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Addisonia : colored illustrations and popular descriptions of plants online

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seen. This is the only species of Penstemon native to the region
near New York and Philadelphia.

That this is a plant easy of cultivation our experience here at
the New York Botanical Garden has proved. We have long grown
this species in an open bed, with ordinary loam soil, and it is
from such plants, of uncertain derivation, that the accompanying
drawing has been made.

Francis W. Pbnnbix.

Explanation of Pi«ats. Pig. 1. — ^Flowering stem. Pig. 2. — ^Flower opened.
Pig. 3. — ^Anther, front view, X 6. Fig. 4. — ^Anther, rear view, X 6. Fig. 5. —
Anther, after opening, X 6. Fig. 6.— Fruit. Fig. 7.— Seed, X 8.



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PLATE 146 ADOISONIA



1



i



ORONTIUM AQUATICUM



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Addisonia 51

(Hate 146)



ORONTIUM AQUATICUM
Goldeorclub

Native of the souiheastern United States
Family Aracbab Arxtm Family

OranHutn aquaticum L. Sp. PI. 324. 1753.

An aquatic plant with the thick rootstock buried in the mud,
the leaves ascending or floating, according to the depth of the
water, and a slender round scape terminated by a cylindric golden
spadix. The leaves have petioles sometimes two feet long, or
often only a few inches long; the blades are oblong-elliptic, entire,
acute or cuspidate at the apex, acute at the base, deep blue-green
or dull green above, pale beneath, up to twelve inches long and
five inches wide. The scape is up to two feet long in deep water,
and is somewhat flattened near the spadix. The spathe is two to
four inches long and encloses the spadix when young, but soon
falls away or remains as a sheathing bract at its base. The spadix
is one to three inches long, cylinckic, acuminate above, and is a
quarter to three eighths of an inch in diameter, becoming much
thickened in fruit. The flowers, of a bright yellow, are perfect,
and are densely crowded on the spadix. The perianth-segments
are four to six (the lower flowers usually with six, the upper with
four), and are imbricate over the ovary. The stamens are as many
as the perianth-segments; the linear filaments are wider than the
small anthers. The obtusely angled ovary is one-celled, depressed,
partly immersed in the axis of the spadix, and contains a single
ovule. The fruit is dark green, nearly globose, and about a half
inch in diameter.

An odd member of the arum family, to which also belongs the
jack-in-the-pulpit. The family has in the temperate regions com-
paratively few representatives, but in the tropics it is widely dis-
tributed, some kinds forming robust vines which dimb tall trees,
often so entangling the surrounding vegetation as to make tropical
forests all but impenetrable. The genus Orontium contains but a
single species, which is found inhabiting swamps, ponds, and streams
from Massachusetts to central Pennsylvania, and south to Florida
and Louisiana, mainly near the coast. It is sometimes known as
floating arum, water-duck, and tawkin. It is an attractive plant
for water or swamp gardens. The plant from which the illustration



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52 Addisonia

was made has been in the aquatic house (rf Conservatcuy Range 1,
New York Botanical Garden, since 1909.

Gborgb V. Nash*

Explanation or Flats. Fig. 1. — ^Flowering acBpt. Pig. 2. — httl. Fig.
3. — ^Flower, upper view, X 3. Fig. 4. — ^Flower, perianth removed, X 3. Fig.
5.— Perianth-aegment, X 3. Fig. 6.— Fruit



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PLATE 147 ADDISONIA



ECHINOPSIS LEUCANTHA



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Addisonia 53

(Plate 147)

ECHINOPSIS LEUCANTHA
White Torch-fhisile

Native of Argentina

Family Cactac^ae Cactus Family

Echinocactus leucanthus Gillies ; Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 34 1 . 1834.
Cereus leucanthus Pfeifif. Bnum. Cact. 71. 1837.
Eckinopsis leucantha Walp. Repert. Bot. 2: 324. 1843.

Plants solitary, globtilar to oblong, often more than a foot high,
usually overtopped by the long connivent spines; the ribs are
twelve to fourteen, with the spines eight to ten in each cluster,
brownish, the central one usuaUy longer and more or less curved.
The flowers are very large for the size of the plant, six inches long
or more, with a long slender tube, bearing smsdl scales with tufts of
hairs in their axils. The spreading petals are oblong, obtuse,
about one inch long, the outer ones piiikish, the inner ones nearly
white.

This cactus has a rather wide distribution in western and cen-
tral Argentina and shows a great variation in form; several types
have been described as distinct.

