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THE NEW YORK

Genealogical and Biographical

Record.






DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS OF AMERICAN
GENEALOGY AND BIOGRAPHY.



ISSUED QUARTERLY.




VOLUME LI, 1920



PUBLISHED BY THE

NEW YORK GENEALOGICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY
226 West 58TH Street, New York.



.Nz:



Publication Committee :
HOPPER STRIKER MOTT, Editor.
JOHN R. TOTTEN, Financial Editor.

JOHN EDWIN STILLWELL, M. D. TOBIAS A. WRIGHT.

ROYDEN WOODWARD VOSBURGH. REV. S. WARD RIGHTER.

CAPT. RICHARD HENRY GREENE. MRS. ROBERT D. BRISTOL.

RICHARD SCHERMERHORN, JR. WILLIAM ALFRED ROBBINS



^



INDEX OF SUBJECTS.



Accessions to Society's Library; not
reviewed —

American Historical Society, Re-
port for 1916, Vols. I and II,
100

American Revolution, National
Society Sons of, Report for
IQI9, 280

Andover, N. H., History of the
Town of, 100

Athens, N. Y., First Reformed
Church. Report of, 280

Auburn Dale, Mass., Early Days
in, (1665-1870), 100

lieanes, Ur. William, Biographi-
cal Sketch of, 172

Belfast. M.iine, Vital Records to
1802, Vol. II, 172

Brookins Families, a brief sketch
of, 280

Brown Family Chart, manuscript,
100

Cambridcu, Mass., Kifty years a
City, 1846-1806, 172

Canaan Four Corners, N. \'., Re-
cords of the Congregatiiinal
Church and Society, typewritten
manuscript, 100

Carnegie Eiiddwment Corpora-
tion, Report for Iglrj, 100

Caruth, .Mrs. R. P., her pedigree,
manuscript, 100

Caruth, Walter S., his pedigree,
manuscript, 172

Carys of Virginia, 100

Catskill, Greene Co., N. Y., Re-
cords of the Reformed Dutch
Church, typewritten manu-
script, 172

Caudebec Family in America
(1700-1920), 100

Connett, Sapp, Stauffer-Siover
Families, History of, 100

Coe, Rev. E. B. Commemnrative
Discourse on, 172

Colles, The Descendants, manu-
script 280

Colonial Lords, Order of, etc.,
280

Dean Family Chart, manuscript,
172

Derby, Conn., Town Records of,
100

Emerson, George Barrell, LL.D.,
Memoirs of, 100



Accessions to Society's Library; not
reviewed (Corilinueti)

Essex, Mass., Quarterly Court of.
Records and Files, Vol. VII.,
280

Ffoster, Thomas, Photographic
copy of deed by him dated
March 3. 1674-5, 280

Fleming, Owasco Outlet, Cayuga
Co., N. Y , Records of the Re-
formed Protestant Dutch
Church, typewritten manu-
script, 100

Florida, Montgomery Co., N. Y.,
Records of the United Presby-
terian Church, typewritten man-
uscript, 100

French Genealogical Associa-
tion, Letters and Papers of,
too

Genealogies, American and Eng-
lish, List of, in the Library of
Congress, Washington, D. C,
280

Ghent, Columbia Co., N. Y., Re-
cords of the Reformed Dutch
Church, called Christ Church,
typewritten manuscript, 172

Gordons of Virginia, History of,
172

Hayford Family, History of, 17J

Herkimer, Fort, (N. Y.) Reform-
ed Dutch Church, Report of,
'72

Holland Society, N. Y. City, Year
Book, 1919, too

Horseshoe, Knights of Golden,
Constitution of, roc

Howland Heirs, History of, 172

Johnstown, N. Y., Records of St.
John's Episcopal Church, type-
written manuscript, 100

Kansas, State Historical Society,
Biennial Report, 1917-I919, 172

Kiskatom, Catskill, N. Y., Re-
cords of the Reformed Protes-
tant Dutch Church, typewritten
manuscript, 172

Knights of the Golden Horseshoe,
Constitution of, 100

Labagh, Rev. P., Memorial of,
'71

Lafayette, Order of, Constitution
of, 100



Index of Subjects.



