for the Uni-
versity at once unique and pleasing. The types followed
in general line at the University are to be found in the
Pueblo of Taos, where the pure Pueblo type of dwelling
is best preserved. Owing to this feature the institution has
attained a good deal of publicity over the country and has
developed a special appeal among its students and others
who have been in contact with it and observed its
buildings.



RESOURCES AND INDUSTRIES OF THE SUNSHINE STATE JS



175 —




IVIE: W^ AlEXICO



the: L-AFMD OF" ORPCDRTUNnTV




FfESOURCES AND INDUSTRIES OF THE SUNSHINE STATE



176 —



CHAVES COUNTY



« tis^SMn 1 i=*ji===n IS^SF^ E3<S3f^ '3>S==)1 123'^===^ E30S^ 1=;;^^




HE county of Chaves, second largest sub-
division of the State, is a striking example of
the change from strictly grazing or livestock
communities to agricultural or intensive culti-
vation communities as characteristic of New
Mexico, and this despite the fact that large
areas of Chaves County will never be brought into cultiva-
tion. The county in former days was entirely a stock-
raising community. When beef was high, it was prosper-
ous, when that staple went down, its prosperity declined.
Of more recent years, however, the use of electricity for
pumping irrigation water from the underflow has been de-
veloped and worked out to its highest efficiency in the
Pecos Valley section of Chaves County, while the dis-
covery and development of a large artesian belt in the same
section, and of a shallow pumping belt of even greater di-



done so with sufficient emphasis to make the county as a
whole able to stand on its feet and accept comparison with
any agricultural county in the State as a producer of field
crops, horticultural products, garden stuff and many spe-
cialized crops.

Chaves County has an area of 9,599 square miles, or
6,02 1 , 1 20 acres, being exceeded in size only by Socorro
County, which is approximately fifty per cent larger. It is
a plains country almost entirely, though on its western
boundary the foothills of the White and Sacramento moun-
tains break the terrain somewhat. On the southwestern
edge lie the Guadalupe mountains. The principal stream
is the Pecos river, which divides the section from north to
south and receives the flow of such tributaries as the Ar-
royo Yeso, Arroyo Conejos, Deep Creek, Salt Creek, the
Hondo, the Berrendo and the Rio Feliz. The county has




OHAVES COUNTY COURT HOUSE



mansions, combined with this to bring the naturally fertile
soil of the section into productivity.

Where once was waste land, arid bench and rolling
swale, is now graded and leveled orchard or field. The
Chaves County valley section has come into its ovioi, and



some valuable timber lands, as more than 30,000 acres
of woodland are included in farms and the national forest
territory within its boundaries totals 69,760 acres.

Within the last few years the improved land in Chaves
County farms has increased more than fifty per cent. At



RESOURCES AND I NDUSTRIES O F THE SUNSHINE STATE



177





present the area included in its farms is 1,049,696 acres, diction over 1,596,583 acres, of which 1,048,703 is sur-
er considerably more than one-sixth of its total area. Of veyed, and the Fort Sumner office having jurisdiction over
these farms twenty-nine are of more than 1,000 acres, 803,521 acres, all of which is surveyed, of these lands,
which in itself is evidence enough of the importance of the This is characterized as broken, rolling and grazing.




JWJRJI HORSES — ROSAVELL

area as a stock producer. Most of the farms of the county Nearly two-thirds of this land is subject to enlarged home-
are between 260 and 499 acres in area, though there are stead entry.

great numbers of them which have less than 100 acres. In The principal crops of Chaves County are hay and for-

fact, the large number of small farms is an indication of age products, which are worth three-quarters of a million

the practice of intensive cultivation in this county. Accord- dollars annually, cereals, and, some distance behind them.







•T ^«H#>



> ^ -i"^4r^t.t?^*i»^.



,Si^i^!iiS'.!&- 'tfrj^"



<;UTTING AliFALFA NEAR ROSWELL



ing to the tax rolls, there are 145,794 acres of agricultural fruits and nuts and vegetables. The farm crops are worth

land in private ownership in the county, having a value of $1,020,514 a year.

