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Col. Ingoldsby, Mr. Scott, Major Lister, Sir Wm. Mashum and Mr. Love, or
any two of them, to be a sub-committee, to consider the business of furnishing
masts for New England for the use of the commonwealth, to meet on the 18th,
and Edward Winslow to attend at the same time (p. 384).

1653, January 2S. Order of the Council of State. Referring petition of Edward
Winslow to the consideration of Committee for Foreign Affairs (p. 398).

1653, February 1. Minutes of a Committee on Foreign Affairs. Edward Winslow's
petition to be taken into consideration on the 4th (p. 398).

1653, September 14. Order of the Council of State. Appointing Mr. Courtney,
Mr. Broughton and Mr. St. Nichols, a committee to speak with Edward Winslow
concerning petition of David Selleck, of Boston, that the Council may be fully
informed of the matter of fact alleged in that petition (p. 408).

1653, December 29. Order of the Council of State. Referring petition of
Col. Samuel Mathews, agent for Virginia, to Mr. Strickland, and Sir Ant. A.
Cooper, to confer with Edward Winslow, Col. Mathews, and others thereon ;
as also how the question between Lord Baltimore and the people of Virginia,
concerning the bounds claimed by them respectively, may be determined ; all
papers in the hands of the Committee of the Navy to be sent for, and the whole
matter reported to the Lord Protector (p. 412).



1896.] Governor Edward Winslow. \ -> -7

Winthrop and his Council declined the invitation.* Captain Holmes
sailed by the future site of Hartford, where the Dutch had improvised a
fort — replying to the commander, who threatened to fire upon his vessel.
that the Governor of Plymouth had sent him " to go up the river to such
a place," and that he should " proceed " — and set up, at what is now Wind-
sor, the first house erected in Connecticut

Thus Plymouth, not Massachusetts, made the initial settlement. But
more, Winslow was the first New England colonist to discover that
important artery in the New England system now called the Connecticut
River. Says Hutchinson : "The Commissioners of the United Colonies,
in a declaration against the Dutch, in 1653, say that 'Mr. Winslow dis-
covered the fresh river when the Dutch had neither trading house, nor
any pretence to a foot of land there.' " (I. 46.) f

In the Memorial History of Hartford County it is truly stated that
Winslow explored the Connecticut River thoroughly soon after the
sachem Wahginnacut visited Roston and Plymouth — early in April, 1631
— in order to induce those colonies to send parties to settle there (p. 309).
If Winslow did not go overland at this time, or before 1633, it is prob-
able that John Oldham, of Watertown, and three companions were the
first English to reach the Connecticut River — at least, far up stream — by
a journey on land.

If the trading post begun at the site of Hartford by the Dutch in early
June, 1633. and the improvised fort — thrown up probably in anticipation
of the arrival of English settlers — can be claimed justly to have been a
settlement — and I think such a claim reasonable — then Hartford fairly
wears the historical decoration of the first settlement by the white men in
Connecticut. The other decoration, that of the first settlement by the
English, belongs to Plymouth. The original evidence, if any exists, that
any settlement by the English, implying occupancy, was even attempted,
before Captain Holmes erected his house on the Connecticut, near its
junction with the Tunxis or Farmington River, is too conjectural to
stand as proof ; and the allusion to Wethersfield as " the most ancient
towne, " in the colonial records, is an interlineation of a later date —
made probably because of the prejudices of the settlers from the region
of Boston against the Plymouth Colony. Dr. Stiles, in his invaluable
history of Windsor, takes this view of the important point raised.

* Savage mildly comments upon the reasons assigned by Winthrop and the
Council as " pretexts," adding, "Some disingenuousness, I fear, may be imputed
to our Council. . . . for the next season we were careful to warn the Dutch
against occupation of it, and the following year took possession ourselves." (Win-
throp, i. 105.) Drake is more blunt : "There may be a suspicion, very honestly
entertained, that the decision against uniting with Plymouth was dictated by a dis-
position to overreach their neighbors ; or, as would be said in modern times, their
decision was 'based upon political considerations.'" (Hist, and Antiq. of Boston,

P- I55-)

f •• During his expeditions for food and trade a few years before, Winslow lo-
cated the river, which Indians had reported to him as the Qeuonacktacut." (Moore's
Memoirs of American Governors.)