Accessions to Society's Library; not
reviewed {Continued)

Lanioureux Family, Report No.
I, 172

Leeds, Town of Catskill, N. Y.,
Records of the Reformed
Dutch Church, typewritten
manuscript, 172

Litchfield, Maine, History of
Town of, 100

Louisiana Historical Society Pub-
lications, Vols. ni-VHI, 100

Massachusetts Bay, Acts and Re-
solves of the Province of, Vol.
XX, 100

Massachusetts Historical Society,
Proceedings of, 1918-19, Vol.
LII, 172

Michigan, University of, Obituary
Notices, 1837-1911, 280

Montague, Mass., History of
Town of, 100

Newcastle, Maine, Town Re-
cords of, 100

New Concord, Town of Chatham,
Columbia Co., N. Y., Records
of the Congregational Church,
typewritten manuscript, 172

New England Gazetteer, 1902,
loo

New Hampshire, Old Home
Week, 100

New York Historical Society,
Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. I. 280

New York, New Jersey and Con-
necticut, Medical Directory of,
280

New York, Old and New, 172

New York, Presbytery of, Hand
Book, 1919-20, 280

New York. Reformed Protestant
Dutch Church, Manual of for
1859, 171

New York City, Collegiate Re-
formed Protestant Dutch
Church, Year Book, 1880, 172

New York City, Directory of the
Board of Education, i860, 172

New York, City of. Minutes of
the Common Council, Vols. XI-
XIX, 100

New York City, Social Registers
of I9r7, 1918, 280

Nichols Family in America, 172

Ohio, Perry County, History of, 100

Orange County, N. Y., Portraits
and Biographical Records of,
172

Order of Colonial Lords, etc., 280

Order of the Knights of the Gol-
den Horseshoe, Constitution of,
100

Order of Lafavette, too



Accessions to Society's Library; not
reviewed (Continued)

Order of the Imperial Yellow
Rose, Constitution of, 100

Owasco, N. Y., Records of the
Reformed Dutch Church, type-
written manuscript, ico

Pastor and Church, 171

Patten, Matthew, of Bedford, N.
H., Diary of, 1754-1788, 172

Puffer, George, of Braintree, Mass.,
Descendants of, 280

Rhode Island, Documentary His-
tory of. Vol. II, 172

Roe, Capt. Daniel, Diary of (1806-
8), 100

Russell Family of Bovina, N. Y.,
manuscript, 280

Saltonstall Genealogy, 280

Sapp Family, 100

Seneca County, N. Y., Manual of
the Churches of, 280

South Farms, now the town of
Morris, Litchfield Co., Conn.,
Records of Deaths, manuscript,
172

Stauffer-Stover Family, 100

Stover Family, 100

Surgeons, American College of,
Directory of Members, 280

Tilden, Samuel J., Life of, 2 vols.,
280

Troy, N. Y., Records of the Park
Presbyterian Church, 280

United States Military Academy
(West Point), Association of
Graduates, Report of and Nec-
rology for 1919, 280

Van Liew Family Chart, manu-
script, 100

Viele, Kathlyne K., her pedigree,
manuscript, 280

Washington Family Notes and
Chart on, 280

Westfield, Mass., History of, 280

Whitesboro, N. Y., in the town of
WhitestowM, Oneida Co., N. Y.,
Records of the First Presby-
terian Church, typewritten man-
uscript, 2S0

Whiting, Rev. Samuel, D.D.,
Memorial of, 280

Williams College, Williamstown,
Mass., Alumni Number, 1919,

10(1

Willis Family of New England

and New Jersey, 280
Wood, Leonard, Life of, 280
Yellow Rose, Constitution of the

Imperial Order of, 100
■Xdditioiis to Published Genealogical

Works, 74, 161



Index of Subjects.