In the living collections of the New York Botanical Garden are
several plants of this genus collected by the writer in Argentina in
1915, a number of which have flowered. The plants do well in
cultivation and flower freely each spring. The one here illustrated
flowered in April 1918; it was obtained in the Andes, west of Men-
doza near Portrerillos in 1915.

The plant has several English names, the one here adopted having
been used by Lindley.

The genus Eckinopsis as we now understand it is characterized
by one-jointed stems, which are globular or more or less elongate,
by slender funnelform flower-tubes, by short perianth-segments
and by hairs in the areoles on the ovary and flower-tube. The
flowers are similar to those of Trichocereus but the habit is very
uijike the typical species of that genus.

We now recognize about twenty-five species, all native of South
America, east of the Andes.

J. N. Ros«.



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PLATE 148



VIBURNUM LANTANA



ADDI50NIA



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Addisonia 55

(Plate 148)

VmnRHUM LANTANA
Wayfaring Tree

Native of Europe, the Caucasus, and northern Africa
Family Capri^uacbab Honbysucki<b Family

Viburnum Lantana L. Sp. PL 268. 1753.

An upright shrub or small tree, sometimes twenty feet tall, with
ascending branches. The young branches are densely pubescent
with brown stellate hairs, becoming glabrate when older. The
leaves are opposite, with petioles commonly a half inch long or
less, sometimes longer, densely pubescent with stellate hairs;
the blades are ovate, oval, or oblong-ovate, often cordate at the
base, acute at the apex, up to three indies long and two inches wide,
or sometimes broader on the new shoots; the upper surface is spar-
ingly pubescent with stellate hairs, the lower surface densely so,
especially on the nerves where the hairs are shorter and brown; the
margin is denticulate, and the secondary nerves terminate in the
teeth. The white flowers are in dense cymes, two to three inches
across, of usually seven rays which are densely pubescent with stel-
late hairs. The corolla is about a quarter of an inch wide, its
lobes broadly oval or orbicular and rounded at the apex. The
stamens are five. The fruit is oblong-ovoid, about three eighths of
an inch long, at first red, later changing to almost black.

An attractive plant in both flower and fruit, its showy clusters of
white flowers appearing in May in the vicinity of New York city,
the fruit ripening in late August or early September and persisting
for some time. It will grow in any ordinary soil, but is especially
suitable for drier situations and for limestone soils. The specimen
from which our illustration was prepared has been in the f ruticetum
collection of the New York Botanical Garden since 1897.

Many of the most attractive and striking of our ornamental
shrubs are to be found in this genus, which comprises about one
hundred and forty known species, distributed in the temperate and
subtropical regions of the northern hemisphere, the East Indies,
the Andean region of South America, and the West Indies. They
may be found in woodland and open, in low land and high, and in
dry and wet situations, so that from this genus may be selected
shirubs for almost any environment. They are excellent for borders
or shrub groups, or for planting along roadsides or paths, their
white flowers and the bright red fruits of some of the species making



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56 Addisonia

them objects of great beauty. Of the kinds with red berries
Viburnum Opulus, Viburnum dilatatum, and Viburnum Wrightii
may be mentioned. Some of the others^ such as Viburnum tomen
tosum, Viburnum Sieboldii, and Viburnum Lantana, have fruit
which is red at first, later changing to black, so that they too present
a period of bright color in the landscape. Viburnum tomentosum
has in its flower clusters a number of showy sterile flowers, giving
to the bush in bloom an unusual decorative effect, the clusters
appearing as small tables of white among the mass of green. Of
great decorative value are Viburnum Opulus sterile and Viburnum
tomentosum plenum, with balls of white made up of masses of sterile
flowers; the first of these is known as the guelder rose or snowball,
the other as the Japanese snowball. While most of the hardy
species are deciduous, one, Viburnum rhytidifolium, from central
and western China, is evergreen, and has proved hardy as far north
as Massachusetts. The only one of the hardy species with a striking
fragrance is Viburnum Carlesii, from Corea, which has also proved
hardy as far north as Massachusetts. A dwarf form is Viburnum
Opulus nanum, which usually forms a compact little shrub of
rounded outline. Some are greenhouse shrubs, such as Viburnum
Tinus, commonly known as laurustinus, and Viburnum odoratissi-
mum. One of the best for shady rocky situations is Viburnum
acerifolium, the dockmackie of our own eastern woodlands, where it
often forms large masses, its maple-like leaves giving it an appear-
ance quite unlike others of the genus. Propagation may be ef-
fected by seeds sown in the fall or stratified, or by greenwood cut-
tings under glass.

George V. Nash.