In view of the recent celebration of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of
the settlement of New London (1646-1896), and the purpose to erect to John Win-
throp, the younger, in that city, a monument as the founder of Connecticut, it is fit-
ting to ask what constitutes any man a founder of a state? If, for example, to be its
first governor (as some think) entitles him to such distinction, then the founder of
Plymouth was John Carver.



j 28 Governor Edward Winslow. [J Ul . v >

In 1636, under Winslow as Governor, was enacted an elaborate
scheme of laws which placed the government on a stable foundation —
a transaction of an official nature probably the most important since the
Compact. His parliamentary talents, as well as his knowledge practi-
cally of English laws, both of which had been quickened or sharpened
by his remarkable experiences in England during his missions of 1623,
1624, 1630, and 1635, singularly qualified him to preside over the body
of fifteen men* selected for the important task of preparing a written
code of laws for a state that had existed for fifteen years or more with-
out such written laws.f A marked feature, too, of Winslow's care in
legalities is seen in the precision with which he recorded data. The
official journal of proceedings of the gubernatorial and general courts
was begun (in 1633) during his first term as Governor.

It is remarkable that Winslow was the only one of the Mayflower
band as commissioner from Plymouth, when the New England Confed-
eracy was formed in 1643 ; that he was Plymouth's first Governor after
its establishment; and that in the following year (1645) ne was President
of the Council of War of Plymouth, which numbered twelve members.
It is remarkable, too, that Bradford, then Governor, was not one of the
two initial commissioners for Plymouth, as Winthrop, then Governor,
was for Massachusetts. A striking point, too, touching the origin of the
Union is the circumstance that in 1635, while in England, Winslow,
who had, even then, seen the necessity of a union of the colonies, pe-
titioned the Council for " a special warrant to the English colonies to
defend themselves against all foreign enemies." J

During his stay in England from 1646 to 1655, whether acting as
representative for Plymouth or Boston or both, or for the United Colo-
nies, we find that their educational and spiritual interests, whatever the
concerns of politics and diplomacy, always received the best services of
Edward Winslow — as seen in his purchase of the library of the Rev.
Thomas Jenner, in 165 1, to send to the commissioners, to be placed in
Harvard College ; or in his book, "The Glorious Gospel in New Eng-



* To the Governor and Council were added eight men: Brewster. Smith, Doane, /
and Jenny, of Plymouth ; Jonathan Brewster and Wadsworlh, of Duxbury ; Cudworth
and Annable of Scituate.

f In 165s occurred a revision of the laws ; in 1671 the new digest was printed by
Samuel Green of the Cambridge Press ; m 1685 the last revision was made.

% Winthrop disapproved of Winslow's petition (i. 172) ; but the petitioner, in
England, knew the temper of the government better than Winthrop in' Boston. ' A
man of eminent activity, resolution and bravery," as Robert C. Winthrop calls Wins-
low, in his oration at Plymouth, he was yet a diplomatist and prudent : he knew that
independent action by the colonies at that time meant rashness.

Rev. Dr. John Brown, of Bedford, England, in that latest contribution (1S95) to
the story of Plymouth, " The Pilgrim Fathers of New England," aptly sustains my
point : " It has been well said the commissioners sought no permission beforehand ;
they did as they pleased at the time, and defended their conduct afterwards. As
Edward Winslow put the case when sent over to London to defend the action of the
colonies : ' If we in America should forbear to unite for offence or defence against
a common enemy till we have leave from England, our throats might all be cut before
the messenger would be half seas through.' It seemed a daring step to take ; in
reality it was less daring in 1643 than it would have been some years earlier. For
then Laud had been two years in the Tower awaiting that execution which came two
years later, and Charles I. was engaged in that life and death struggle with his Parlia-
ment which ended so fatally for him." (Page 334.)



1S96.] Governor Edward Winslow. j ->o

land,"* etc., which, with his influence and efforts with members of Par-
liament, caused the incorporation of the Society for the Propagation of
the Gospel in New England. f

President Steele of that society wrote as follows to the Commissioners
of the United Colonies : "Through the blessing of God the business of
the said Corporation is in a good forwardness, and the integrity, abilities,
and diligence of the said Mr. Winslow being well known to you and us, as
also his great interest and acquaintance with the members of Parliament
and other gentlemen of quality in the respective counties of this common-
wealth ; we cannot but conceive his presence and residence here to be of
absolute necessity for the carrying out of the work ; for we cannot con-
ceive you can send over any that hath the like influence and interest in
the affections of such as may be most helpful herein — ... if he
leave now, the work in all likelihood will be hazarded (if not fail), which
is at present in an hopeful way notwithstanding all the oppositions we
have met withall." (Hazard, ii. 1794.)

Or, as Moore remarks : " The various employments of Governor Win-
slow in England on behalf of the Colonies, and his own high character,
had given him a standing such as no other New England man enjoyed at
this time." (Lives, etc., 129.)