$1,583,567. There are still large areas of government The importance of the livestock industry to the county

land subject to entry, the Roswell land office having juris- is evidenced amply by the census report of the annual value



^ RESOURCES AND INDUSTFTIES OF THE SUNSHINE STATE



^f



~ 178




rsJEV^ MEXICO

t'he: la imp qf" ORRORnruNiTV




of animals sold or slaughtered by Chaves County growers. at $241,306. The 10,537 horses of the county are

This report places the value of such stock at $2,375,744, valued at $210,567, and tlie 1,500 mules at more than

without the value of the wool clip, which is worth $233,- $60,000. The excellence of this slock is evidenced by the

378 a year additional. Dairy products are worth more high total valuation in proportion lo the number of stock




T\\0-\1:AK-01.D OUCllAKU AT ICOSVVlilJy

than $84,000 a year beside, while poultry produces $76,- listed. Both goats and swine are raised in Chaves County

052 every twelve months. The county has 568,566 acu in considerable numbers.

of grazing land in private ownership, valued at $379,767. There are more than $566,000 worth of town lots in

The total number of cattle owned withm its borders is Chaves County, with improvements that are worth $850,-




SIX-\EAIl-OLD ORCHARD AT ROSWELL



given by the tax rolls at 59,729, about three-sevenths as 000. The development of irrigation pumping by elec-

many as are owned in Grant County, the only one which tricity has called forth important electric developments,

exceeds it. These cattle are valued at $688,628. The which are listed as worth $75,000. The telephone and

Chaves County sheep, which number 107,487, are valued telegraph facilities of the section are valued at $38,910



RESOURCES AND INDUSTRIES OF THE SUNSHINE STATE



179



IvrETW^ MEXICO
LA [SID OF' QF^RORT-UNITV^




and the railroads at $595,620. The county has the sec- school population was 5,370, indicating a total population

ond largest listing of mercshandise stocks in the State. of approximately 18,000. The 1910 census gave the

Chaves County has $325,420 worth of bank stock. county a population of 16,850. Of this 6,172 is in the

The county ranks first in number of automobiles owned. city of Roswell. The population at the time of the twelfth




nVTEPJOR OF ELECTRIC BARN

The total valuation of the county is $20,371,155, taxes census was only 4,773. The percentage of illiteracy

being levied against one-third of this, according to law. among the males of voting age was three and four-tenths at

lliis is the highest total valuation of any county in the the time of the thirteenth census, while ten years before it

State. had been nine and two-tenths.




EljKCTlilC DAIRY BAliN — ROSWELL,



The schools of Chaves County are among the best in The thirteenth census, which has the latest available

the Stat'. Tl ere are sixty-two school buildings in the figures on irrigation in the county, gives the total acreage
county, 1 I 6 insLructors holding forth in these. The 1914 irrigated in the year it was taken at 56,064 acres, or about



RESOURCES AND I NDUSTRIES OF THE SUNSHINE STTITE M



— 180 —




IVIEIW^ AlEXICO




nine-tenths of one per cent of the total area of the county, being capable of irrigating 55.703 acres. There are 47!

but It IS certain that this has increased materially since that individual irrigation enterprises in the county Flowing

time. However, it was about 9.000 acres more than any wells to the number of 404 produce, at maximum flow,

other county irrigated the same year. There are 10,000 428.640 gallons of water a minute for irrigation purposes.




ROSWEIiLi ARTESIAN WELiL



acres in the county under federal reclamation projects. One hundred thirty pumped wells are capable of produc-
which, however, irrigated but 1,200 acres in 1909. Co- ing 50,000 gallons a minute additional. The water
operative enterprises included 9,600 acres the same year, sources are about evenly divided between streams and







if iig^ |||i III I



If OT m ifi

!■ iil llii 8BI



" rr K^ WW




LEA HALL — NEW MEXICX) MILITARY INSTITUTE



and commercial enterprises some 3 1 ,000, 8,450 acres and wells, though springs and lakes furnish a small amount of

12,500 acres, respectively, being irrigated by projects of water. Of the wells, most water is taken through natural

these classes in 1909. The same year individual and flow, while from the streams gravity brings the water for all

partnership enterprises irrigated 33,814 acres, the projects but about 200 acres. The county has an exceedingly



RESOURCES AND INDUSTfflES OF THE SUNSHINE STATE ^g



181




^s^E3^v^ Mexico

T^HE LAND OF" QFPORTUlsnTV^




large amount of money invested m irngatmg enterprises
of various characters, many times what was similiarly in-
vested a decade ago.

