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Jean Baptiste Descamps (1706-1791).

Bom at Dunkirk, and studied under his uncle, Louis
Coypel, after which he went to Paris and entered the school
of LargilliSre. He established a school of design at Rouen.

Anson Dickinson (1780- ).

Bom in Litchfield, Conn., and worked as a silversmith.
He became a miniature painter and removed to New York.

Christian William Ernest Dietrich (1712-1774).

A German artist, bom at Weimar and died at Dresden.
He learned the first principles from his father and after-
wards studied under Alex. Thiele, a landscape painter.
Was also an engraver of reputation.

John Dixey ( -1820).

Sculptor, bom in Dublin, Ireland, and educated in Lon-
don. He was a student of the Royal Academy and came to
America in 1789. He was vice-president of the Pennsyl-
vania Academy of Fine Arts and lived many years in New

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SmoN VAN DEB DoES (1653-1717). •

Bom at Amsterdam, son of Jacob van der Does, who in-
structed him in the art, adopting the same style of painting
as his father, in subjects and manner.

Carlo Dolci (1616-1686).

Bom at Florence, and studied under Jacopo Vignali.
His best works were chiefly confined to heads of the Saviour
and the Virgin and to Madonnas.

DOMENICHINO (1581-1641).

His real name was Domenico Zampieri; bom at Bologna
and received his first instructions from Denis Calvart and
then in the Academy of the Caracci, where Guido and
Albano were then students.

John Doncker (1610- ).

A Dutch painter, bom at Gouda, who had great abilities
but died prematurely.

Gerard Douw (1613-1675).

Bom at Leyden, the son of a glazier, and received his
first instructions in drawing from Dolendo, the engraver,
and later a pupil of Rembrandt.

Guillam Dubois (1622-1680).

A Dutch landscape painter, bom and died at Amsterdam,
and painted in the style of Ruisdael.

Thomas Spence Duche (1766- ).

Bom in Philadelphia about 1766, and was the pupil of
Benjamin West. Dunlap says, "little is known'' of him.

William Dunlap (1766-1839).

Bom in Perth Amboy, N. J.; died in New York City.
He was engaged in artistic, dramatic and literary work.
He came to New York in 1777 and painted portraits. In
1784 he went to London and studied with Benjamin West.

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Joseph Siffrein Duplessis (1725-1802).

Born at Carpentras, France. He was placed under
Iinbert at Chartreuse. In 1745 he entered the school of
Subleyras at Rome. At the age of twenty-seven he went
to Paris and was admitted to the Royal Academy. He was
appointed keeper of the Museum at Versailles.

Asher B. Durand (1796-1886).

Bom at Jefferson, N. J., and died in South Orange, N. J.
He first took instructions from his father in engraving and
in 1812 was apprenticed to Peter Maverick in New York
City, whose partner he became, rising to the highest rank
in that profession. He then turned his attention to painting
landscapes in oil as well as portraits. In 1826 he was one
of the founders of the National Academy of Design and its
President from 1845 to 1861.

Albert Durer (1471-1528).

Bom at Nuremberg. He was the son of a skillful gold-
smith, who taught him the rudiments of design; subsequently
he studied under Martin Hapse and Michael Wolgemut.
He was most famous as an engraver.

Josef Laurens Dyckmans (1811-1888).

Flemish painter, bom at Lierre. Pupil of Tielemans and
Wappers. Painted genre pictures and small portraits, and
was professor in the Antwerp Academy.

James Earle (1761-1798).

Bom in Leicester, Mass., and died in Charleston, S. C.
He painted portraits in Charleston, S. C, and died suddenly
of yellow fever when he was preparing to return to England.

Ralph Earle (1751-1801).

Born in Leicester, Mass.; died in Bolton, Conn. He
painted portraits in Connecticut in 1775 and after the Rev-
olution went to England, where he studied under Benjamin
West, returning to the United States in 1786. His American
historical paintings are among the first ever executed by an
American artist.

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Francis W. Edmonds (1806-1863).

Bom in Hudson, N. Y.; died at Bronxville. He was a
bank cashier in his native city and in New York City until
1855. During this time he studied at the National Academy
of Design. \XTiile Secretary of the American Bank Note
Company he designed several pictures which were engraved
on notes printed by that establishment.