It is of this period of Winslow's life, when he knew the Protector
and the leading men of the Commonwealth, that the historian is yet to
write, in order to more fully estimate his services as the representative of
the Colonies, and even more positively stamp his part and place among
the four great leaders of Plymouth as her diplomatist and statesman.

Nevertheless, all the historians from Hutchinson to Young and Pal-
frey have recognized, more or less, these distinct, conspicuous, unrivalled
qualities and services of Edward Winslow ; and only of late, in a marked
instance or two — especially in a school history by a most pleasing lec-
turer;]; — has his career been overlooked — the career, to quote Winthrop,

*The chief works of Winslow include : " Bradford and Winslow's Journal, or a
Diary of Occurrences" (London. 1622); "Winslow's Relation" (1624). also pub-
lished in Young's "Chronicles"; ''Brief Narration, or Hypocrisy Unmasked"
(1664); "New England's Salamander" (1647); "The Glorious Progress of the
Gospel among the Indians," etc. (1649) ; " A Platform of Church Discipline in New
England " (1653). Among his published letters are one to George Morton, advisory
to such as purposed voyaging to Plymouth (Young's " Chronicles ") ; letters to Win-
throp (Hutchinson's Coll.) ; and to Secretary Thurlow (State Papers. Ill, etc.).

f Had this society been created simply to publish Eliot's Catechism, his Indian
Grammar, his Indian Primer, his Old and New Testaments in Indian, and his
Bay Psalm Book, it would have performed a splendid service in the spiritual and
historical estimate of our age. Winslow was far-sighted ; but he may have builded
better than he knew in being the essential agency in its formation.

I See my article on "Singular Omissions " in Fiske's History of United States
for Schools, in the Virginia Historical Magazine (Va. Hist. Soc.) for October, 1S95.
It closes as follows :

Let a single instance suffice :

That greatest naval event on the high seas in the War for the Union, the combat
between the Kearsarge and the Alabama, and that supremely momentous naval inci-
dent, the battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac, as described by Fiske,
entirely omits to name either of the two commanders ill both contests! all of them
brave men, and two of them, from Fiske's standpoint, patriots of the truest dye. His
inconsistency is shown from the fact that in the various portrayals of naval battles
from the Revolution down, he names the respective captains, and sometimes gives
their portraits. He heaps glory upon Ericsson, the inventor of the Monitor, as



I 20 Governor Edward Winslow. U u b r >

of "one of the very noblest of our little band, who was soon associated
most leadingly and lovingly with all their spiritual as well as temporal
concerns." *

And yet, at the two hundred and seventy-fifth anniversary of the
Landing, on December 21, 1895, the Hon. George F. Hoar, in a stirring,
incisive, at times eloquent oration, full of admiration for the Pilgrim
character and its potent influence upon the destinies of America, called
attention again and again, in personal eulogium, to Carver, Bradford,
Brewster, and Standish, but omitted from that leadership Winslow,
whose writings, however, he quotes in unfolding the story of Plymouth
and her rise — for Winslow is the sole source of our information in various
important affairs. The Rev. Edward C. Towne asserts that " the ora-
tion shows exceptional general knowledge of the Pilgrims, but [that] it
very imperfectly brings out their special features, and some of the lights
of the picture are entirely false." (Boston Evening Transcript, January
24, 1896.)

Seeing it stated that Senator Hoar proposed making addenda to his
oration, I suggested in a note to him that as he had overlooked the part
or place of a Pilgrim leader, he might easily supply the want in his
revision, f

"among the great men who saved the Union and freed the slaves," and prints his
likeness " from the unique marble bust modeled from life by Kneeland, and now in
my possession in my house at Cambridge." ! W orde n, who helped to complete the
Monitor, to be in time to meet its terrible opponent, and who so dexterously handled
it, receiving severe wounds, is not so much as named by Fiske, who, of course, over-
looks Winslow, of the Kearsarge, (Here read what he endorses of Winslow and
Worden in Appleton.) In that "utterly unjustifiable " transaction, the taking of
Mason and Slidell from the Trent, he twice particularizes the Federal commander.