Addresses —

Uelivered on occasion of confer-
ring Honorary Membership in
this Society on his Excellency
Jean Jules Jusserand, Ambassa-
dor to the United States from
France, 241

Appreciation, Card of, by Mrs. J.
Warren Goddard, 278

Arms, Coats of —

Avery Arms, in color, 84

Art, First School of in America,
Founded by Archibald Robert-
son, 130

Astor, William Waldorf (Baron Astor
of Hever, Viscount Astor), Nec-
rology, 1 18

Authors— see Contributors

Avery, Samuel Putnam

His Avery Pedigree, 84
His Park Pedigree, 87

Beecher Family— Bible Records, 27
Benton, Andrew Arthur, Necrology,

127
Bible Records —

Beecher Family, 27

Gould Family, 28

Guion Family, 26

Purdy Family, 24

Thomas Family, 28
Biographical Sketches —

Carnegie, Andrew, I

Draeyer, Andries, 194

Dreyer, Andreas, 194

Lawton, Eliza Macintosh Clinch
(Anderson), loi

Lawton, Mrs. James Marsland, loi

Lovelace, Francis, Governor of
New York, 1668-1673, 175

Robertson, Archibald, 130

Salomon, William, 173

Thorne, Jonathan, 281
Book Reviews—

Avery, Fairchild and Park Fam-
ilies of Massachusetts, by Sam-
uel Putnam ."Xvery, 94, 279

Bauman Family Chart, by John
Jarvis Vail, 98

Bayard, Houston and Bolton
Families, bv Gaston Baillie Bul-
loch, M.D; 171

Beanes, Dr. William, the inci-
dental cause of the authorship
of the Star-Spangled Bamier, by
Caleb Clarke Ma^ruder, 278

Bellinirham, Mass., 1719-1919, His-
tory of, by George F. Partridge,

27Q
Blaine Family, by John Lwing

Blaine. 3'i4
Bolton Familv, bv Gastnn Baillie
Bulloch, m: p. ,171



Book Reviews (Continued)

Brereton Family, by John Brere-
ton, 95

Brown, Alexander, and His De-
scendants, by Mary Elizabeth
Brown, 97

Bushnell, Daniel Edwin, Memor-
ial, by Emma H. Bushnell, 171

Butler Pedigree Chart, compiled
by Henry Langdon Butler, Jr.,

q8

Chickering Family, one branch of,
and the complete ancestry of
.Mary Chickering Nichols, by
Frederick C. Torrey, :!79

Christie Family, by Walter Chris-
tie, 171

Coddington Records.Descendants
of Isaac, Reuben and Uzziah
Coddington, by H. C. Codding-
ton, 279

Curzon Family of New York and
Baltimore and Their English
Descendants, by J. Hall Pleas-
ants, 96

Dwelly's Parish Records, Vols. V
and VII, Bishop's Transcripts
at Wells, England, by E. Dwelly,
170

Fairchild Family, by Samuel Put-
nam Avery, 94, 279

Fales Family of Bristol, R. I., and
Ancestry of Haliburton Fales of
New York City, by De Coursey
Fales, 97

Fuller, Thomas, of Woburn,
Mass., Genealogy of Some De-
scendants of, by William Hyslop
Fuller, 97

George Family in America, His-
tory of One Branch, by Jasper
P. George, 170

Goodridge Genealogy, by Edwin
Alonzo Goodridge, 96

Guilford Genealogy, by Helen
Morrill Guilford, 171

Harlan Family, History and Gene-
alogy of, by Alpheus H. Harlan,
96

Houston Family, by Gaston Bail-
lie Bulloch, M. D., 171

Illinois, University of. Record of
the Alumni of, to I918, edited
bv Franklin W. Scott, Secretary
of the University, 08

Kuykendall Family, History of,
by George Benson Kuykendall,

97
Lawrences of Cornwall, England,
Familv History of, compiled by
Rev. Alexaniier Gordon, for
Lady Durning-Lawrence, 98



Index of Subjects.