One of the most striking features of the Chaves County
agricultural, horticultural and livestock enterprises is the
uniform high character of the material used in each instance
and the correspondingly high returns. The cattle are very
largely of the Shorthorn and Hereford varieties. The old
type of Texas Longhorn has disappeared from the region.
His place is taken by a single animal which, perhaps, eats as
much as two of the old type but brings seven times as much
in the beef market and a little less from the glue factory.
The sheep are blooded animals, or are being bred up from
blooded rams, for the growers have found that the high



dition will keep large amounts of money within the state
that now go to Colorado, western Kansas and Texas.

The principal towns of Chaves County are Roswell,
Hagerman, Dexter, Lake Arthur, Kenna and Lower
Penasco.

The county seat is Roswell, a bustling little city which
prides itself on its large area, wide streets, numerous
churches, fine business blocks, stable and prosperous banks
and unusually large mercantile establishments.

Hagerman is exceeded in size only by Roswell. It is a
shipping and supply point for a large and extremely fertile
area of orchard and farming land and was named in honor
of J. J. Hagerman, whose enterprise and sagacity were
largely responsible for the development of the Chaves




TIIE GIIJiESOX HOTEL AT ROSWELL— J. E. GILKESON, PROP.
One of the Finest Hotels In tlie Southwest



grade sheep eats no more than the "scrub" but brings in
several times as much for his wool. The raising of hogs
and mules for the market is attracting the attention of many
of the valley farmers, while in the past year the fattening
of beef catde for the market has been taken up by the
growers and alfalfa raisers in co-operation. This has given
evidence of eventually becoming very profitable, and in ad-



County valley region. The irrigation enterprises of the
section are noteworthy.

Dexter and Lake Arthur are more recent settlements
but are prospering and are filling the demand for shipping
and supply points at closer intervals in the valley. Both
have substantial foundation for their continued prosperity
as they are solidly founded on good agricultural regions.



RESOUF?CES AND I NDUSTRIES OF THESJJNStffl^ESTyig^^ M



— 182 —




the: LArsJP CDF" QRRORTUNITV^




ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO

COUNTY SEAT— CHAVES COUNTY




OSWELL, the seat of Chaves County, has
the distinction of having the finest public
buildings of any town in the State with the
possible exception of the Capital.

The county court house, built of gray
brick, at a cost of $1 75,000 all told, is the
finest structure of its kind in the Southwest. The high
school building cost $75,000, the federal building $75,-
000, the various structures of the New Mexico Military
Institute represent an investment of $1 75,000, the Masonic
Temple cost $75,000, and so on through a list of the very
highest class structures.

Roswell has a population of about 8,000 and the
standard of intelligence is very high. It has a school
system costing around $200,000 with a staff of
forty-eight teachers, and the course of instruction is com-
plete and modern, all the way from the kindergarten to
the ranking high school of the State. The Catholics also
maintain a fine system, and the New Mexico Military In-



finest electric light and power systems, gas and ice plants,
churches of every denomination, all secret societies, two
daily newspapers, fine hotels, hundreds of splendid homes,
the beginning of an elaborate system of street paving, four
national banks with a combined business of over $2,000,-
000, a well-organized and efficient Commercial club, or-
ganized retailers, a battery of state militia with an $150,-
000 equipment, a model fire department, and all other
city appurtenances.

Roswell as the center of one of the greatest range cattle
sections in the United States, is fast coming to be a notable
dairy center. Some of the dairies are equipped with elec-
tric machinery, silos, and stocked with the finest grades of
cattle. Of the total county valuation of over twenty mil-
lions, a large part is represented in cattle, and both the
beef and the dairy sections are steadily increasing.