* " There, too, at Leyden they were joined — by the accidents of travel, as it would
seem — in 1617, by one of the very noblest of our little band, who was soon associated
most leadingly and lovingly with all their spiritual as well as temporal concerns; . . .
the narrator and chronicler of not a few of the most interesting passages of their his-
tory; the leader of not a few of their most important enterprises ; a man of eminent
activity, resolution, and bravery ; who did not shrink from offering himself as a host-
age to the savages, . . . who did not shrink from imprisonment and the danger
of death in confronting, as an agent of Plymouth and Massachusetts, the tyrannical
Archbishop Laud, who earned a gentler and more practical title to remembrance as
the importer of the first neat cattle ever introduced into New England ; an earnest and
devoted friend to the civilization of the Indian tribes and their conversion to Chris-
tianity ; the chief commissioner of Oliver Cromwell in bis. warlike designs upon an
island which our own hero President has so recently attempted to secure by peaceful
purchase — Edward Winslow, the only one of the Pilgrim Fathers of whom we
have an authentic portrait ; whose old seat of Careswell, at Marshfield, was the
chosen home of Webster, and whose remains, had they not been committed to the
deep, when he died so sadly on the sea, . . . would have been counted among
the most precious dust which New England could possess." (Oration by Robert C.
Winthrop at the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary, etc., at Plymouth, 1S70.)

f Senator Hoar, under date of February 5th, replied : " I have had no purpose of
making addenda to the Plymouth Oration. The authorized edition will contain one
or two changes of phraseology in sentences where there was a seeming, though not
real, discrepancy. I prepared the oration under considerable difficulty, as I was sick
in bed for more than a month and unable to use my eyes for any purpose of investi-
gation or study for four or five weeks before the address was delivered. I had contem-
plated giving a brief sketch of each of the foremost men among the Mayflower passen-
gers, and those who came over afterwards, and of course of John Robinson. But I

1 Virginia Historical Magazine, October. 1805.



1896.] The Decker Family Bible Record. I -> I

I marvel at Mr. Hoar's seeming want of distinction in the part this
leader played in the evolution of Plymouth. For example, when he
speaks of the fit companionship of Winthrop, Bradford, Brewster, and as
gentlemen, too, should he not know Winslow's position as a gentleman ?
That if with any pilgrim Winthrop was socially and diplomatically friendly,
it was with Winslow ? With Winslow, whose sweet letter to Winthrop in
his trials is a precious epistolary legacy of early Boston and earlier
Plymouth ? And almost the only approach to chiding of Winslow by
Bradford, in one or two instances, is because of Winslow's love for
Massachusetts and his services for her — which services alone have made
Winslow a figure in our colonial history for all time.

In the united leadership of Brewster,* Bradford, W'inslow, and Standish
lay the foundation and the evolution of the Pilgrim state. In their pecul-
iar roles as statesman and soldier, Winslow and Standish, the recruits of
the Pilgrim band at Leyden, displayed as indispensable qualities as the
other two, and performed an even more distinctive part than they — one
in keeping and promoting peace, the other in being prepared in peace
for war. It is difficult to express in a word the full part and entire place
of Edward Winslow in the early history of Plymouth. But distinct, con-
spicuous, unrivalled, and inestimable are his services as her diplomatist
and statesman.



THE DECKER FAMILY BIBLE RECORD.



Translated from the Dutch by M. I. Young.



1724, January 2d. My wife, Catrina Wynkoop, is at rest in the Lord,

and buried the 4th among her friends, and beside her
mother.

1725, June 9. My mother sleeps in the Lord, and buried the nth June

in the churchyard, beside her husband, Cornelius Decker, and
my forefathers.

1726, I, Johannes Decker, married Marytje Jansen the 17th May.

1727, March 26th, is my daughter Elsie born, Saturday night. Her

godfather and godmother, Matthewis Jansen and Marya Decker.
1728-9, February 28th, is my daughter Rachel born. Her godfather
and godmother, Benjamin Smedes, Jr., and Rachel Smedes.

was unable to do it for the reason I have stated, and also because it would have made
a speech too long. So I have been obliged to let it stand as it is. But Edward
Winslow will not lack the honor. Your own eloquent tribute to his memory before the
Historical Association is a most excellent and worthy tribute to his memory. I dare
say you, or some other investigator, will perhaps write a life which will take a promi-
nent place in our historical literature."

* Goodwin places this chief leadership without Brewster, dedicating his book
" To the memory of Bradford, Standish, and Winslow, the wise, the brave, the able
Triumvirs of the Pilgrim Republic."

" Wonderful, indeed, was it that a single shipload, . . . cast up like waifs
on the shore of an unknown wilderness, should have had not only a Carver, Brewster, ■
and Fuller, but also such a greater trio as Winslow, Standish, and Bradford "
(P- 459)-






1-3 2 The Decker Family Bible Record. [J u b°-

1 73 1-2, January 6th, is my son Cornells born. His godfather and
godmother, Cornells Jansen and Helytje Decker.

1 733, December 14th, is my son Matthewis born. His godfather and god-
mother, Johannes Jansen and Annaye Jansen.

1736-7, January 9th, is my daughter Marya born. Her godfather and
godmother, Isaac Tack and Magdelene Tack.