Book Reviews {Continued)

Livingstons of Callendar and their
Principal Cadets, new edition,
by Edwin Brockholst Living-
ston, 99

" Mayflower," the last of the, by
Rendel Harris, 364

New England Society of Charles-
ton, S. C, by William Way, 364

New Haven, Conn., Ancient Town
Records of, edited by Franklin
Bowditch Dexter; published by
New Haven Colony Historical
Society, Vol. II (1662-1684), 97

New York, Old and New, a souv-
enir volume, published by the
N. V. Commercial, 279

Nichols Family in America, by
L. N. Nichols, 278

Park Family, by Samuel Putnam
Avery, 94, 279

Phillips Academy,Andover, Mass.,
Class of 1890, by Alfred John-
son, 364

Piscataqua (N. H.) Pioneers, edit-
ed by John Scales, Dover, N. H.,

95
Putnam, Andrew the Family of,

by Judge Job Barnard, 278
Rhodes Family in America, by

Nelson Osgood Rhoades, 171
Schenectady, N. Y., History of

St. George's Church in, by Wil-
lis T. Hanson, Jr., 95
Sheldrm Family, Historic Sketch

of, by Harry Walters Sheldon,

364
Sherman Genealogy, by Thomas

T. Sherman, 99, 363
Southern Families, Notable, by

Zella Armstrong, 279
Terra Cotta, The Story of, by

Walter Geer, 171
Vail Family Chart, by John Jarvis

Vail, 98
West, William, of Scituate, R. L,

by George M. West, 171
Whitaker, Epher, of Southold, N.

Y., Memorial Sketch, 364
Wildes Family of Burlington

County, N. J., by Charles Shep-

ard, 364

Brown, John, of New Harbor, Maine
(1623-1670), and some of his
Descendants, 29

Burgess, Edward Guyre, Necrology,
119

Card of Appreciation from Mrs. J.

Warren Goddard, 278
Cady, Henry, Necrology, 128
Carnegie, Andrew, Necrology, 120



Cheesman, Timothy Matlack, M. D.,

Necrology, 128
Chester, Herbert Merritt, Necrology,

121

Christophers P'amily, 8, 148, 206, 329
Clinton, George, First Governor of

New York, Notes on the Eng-
lish Ancestry of, 360
Contributors —

Beatty, Dr. Joseph M., Jr., 360
Bamford, Mrs. E. M., 277
Becker, Edith Van Heusen, 285
Becker, Mrs. Frank N., 285
Bowen, Clarence Winthrop, 241
Bristol, Theresa Hall, 24, 29, 39,

252
Coons, William Solyman, 63, 103,

266, 346
Cornell, John, 170
Cowing, Janet McKay, 27
P'airchild, Helen L., i6i
Fairchild, Mrs. Charles S., 161
Finch, Hon. Edward R., loi
Goddard, Geraldine (Winslow),

130, 278
Goddard, Mrs. J. Warren, 130, 278
Hill, Edwin A., 222
Jahr, Torstein, 194
Jusserand, His Excellency Jean

Jules, 241
Kissam, Henry Snyder, 117, 173
Parkhurst, Charles D., 259, 300
Pleasants, J, Hall, M. D., 175
Putnam, Tarrant, 345
Stires, Rev. Ernest Milrnore, 241
Titus, Edmund D., 74
Totten, John R., i, 8, 83, 94, 148,

170, 206, 278, 329, 363
Vail, Mrs. Lotta Tuthill, 94
Vosburgh, Royden Woodward, 47,

138, 233
Thorne, Samuel Brinckerhoff, 281
Cornell Family, Query, 170
Corrections and Additions to Published

Genealogical Works, 74, 161

Family Notes —
Beecher, 27

Christophers, 8, 148, 206, 329
Cornell, Query, 170
Foord, Query, 277
Forman, 161
Gould, 28
Guion, 26
Hempstead, 259
Ledyard, 161
Manwaring, 300
Purdy, 24

Rich, of Eastern Connecticut, 222
Seymour, 161
Thomas, 28

Tibbitts (or Tibbetts), 63, 103, 266,
346



Index of Subjects.