BxFi«ANATiON OP FtATS. Pig. 1.— Fruiting branch. Fig. 2.— Flowering
branch.



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PLATE 149 ADDISONIA



CENTAUREA MONTANA



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Addisonia 57

(Plate 149)
CENTATTREA MONTANA

Mountain Bluet

Native of Europe
Family Carduac^ae Thisti^b Fanuly

Centaurea moniana L. Sp. PI. 1911. 1753.

A stoloniferous perennial plant, with tough roots and rootlets.
The stems are one to two feet high, green, covered with short
stiff hairs, especially above, markedly five-angled, the angles run-
ning up into winged bases of the strongly decurrent upper leaves;
these are lanceolate, acute, lightly dentate, and hairy, dmost woolly
beneath, deep green above and light green beneath, and vary in
length from two to eight inches. The basal leaves are sessile,
narrowed at the base, and up to one foot long. The flower-heads
are terminal or on short peduncles in the axils of the upper leaves,
one or two inches in diameter, and blue to purple. The involucres
are turbinate, consisting of about six rows of triangular, acute,
green bracts, purple near the tips, with black, dliate, straw-like
margins. The blue-purple ray flowers have tubular, unequally
five-lobed ligules, the lobes spreading. The red-purple disks,
with the bla^ stamens prominent, are composed of many perfect,
tubular, lobed flowers. The achenes are smooth and cylindric,
the pappus of many series of bristles.

The genus Centaurea, with more than three hundred species, has
contributed freely to our gardens. We have the corn-flower, C.
Cyanus; the knapweeds, C. nigra and others; C. americana, a large,
yellow-flowered native annual, always popular; and many interest-
ing European and Asiatic species.

Centaurea monkma^ one of our common garden perennials, has
been cultivated for centtuies. Alton, in the Hortus Kewensis,
says it was grown by Gerard, as early as 1596. There are several
varieties, alba^ rosea, and citrina, in cultivation, being white, pink
and yellow forms. A few plants ftunish hundreds of blooms in
early summer; then in September they renew their growth and
bloom for another month or two. This is one of the easiest of
plants to grow, often spreading rapidly and covering space not
intended for it.

The illustration was taken from plants growing in the flower-
borders of the New York Botanical Garden since 1913.

Kbnnbth R. Boynton.

Explanation 09 Plata. Pig. 1. — ^Flowering stem. Pig. 2. — ^Ray-flower.
Fig. 3.— Disk-flower.



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PLATE ISO



ADDISONIA



ALONSOA MERIDIONALIS



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Addisonia 59

(Plate 150)

ALONSOA MERIDIONALIS
Little Cascabel

Native of the Colombian Andes

Family Scrophui^ariacbae Figwort Family

Scrophularia meridionalis L.f. Suppl. 280. 1781.
Alonsoa meridionalis Ktintze, Rev. Gen. 457. 1891.

A peremiial glabrous herbaceous plant, its slender stems and
branches terminating in long racemes of dull orange flowers. The
stems are erect, two to three feet tall, and sharply four-angled.
The leaves are opposite, each pair remote and placed at right angles
to the pair next below; their blades are ovate, acute, coarsely serrate
or dentate, pale green beneath, and narrowed to slender petioles.
The slender racemes bear many flowers, each on a slender upcurved
pedicel. The five sepals are slightly united at the base; each is
oblong, acuminate at apex, and with three longitudinal veins. The
small corolla, only three eighths of an inch long, is very irregular,
but symmetric; the tube is short, with the lobes abruptly and
widely spreading, the two posterior ones are very short, and the
tube split to the base between them; the two anterolateral lobes
are ovate, rounded, of medium size, and project lateraly, while
the single anterior lobe, united with these for half its length, pro-
jects into a broadly rounded free portion. The corolla is dull
orange, but, within, the tube is yellowish green. The four dull
yellow filaments are short, and the anthers are conspicuous by
reason of the membranous dilated yellow sac. The style is stout
and glabrous, and the green stigma is slightly enlarged and capitate.
The capsules are glabrous, narrowly urn-shaped, one third of an
inch long, and open by a slit which divides the septum, or wall
separating the two cells. The placentas project into each cell
and bear many small, oval, black, ridged seeds which escape through
the necklike capsule-mouth. The dead stems persist, and the
seeds are scattered in the wind, in the manner characteristic of
plants called tonoboles.