1738-9, February the 17th, is my daughter Catharyna born. Her god-
father and godmother, Johannes Delameter and Margaret
Jansen.

1741. April 16th, is my son Johannes born. His godfather and god-
mother, Johannes Ten-Broeck and Rachel Ten-Broeck.

1 74 1-2, January the 23d. Johannes Decker is deceased in the Lord,
Saturday afternoon.

1762, July 1st, was I, Cornelius Decker, married to Elizabeth Van
Wagenen.

1764, January 16th, is my eldest daughter, Sarah, born. Joannes Decker
and Annache Van Wagenen, her godfather and godmother.

1764, March 12th, is my wife Elizabeth Van Wagenen deceased in the
Lord, on Monday about nine or ten o'clock before mid-day.

1767, June 2d, is my eldest son born, named Johannes. His godfather
and godmother, Benjamin Smedes, Jr., and Elsie his wife.

1770, July 13th, is my second son born named Cornelius.

1774, February 2d, is my second daughter born named Catharina.

1778, October the 8th, is my third daughter born, Elizabeth.

1780, November the 2 2d, is my fourth daughter born named Maria.

1795, August nth, is my third daughter Elizabeth deceased.

1796, September 23d, is my son Cornelius deceased.
1740, November 11th, is my second wife Elizabeth born.
181 2, August 4th, died my father Cornelius Decker.



[Note. — The Cornelius Decker first mentioned in this record married
on December 22, 1695, Elsie Ten Broeck (daughter of Wessel Ten
Broeck and Marya Ten Eyck), and had the following children :

Johannes, baptized August 16, 1696.

Maria, baptized May 1, 1698. »

Heyltje, baptized January 14, 1700.

Wessel, baptized January 25, 1702.
Elsie Ten Broeck's death is the second entry made by her son Johan-
nes in the above record. This Johannes married for his first wife on
December 29, 1720, Catrina Wynkoop (baptized December 17, 1699,
daughter of Evert Wynkoop and Geertje Elmendorp), and they had one
daughter, Geertjen, baptized October 15, 1721. For his second wife
Johannes Decker married. Marytje Jansen (baptized September 3, 1704),
daughter of Mattheus Janse and Rachel Popinga.

Cornelius, the son of Johannes Decker and Marytje Jansen, after the
death of his first wife, Elizabeth Van Wagenen (born November 1, 1739,
daughter of Symen Van Wagenen and Sara Du Bois), married for his
second wife Elizabeth Decker, presumably a cousin, and she died June
10, 1 8 1 3 , aged seventy-two years and seven months.

Johannes Decker, son of Cornelius Decker and Elizabeth Decker,
married Sarah De Puy.]



1896.] Records 0/ the Reformed Dutch Church in A'ew York. 1



RECORDS OF THE REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH IN THE
CITY OF NEW YORK.— Baptisms.



(Co



A I754. OUDERS.

Apr. 3. Jakob Van Winckele,
Rachel Cammega.

12. Jakob Kip, Elizabet
Freer.

David Broiiwer, Jan-
netje Hartje.
15. Joseph Bandt, Mar-
garita Gordon.

21. Mattheus Hoppe,
Elizabet Reyd.

24. Isaak Koning, Geertje
Hartje.
May 1. Robet G. Livingston,
C a t h a r i n a Mc-
Phederen.
5. Henricus Kip, Lena
Low.
Arie Koning, Antje
Lozy.
S. Theodoriis Van
Wyck, Helena
Santford.
12. Joseph Riilin, Elisa-
bet Eckkerson.

15. William Van tie
Water, Elisabet
Hendrik.
Folkert Someren-
dyk, Annetje Fella.
19. J oris Marschalk,
Hester Fyn.
Willem Vredenburg,
Willemyntje Nak.

23. John Cregier, An-
netje Gilbert.

Dirk Ten Eyck, Elis-
abet Biested.



xxvii., p. 80, of The Record.)


KINDERS.


GETUYGEN.


Hendrik.


Hendrik Van Winckele,




Catharina Waldron, z.




huis v.


Isaac.


Bartholomews Krenny,




Tryntje Van Kleek, z.




huis v.


Petrus.


Benjamin Lozier, Dina




de Groot, zyn huis v.


George.


George Gordon, Catha-




rina Burjeoii, Wed. v.




Amos Pain.


Mattheus.


Mattheus Mandeviel,




Tanneke Waldron, z.




hiiis v.


Elsje.


Albeit Westerveld, Lea




Hartje, syn h. v.


Henricus.


Andries Meyer, Alida Liv-




ingston, Wed. Van



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