Family Notes ( Continued)
Tippetl, 63, 103, 266, 346
Titus, 74

'rulhill, Query, 94
Van Huseii (Van Heuseii, Van
Hoesi-n). 285
Foord Family, Query, 277
Formaii Family, Addition and Cor-
rection, 161

Gardiner, Asa Bird, Necrology, 122
Genealogical Records—

Beeclier, 27

Christophers. 8, 148, 206, 329

Cornell, Query, 170

Fooril, Query, 277

Fornian, 161

Gould, 28

Guion, 26

Hempstead, 259

Ledyard, 161

Manwaring, 300

Furdy, 24

Rich, of Eastern Connecticut, 222

Seymour, 161

Thomas, 28

Tibbitts (or Tibbetts), 63, 103, 266,

346
Tippett, 63, 103, 266,346
Titus, 74
Tuthill, 94

Van Husen (Van Heusen, Van
Hoesen), 285
Gould Family, Bible Records, 28
Guion Family, Bible Records, 26

Hatfield, Abraham, Jr.—
his Burr pedigree, 164
his Ward pecligree. 162
Hempstead's Uiary, Comments on and
Corrrciions to the Introduction
to, 259
Hempstead Family, 259

Illustrations—

Avery Coat of Arms, in color, 84
Portrait of Samuel Putnam Avery,

Senior, 86
Portrait of Samuel Putnam Avery,

Junior, 90
Portrait of Andrew Carnegie, i
Portrait of Christopher Chris-
tophers, 18
Portrait of Sarah (Prout) Chris-
tophers, 20
Portrait of Eliza Macintosh Clinch

(Anderson) Lawton, 101
Portrait of Mrs James Marsland

Lawton, 101
Portrait of William Salomon, 173
Portrait of Reuel Stewart, M. U..t)2
Portr:>it of loniithan TiMirne, 281
Index of Names in Volume LI, 365



Index of Names in Wawarsing Church
Records, 393

KuUing, Catherine Elizabeth (Stewart)
Wood— her Culver pedigree, 90

Langdon, Woodbury Gersdorf, Nec-
rology, 120

Lawton, Eliza Macintosh Clinch (An-
derson), Necrology, 120

Lawton, Mrs. James Marsland, Nec-
rology, 120

Ledyard Family, Addition and Cor-
rection, 161

Lefferts, William Henry, Necrology,
123

Manwaring Family, 300

May, Calvin Sloane, M. D., Necrology.
124

Mott, Hopper Lenox, his Brown pedi-
gree, 165

Necrology of Members, 1919, 1 17-129

Newkirk, Thomas Jefiferson, Necrol-
ogy, 124

New York Genealogical and Bio-
graphical Record, Notice to its
subscribers, 172

Notice to Subscribers to this Publi-
cation, 172

Pedigrees, Registered —

Avery Pedigree of Samuel Put-
nam Avery, 84
Brown Pedigree of Hopper Lenox

Mott, 165
Burr Pedigree of Abraham Hat-
field, Jr., 164
Culver Pedigree of Catherine
Elizabeth (Stewart) Wood-Kul-
ling. 90
Park Pedigree of Samuel Putnam

Avery, 87
Ward Pedigree of Abraham Hat-
field, Jr., 162
Portraits— see Illustrations —

Samuel Putnam Avery, Senior, 86
Samuel Putnam Avery, Junior, 90
Andrew Carnegie, i
Christopher Christophers, 18
Sarah ( Prout) Christophers, 20
Eliza Macintosh Clinton (Ander-
son) Lawton, lot
Mrs. James Marsland Lawton, loi
Reuel Stewart, M. I)., 92
loiiathan Thorne, 281
Purdy Family, Bible Records, 24

Queries, 94, 169, 277

Records —

Wawarsing, N. V., Reformed
Dutch Church, 27, 138, 233



Index of Subjecls.