The little cascabel is a weed-like plant of waysides in the upper
Eastern Andes of Colombia. It appears to be native there, and
doubtless occurred about the dwellings of the Chibchas in the days
of their prosperity, as now it grows about the little hovels of their
descendants. The genus is South American, some species occurring
in nearly all sections of the Andes, and one even in Central America
and southern Mexico. The Spanish name, of which little cascabel is
an adaptation, ''Cascabelito/' means little rattlesnake, and was



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60 Addisonia

doubtless given in allusion to the sound of the seeds rattling in the
pods on the dry fruit-stalks.

Like many genera of the figwort faniily» Alonsoa shows an in-
teresting special modification of a primitively regular five-lobed
corolla and five-stamened flower. The splitting between the
posterior lobes, with the great reduction of these, and the develop-
ment of the anterior half of the ccn'oUa accentuate a tendency
frequent through the family.

This plant may be grown in loam soil in greenhouses. Its
weed-like character as a native is evidence of easy culture. Our
drawing has been made from a plant grown at the Garden,the seed
having been collected by myself at Bogot&, Colombia, September 22,
1917.

Francis W. Pj^nneU/.

Explanation ov Plate. Pig. 1. — Flowering stem. Fig. 2. — Cordla, X 2.
Fig. 3. — ^Fruit, X 3. Fig. 4.— Fruit, showing dehiscmce, X 3. Fig. 5.— I/mcr
stem-leaf.



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PLATE 151 ADDISONIA



LEUCOTHOE CATESBAEI



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Addisonia 61

(Plate 151)
LEUCOTHOE CATESBAEI

Dog-laurel

NaUve of the southern Appalachians and adjacent highlands

Family Ericaceae Hsath Family

Andromeda CaUsbaei Walt Fl. Car. 137. 1788.
Leucothoi Caiesbaei A. Gray, Man. ed. 2. 252. 1856.

An evergreen shrub two yards tall or less, with glabrous or spar-
ingly fine-pubescent twigs. The stems and branches are pliable,
often switch-like, recurved or reclining, leafy, smooth, and some-
times slightly zigzag. The persistent leaves are alternate and more
or less distichously spreading. The blades are leathery, lanceolate
to narrowly elliptic, two and a half to six inches long, serrate with
spine-tipped teeth, acuminate at the apex, and acute to rounded
at the base; they are dark-green, with impressed veins, and ulti-
mately glabrous above, but pale, with raised veins, and permanently
pubescent with scattered hairs beneath. The petioles are stout,
about half an inch long or less, closely fine-pubescent on the upper
side, with buds for the next season early developed in their bjoIs.
The nodding, sessile panicles are raceme-like, narrow, one and one
half to three and one half inches long, and densely flowered. The
rachis of the panicle is stout, and is minutely and dosely pubescent,
at least in anthesis. The flower-stalks are over an eighth of an
inch long, each subtended by an ovate-reniform bract, which is
giandular-dliate with black hairs and about an eighth of an inch
long. The two bractlets at the base of the flower-stalk are similar
to the bract, but smaller and thinner. The five-lobed calyx is
persistent; the lobes are lanceolate to ovate, obtuse or acute, about
one tenth of an inch long, edliate, and several-veined. The corolla
is white or pinkish, urceolate, about a quarter of an inch long, with
ovate to reniform, recurved short lobes. The ten erect stamens
are included in the corolla and are usually about one half as long
as its tube. The subulate-lanceolate filaments, alternately long
and short, are one sixteenth to a tentji of an inch long, glabrous,
and unappendaged. The ellipsoid anthers, about one sixteenth of
an inch long, are attached to the filament about the middle of the
back, awnless but bimucronate at the apex where the sacs are open
to shed the pollen, and rounded at the base. The ovary is globose
or depressed, five-lobed, five-celled, and glabrous. The columnar
style is several times longer than the ovary, glabrous, and straight,
with the stigma discoid, but only slightly wider than the diameter
of the style. The capsule is depressed-globose, about one fifth of
an inch wide, seated in the persistent calyx, and glabrous, each
valve with a median channel. The minute seeds are irregular in
size and shape, and granulose.



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62 Addisonia

This is the shrub that particularly attracts the attention, any
time of the year, along the highland trails and watercourses in the
southeastern United States. It is a striking and elegant shrub.
The conspicuous pliable and arching branches, furnished with
numerous glossy leaves, form beautiful banks of greenery.

In addition to the evergreen foliage, the dog-laurel presents three
stages of the inflorescence, some one of which, at least, is prominent
at each season of the year. Of course, during the period of flower-
ing, late spring, the inflorescence is most conspicuous. However,
previous to this, in the winter and the early spring, the precocious
panicles, in bud, lend variety to the foliage, and later, in the summer
and fall, the long clusters of plump seed-pods are quite prominent
among the leaves.