Gerbrant vanden Eeckhout (1621-1674).

A Dutch painter, bom at Amsterdam, who studied in the
school of Rembrandt and became a great portrait painter.

Charles L. Elliott (1812-1868).

Born in Scipio, N. Y.; died in Albany, N. Y. About
1834 he came to New York and was a pupil of Trumbull and
later of Quidor. He painted numerous portraits of eminent

Juan Antonio Escalante (1630-1670).

Spanish painter, born at Cordova, who studied under
Francisco Rizi, but imitated the style of Tintoretto. He
died at Madrid.

Jan van Eyck (1380-1440.)

A Flemish painter, native of Maes-Eyck, on the river
Maes. He was a brother of Hubert van Eyck. They
established themselves at Bruges and founded the Flemisiot
school, and are credited with inventing oil painting.

Gaudenzio Ferrari (1484-1550).

An Italian painter, student of Perugino, says one writer,
while others say he first studied under Stefano Scotto and
then under Bernardino Luini.

Odoardo Fialetti (1573-1638).

Born at Bologna; died at Venice. He first studied under
Gio. Battista Cremonini and then in the school of Tinto-

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. George W. Flagg (1816-1897).

Bom in New Haven, Conn. He studied with his uncle,
Washington AUston. Under the patronage of Luman
Reed he spent three years in Europe to study. After living
six years in London he returned to New Haven and sub-
sequently removed to New York City.

Jared Bradley Flagg (1820-1899).

Born in New Haven, Conn. Studied with his brother,
George W. Flagg and Washington AUston. He first settled
in Hartford, Conn., and in 1849 removed to New York. He
entered the ministry, but after ten years of that life returned
to his former profession.

Albert Flamen.

A Flemish painter and engraver who was born in Bniges
and estabUshed himself at Paris from 1648 to 1664. He
possessed greater abilities for engraving than for painting.

Samuel Folwell (1765-1813).

He probably came from New England and died in Phila-
delphia, where he was a miniature painter as well as a cutter
of silhouettes and a ^'worker in hair.'' He conducted a
school in that city for a time and engraved portraits and
book plates.

Charles de la Fosse (1636-1716).

Born at Paris, the son of a goldsmith, he studied under
Charles Le Brun and later studied the works of Titian and
Veronese. He became a distinguished colorist of the French

Jacques Fouquieres (1580-1659).

A Flemish landscape painter, born at Antwerp and died
at Paris. Studied under Josse Momper and John Brueghel.

Leonard de France (1735-1805).

Flemish painter, bom at Li^ge, who studied under J. B.
Coders. He was appointed first professor in the Academy
of the Fine Arts at Li6ge.

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Francis Francken (1542-1616).

Called the Elder. Flemish painter, bom at Antwerp, who
studied under Francis Floris. He painted historical subjects.

Martin Freminet (1567-1619).

Born and died in Paris. He was the son of an obscure
painter. When he visited Rome, formed a friendship with
Giuseppe Cesari, but followed the style of Michael Angelo.

SiGMUND Freudenberger (1745-1801).

Bom at Berne, was a pupil of Em. Handmann, and then
studied under Wille, Boucher, Greuze and RosUn. He
painted and engraved Swiss life scenes.

James Frothingham (1788-1864).

Born in Charlestown, Mass., and died at Brooklyn,
N. Y. He began life as a chaise painter in his father's
chaise manufactory, from which he developed into a success-
ful portrait painter.

John Fyt (1609-1661).

A Flemish painter, bom at Antwerp; was distinguished for
painting animals, especially dogs. Pupil of Frans Snyders.

Barent Gaal (1650-1703).

Dutch painter, born at Haerlem; studied under Philip
Wouwermans and painted horse-fairs, battles and hunting-

Taddeo Gaddi (1300-1366).

An Italian painter and architect, born in Florence. He
was the son of Gaddo Gaddi, who first instructed him.
Later he studied in the school of Giotto.

Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788). •

An English painter of portraits and landscapes who was
bom at Suffolk. He received instructions from Gravelot
and Hayman.

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John van Geel (1631-1698).

A Dutch painter, and scholar of Gabriel Metzu, whose
style he imitated. Born and died at Rotterdam.

Nicholas Van Gelder.