Registration of Pedigrees, Department

of, 83, 162
Rich Family of Eastern Connecticut,

222
Robertson, Archibald, Founderof First

Art School in America, 130
Robertson, Archibald, his portrait of

Washington, 345

Salomon, William, Necrology, 126
Schermerhorn, Frederick Augustus,

Necrology, 120
Sexton, Lawrence Eugene, Necrology,

126
Seymour Family, Addition and Cor-
rection, 161
Society Proceedings, 93, 168, 277, 362
Subscribers to this Publication, Notice
to, 172

Thomas Family, Bible Records, 28



Thompson, Charles Griswold, N

rology, 120
Tibbitts or Tibbetts Family, 63, i

266, 346
Tippett, Descendants of George T

pett of Yonkers, N. Y., 63, i

266, 346
Titus Family, Additions and C

rections, 74
Tuthill Family, Query, q4

Van Husen (Van Heusen, Van Hoesf
Family, 285

Wawarsing, N. Y., Records of the R
formed Dutch Church, 47, r

233
Westchester County, N. Y., Misce

anea, 39, 252
Woolworth, Frank Winfield, Ne

rology, 120



5 (




Ct-QPCDi* or AHCKICAN B-OCa




THE NEW YORK

(geitcalagical anb '®i0graj)lnfal Retort.



Vol. LI. NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1920. No. 1



ANDREW CARNEGIE,

WHOSE LIFE AND CAREER FURNISHES A MOST REMARKABLE EXAMPLE
OF THE OPPORTUNITIES THAT THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS A
FIELD, OFFERS TO THE YOUTH OF AMBITION, CAPABILITY, ENERGY, AND
STEADFASTNESS OF PURPOSE, TO RISE, WITHIN THE SHORT PERIOD
OF FIFTY-THREE YEARS, FROM A CONDITION OF PENURY TO THE
POSSESSION OF HONESTLY EARNED VAST WEALTH.



Contributed by John R. Totten.



That the United States of America is a field that ofiFers unsur-
passed opportunities for success to crown individual effort in the
struggle for wealth, is the often expressed opinion of enthusiastic,
patriotic citizens of this land. That such an expression of belief is
not merely an empty, self-sufficient assertion, hut a positive demon-
strable fact, is made evident by a brief review of the life and career
of .\ndrew Carnegie, the foremost iron-master of his time, the
phenomonally successful business man, the financier, the world
known philanthropist, and in later years the author and man of
letters : — a man who, within the short space of fifty-three years of
active effort, developed from a penniless boy into the type of
colossal wealth of the twentieth century.

Andrew Carnegie was born on November 25, 1835, at Dunferm-
line, Fifeshire, Scotland. He was the elder son of William and
Margaret (Morrison) Carnegie of that town, a community largely
composed of old time hand-loom weavers. His father was a man of
strong character and was favorably known to his fellow townsmen
as a writer and speaker on matters of political interest ; he was a
master-weaver by trade, in those times of hand-loom weaving, o\m-
ing several looms, one of which he operated himself, while for the
others he employed hired operators. Prior to the time of the intro-
duction of steam in the weaving industry, William Carnegie main-
tained himself and family in comfortable circumstances; but, when
steam was introduced as a motive power, he recognized that hand-
loom weaving was doomed, and he decided to sell out his small plant
and emigrate to the United States. It was with great reluctance that
he finally reached this decision, and the sale of his looms was made at