In 1914 the total value of the herds of Chaves County
placed in the markets aggregated more than a million and a
half dollars, and 1915 will be larger still.




KOSWELI. HIGH SCHOOL



stitute, the great school for boys, ranks high in the grading
of the national government.

Under the state law all education is free.
- Roswell's equipment as a city includes a fine municipal
water plant, sewers, a model telephone system, one of the



Roswell is the center of one of the greatest artesian
basins in the world, which furnishes water not only for
the city itself but for irrigation over a vast area. These
wells are from 250 to j , 1 00 feet deep, and flow up to
3,000 gallons per minute, of absolutely pure water.



RESOURCES AND IN DUSTRIES OF THE SUNSHINE STATE

— 183 —








The wells and the rivers supply vast irrigated areas,
over 50,000 acres of general farm lands, worth from $40
to $500 per acre, and make possible the great valley staple,
alfalfa, of which over 1,700 cars were shipped in 1914,
not counting the heavy tonnage ground into meal and used
for feed.

Roswell is the center of 25,000 acres of the finest apple
orchards in the world, and the area of the trees is constantly



increasing. The industry under proper conditions is highly
profitable, many cases of a net profit of $500 per acre
having been reported.

All other fruits do well, but apples are the great fruit
staple, and under modern methods of control and care and
frost fighting, the croppage is certam. All farm crops
yield abundantly.

The Roswell Commercial Club answers any question.




A BEAUTIFIL ROSWELL COTTAGE




KOSWELL RESIDENCE CORNER



RESOURCES AND INDUSTRIES OF THE SUNSHINE STATE



184




TVJEIW^ A4e:xico




NEW MEXICO MILITARY INSTITUTE




HE State's distin-
guished military
training schoo
for young gentle-
men is located at
Roswell.
The well-known remark that
a man should exercise great
care in selecting his grandpar-
ents appeals to principals of
schools whose founders selected
unfortunate sites.

The authorities of the New
Mexico Military Institute have
nothing to regret. In i 898
the State opened at Roswell a
school so favored in location
and so adequate in equipment
that its extraordinary success
has not been surprising.




For Roswell is a town
where nature is lavish in the
things that make for health.
The Pecos river flowing past
and the hundreds of artesian
wells form a rich oasis in the
arid Southwest, a veritable
garden spot. Here, at an ele-
vation of 3,700 feet, is the
forty - acre campus, studded
with trees and grass flats. 1 he
air is clear, dry, and bracing;
air with the tang of outdoor
life; air that means health and
vigor and keenness of mind.
With the sun shining every
day in this unrivaled chmate,
open - air sports and open - air
drill are daily builders of phy-
siques that stand the test of



»!te!«»SB iM aB6M is£';2rg>';toK^'';^1



THE NEW MEXICO anUTAKY IXSTITUTE BAXB



RESOURCES AND IN DUSTRIES OF THE SUNSHINE STATE

_ 185 —




T^HE: la ND OF" QF>RORTUNITV^




time. Physical examinations
are made upon entrance.

To the chmate of Rosweli
add a mihtary system that
yearly wms the highest ranking
bestowed by the United States
government. Military training
is especially effective under the




spell of the West. All the
broadness, the big, self-reliant
way of doing things, the love
of action, so typically western,
seem to be of the essence of
military instruction. The spirit
of the section makes execu-
tive ability and self-command
easy to develop.




m



"TTT



'-^'^ f'' '^: -*- 41









'Mi > - 1. J

-A* # IK *. . *




^iwSsSdi^Kifi^i^^^d^firfteiHMitfiMi^iM



CADETS ON DKILIv



RESOURCES AND INDUSTRIES OF THE SUNSHINE STATE



186




rvIEV^ JMEXICO




DEXTER, NEW MEXICO-CHAVES COUNTY




LFALFA farms produce from six to eight tons
of baled hay in a year that sells at from $10
to $ 1 2 loaded on the cars direct from the
harvest fields. The farmer is independent of
droughts, and a failure of the alfalfa crop is
unknown.