The southern mountains and the adjacent plateaus have been
the source of many kinds of shrubs useful for ornamental cultivation,
both in America and Europe. Perhaps nowhere else in temperate
North America have in the past so many celebrated European plant
collectors searched for novelties to be grown in the Old World
gardens. Some of these collectors were sent out by private enter-
prise, while others went under government patronage. Notable
among them were John Lyon, the Frasers, and the Michaux. In
passing, it may be mentioned that American collectors were not
wanting. John Bartram, the first native American botanist, heads
the list

The dog-laurd was introduced into European gardens in the
latter half of the eighteenth century. Apparently it was first
cultivated in an English nursery in 1794, from seeds sent from
America by Michaux. It is now widely cultivated as an ornamental
shrub, and quite justly so, and is hardy far northward of the northern
limit of its natural range which is in southwestern Virginia and
Tennessee.

The specimen from which the accompanying illustration was
made has been grown in the New York Botanical Garden since 1914.

John K. Smaix.

Explanation of Platk. Fig. 1.— Fall foliage. Fig. 2.— Flowering brandi.
Fig. 3.— Corolla opened, X 2. Fig. 4.— Stamen, X 4.



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PLATE 152



ADDISONIA




^




BRYOPHYLLUM CRENATUM



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Addisonia 63

(Plate 152)
BRTOPHTLLUM CRENATITM

Madagascar Sprouting-leaf

Native of central Madagascar
Family Crassui^c^ab Orpine Family

BryopkyiluM crenatum Baker, Jour. Unn. Soc. 20: 139. 1884.

A glaucous, succulent, glabrous perennial, usually two to three
feet tall, sometimes larger, with crenate leaf -blades, and cymes of
yellow flowers. The round stems are usually simple below and
trichotomously branched above, with the intemodes rather long and
sometimes marked with purple. The leaves are opposite. The
blades are fleshy, oblong or ovate-oblong, obttise, shallowly and
coarsely crenate, the lower ones two to three inches long, on petioles
up to two inches long, cordate, two-eared by the usually incurved
basal lobes; they are Ught green above, paler beneath, with three to
five nerves on each side of the midrib which is prominent beneath;
the floral leaves are much smaller. The C3rmes are corymb-like, and
rather loosely flowered, with the pedicds slender and recurved.
The nodding flowers are a half to two thirds of an inch long; the
calyx is rose-colored, almost globose, with four deltoid teeth; the
corolla is yellow, its tube about twice as long as the cal3rx, the
four lobes with rounded tips. The eight stamens are included, in
one series, inserted above the middle (S the tube; the filaments are
about a quarter of an inch long, with small anthers. The carpels
are about a quarter of an inch long, with styles of about the same
length.

This interesting succulent was discovered by Robert Lyall about
ninety yeaits ago. It grows well in the ordinary succulent house,
and is of easy culture. The specimen from which the illustration
was prepared was secured in an exchange with the Royal Gardens,
Kew, England, in 1902.

The genus BryophyUum contains five known species, all natives
of Africa, although one, BryophyUum calycinutn, has become so
widely distributed that it appears native in America and Asia.

Gborgb V. Nash.

Bxpi^ANATiON OF PLATA. Fig. 1 . — ^Middle part of stem and leaves. Pig. 2. —
Upperpart of stem with cyme. Fig. 3.— Flower, calyxiemoved, X 3. Fig. 4. —
Corolla, split open exposing stamens, X 3. Fig. 5.— Carpels, X 3.



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PLATE 153 ADDISONIA



LILIUM HENRYI



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Addisonia 65

(Plate 153)
LnJUM HENRYI

Henry's Lity

Native of central China
Family Liuac^ab L11.Y Fanuly

LiHum Henryi Baker, Card. Chron. III. 4: 660. 1888.

A herbaceous plant, with a large, reddish-brown, globular bulb
three or four inches in diameter, of many oblong, fleshy scales.
The stem reaches a height of from four to eight feet, is smooth,
deep green, and bears about thirty leaves, and from one to twenty
flowers at its summit. The lower leaves are about five inches
long and one inch wide, sessile, acute, and prominently seven- or
eight- veined, and have entire margins; the leaves toward the top of
the stem successively are much shorter, the uppermost being nearly
circular in outline; tiiey are somewhat damping at the base, acumi-
nate, the tips being sUghtly recturved. The large flowers are on
long branches, lack fragrance, and are mostly nodding. The six
perianth-segments are lanceolate, reflexed and curved from their
bases; they are apricot or orange-yellow in color, spotted with
reddish-brown, keeled near their bases, in the center with glistening


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