i



2 Andrew Carnegie. [Jan.

such sacrifice as to leave him almost without any funds to enable
him. to take this step ; but, in order to give his two sons, Andrew and
Thomas Morrison, that better chance of success that he deemed
would be theirs under the influence of republican institutions, the
decision was made; and in 1848, when Andrew, his son, was about
thirteen years old, with £10 borrowed from Andrew's mother's
brother, to defray the expenses of the trip, he sailed for this country
with his entire family consisting of himself, wife and two sons,
bound for Allegheny City, Pa., in which town the family at that time
had relatives. It will thus be seen that the family on arrival at their
destination was without capital, and in fact in debt for money bor-
rowed to make the trip. William Carnegie, the father, at once
entered a cotton factory as an operator and his son Andrew followed
him soon after into this same mill as a bobbin-boy, as his first employ-
ment, where by toiling from daylight to dark in a long twelve hour
laboring day he earned one dollar and twenty cents a week. Andrew,
while living at Dunfermline and attending school there, had acquired
a thorough grounding in reading, writing and arithmetic: and on
arriving at Allegheny City, through the kindness of Colonel Ander-
son, a gentleman of his town possessed of a large library, who loaned
books to working men and boys, he strove at odd moments to supple-
ment his Dunfermline schooling. The benefit that thus accrued to
him from Colonel Anderson's kindness was the seed that developed
into Andrew Carnegie's great philanthropy in endowing (in co-
operation with local municipal bodies) free libraries broadcast over
this land and many others. Colonel Anderson's benefaction imbued
his mind with a desire, which in time reached fruition, to imitate his
benefactor on a much larger scale.

Andrew, after a short service as bobbin-boy, received employ-
ment as stoker of the steam engine that drove the machinery of a
factory for the manufacture of bobbins, and shortly thereafter was
placed in charge of the engine itself, which occupation was one of
considerable responsibilitj- for one of his tender years. It was dur-
ing his short sojourn as a bobbin-boy and as engine driver in the
bobbin factory that he gained practical knowledge of the then deplor-
able conditions surrounding labor, and especially that of child-labor,
which information laid the foundation of his introduction of many
reforms along these lines when later he became an employer of
labor himself.

Ambition soon secured for him the position of telegraph mes-
senger in the office of the Ohio Telegraph Company at Pittsburgh,
at the age of about fifteen, his wages in the position being $2.50 a
week. Mr. Brooks, who was the manager of the office, took an
interest in the boy and encouraged him to learn telegraphy. In a
short time young Carnegie learned to receive and send messages by
sound, a rare accomplishment in those early days — and he was
advanced to the position of an operator at a salary of $300 a year.

About this time, at the age of sixteen, he lost his father, and he
thus became the main support of his widowed mother.



igzo] Andrew Carnegie. 3

When the Pennsylvania Railroad was completed to Pittsburgh,
the Superintendent of that road, Thomas A. Scott, frequently visited
the telegraph ofifice in that city, and became acquainted with young
Carnegie, gaining a knowledge and appreciation of his merits and
capabilities. When this railroad system erected its own telegraph
lines, Mr. Scott engaged Carnegie as his clerk and operator at a
salary of $35.00 a month.

He remained with the Pennsylvania Road thirteen years, and
during that time originated the now universally used system of
running trains between "blocks," or stations by telegraphic signals,
for the purpose of maintaining the ma.\imum of speed consistent
with safety of transit.

While still a boy he made his first investment venture, advising
his mother at Mr. Scott's suggestion, to buy ten shares of Adams
Express stock. The money for this venture was raised by Mrs.
Carnegie by mortgaging her home for almost its full value, $600,
with which money she purchased the stock. This stock paid a
monthly dividend of $r a share and the monthly receipt of $10 from
this source opened the eyes of both mother and hoy, who up to that
time had received no money that had not been the wage of personal
labor. It enlightened him as to the use of capital as a source of
income.

While travelling in the service of the Pennsylvania road, young
Carnegie met Thomas T. Woodruf?, an inventor, who showed him a
model of a sleeping car of his invention. Carnegie at once perceived
the value of the invention, introduced Mr. Woodruflf to Mr. Scott
and was instrumental in organizing the Woodruff Sleeping Car
Company. In order to secure an interest in this company, he bor-
rowed money from a local bank on his note of hand ; which demon-
strates the fact that his "probity was such as to have established his
credit at this early date ; this was his first note, and by its utterance



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