There are two well-proven agricultural methods of mak-
ing money in the Dexter country. One of these is alfalfa
raising and the other is fruit farming.

Of these two there is none more certain of immediate
returns than the alfalfa farm, with its four and five harvests
a year, with its wealth-producing fields that stand for years
without re-plowing, and which makes money for its own-
ers in winter as well as in summer.

The region in and around the town of Dexter, N. M.,
is not the only prosperous part of the Pecos Valley, but it
is one of the best parts. It has the largest scope of coun-
try subject to irrigation, the largest scope of fertile land,
and the largest water supply.

The town of Dexter is one of the youngest towns of the
Pecos Valley, and is steadily growing. It has never been
boomed, but its growth has been along conservative lines
and it is certain to continue to grow.

Of last year's crop of alfalfa hay, between 1 ,200 and
1 ,300 cars were loaded at the local switch of the Santa Fe
railroad. Together with the hay that has and will be
shipped from two other sidings, one two miles and the
other five miles distant from Dexter, a total of over 1,500
cars will be the total of the hay crop that was raised in
the Dexter country and which was not used locally. This
is a conservative estimate, and in all probability the figures
will be greater than this by the time all the hay is shipped.
There is now a well-established market for the produce
of the alfalfa fields. Hay buyers stand ready to pay cash
for the baled hay delivered on board cars at the railroad
sidings. The market has been constantly growing and the
demand increasing with the increase in production due to
new fields being sown to alfalfa. The big state of Texas
continues to take the most of the hay, but several hundred
cars are shipped into Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Alabama, and even as far east as Florida, the Carolinas
and Virginia.

Wherever Pecos Valley hay and particularly the hay
raised by the careful farmers of the Dexter country has
found an opening it has made a reputation for itself and
has created a demand for more. . .



It has been learned that horses doing light work will
thrive on alfalfa without grain; that the grain ration may
be always cut down if alfalfa is fed. As a milk producing
feed for dairy cattle it has no equal.

The yield in the Dexter country varies from five to eight
tons to the acre for the four and five cuttings made during
the summer. The best farms have produced more than
eight tons to the acre for fields of more than 1 00 acres.
Better records than this have been made on smaller areas.
A yield of six tons to the acre is generally counted on for
the year.

Last year the price during the summer averaged $10.50
per ton delivered on board the cars direct from the harvest
fields. The winter prices range higher. At the time this
is written $14.50 is being paid for first quality hay.

The soil in the Dexter country varies from an adobe
loam on the uplands to a darker sandy adobe soil on the
bottoms.

The supply of water is more than ample. TTie princi-
pal sources of water supply are the artesian wells and the
Hagerman Irrigation Company's canal.

The supply of artesian water is greater here than at any
other point in the valley. The wells are from 800 to L 1 00
feet deep and were drilled at a cost of from $3,000 to
$4,000. The flows vary from 1 ,000 gallons per minute
to as high as 3,000 gallons per minute. A well is counted
upon to irrigate at least eighty acres, and several wells
supply adequate water for 300 acres.

The town of Dexter is situated in the center of the dis-
trict irrigated by the Hagerman Irrigation Company's
canal. The canal supplies water for 10,000 acres of al-
falfa and fruit land. This company contracts to deliver
30 inches of water a year per acre at a cost of $1.25 per
acre, and has always been able to deliver more than their
contract calls for.

The market price of a developed alfalfa farm at the
present time varies from $100 to $300 per acre, according
to the productiveness of the land, and location as to loading
point. Raw land capable of being made into alfalfa may
be bought at from $50 to $150 an acre.

Land values have gro\vn remarkably during the past few
years. Land that is not for sale now at $200 to $250 an
acre was bought six and seven years ago at from $25 to
$50 an acre, and in some cases for $10 and $1 5 an acre.



Online LibraryNew Mexico. Board of Exposition ManagersNew Mexico, the land of opportunity ... official data on the resources and industries of New Mexico--the sunshine state → online text (page 30 of 38)