Was an animal painter of the Netherlands, who flourished
in the seventeenth century.

Gentileschi, see Lomi.

Jean L. T. A. Gericault (1791-1824).

A French painter, born at Rouen, who studied under Carle
Vemet and afterwards in the School of Guerin He died
at Paris.

Francois Regis Gignoux (1816-1882).

Bom in Lyons, France; died in Paris. He studied art in
the Academy of St. Pierre at Lyons and in the School of
Fine Arts at Paris. In 1844 he came to the United States
and opened a studio in Brooklyn, N. Y., returning to France
in 1870.

Grove Sheldon Gilbert (1805-1885).

Bom in Clinton, N. Y. ; died in Rochester. Studied medi-
cine for a time but decided to take up art. For several years
he painted in Fort Niagara and Toronto, settling in Roches-
ter in 1834. He painted mostly portraits.

GiORGiONE, see Barbarelli, Giorgio.

GiOTTiNO, see Stefano, Tommaso.

Giotto di Bondone (1276-1337).

An Italian painter and architect, born at Vespignano. He
attracted the attention of Cimabue, under whom he studied
and surpassed.

Jan Glauber (1646-1726).

A landscape painter, bom at Utrecht, Holland, of Ger-
man parents. He entered the School of Nicholas Berghem

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and later went to Rome. He settled at Amsterdam and
formed a friendship with Gerard de Lairesse.

Henry Goltzius (1558-1617).

A Dutch painter and engraver, born at Mulbrecht, who
acquired the elements of design from his father, afterward
studying engraving under Theodore Cuernhert.

Hubert Goltzius (1526-1583).

A Flemish painter and engraver; born at Venloo, died at
Bruges. He studied in the School of Lambert Lombard at
Li6ge, and later visited Rome.

John van Goyen (1596-1666).

Bom at Ijeyden and died at The Hague. Was one of the
earliest Dutch landscape painters. He studied under Schil-
derpoort, Isaac Nicolai and Esias Vandevelde, and was
father-in-law to Jan Steen.

Henry Peters Gray (1819-1877).

He was born and died in New York and in 1838 entered
the studio of Daniel Huntington. He visited Europe several
times and was president of the National Academy 1869-1871.

Horatio Greenough (1805-1852).

Sculptor, bom in Boston, Mass., and died in Somerville,
Mass. When a boy he was taught the rudiments of his art
by a French sculptor, Binon. He entered Harvard, where
he met Washington AUston; but before completing his col-
lege course Greenough sailed for Europe in 1825, where he
lived permanently.

Jean Baptiste Greuze (1725-1805).

Born at Tournus; died at Paris. He studied in School of
Grandon, a portrait painter at Lyons, where he made rapid

Anthony Griff or Grief (1670-1715).

Flemish painter of landscapes, dead game and dogs. Born
at Antwerp and died at Brussels.

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William Grimaldi (1751-1830).

Bom in Shoreditch, England, and died in London. Studied
under Worlidge and afterward at Paris. He was a miniature
painter and painted for members of the Royal Family.

Jean Antoine Theodore Gudin (1802-1879).

Born at Paris and died at Boulogne. He was marine
painter of harbor and coast scenes, also landscapes. He
practised etching and Uthography.

GuiDO, see Reni.

GuiDO GuiDONE Siena.

An old Sienese painter who made great improvement over
the Greeks before the time of Cimabue and Giotto.

Francis Guy (1760-1820).

Born in England and came to New York in 1795, going
to Philadelphia and Baltimore, where he estabUshed dye-
works. He also had been a tailor, but always worked at.
landscape painting, to which he was devoted. About
1817 he returned to Brooklyn, N. Y., where he died.

Jan Hackaert (1636-1699).

Born at Amsterdam, he became one of the ablest land-
scape painters of the Dutch School. He was a friend of
Adrian Vandervelde.

Francis Hals (1584-1666).

Flemish portrait painter, born at Antwerp and died at
Haerlem. He was a disciple of Karel van Mander and a
friend of Van Dyck.

George P. A. Healy (1813-1894).

Bom in Boston, Mass. He went to Paris in 1836 and
occasionally visited the United States. He resided in
Chicago from 1855 to 1867 and then made his residence in
Rome and in Paris. He was one of the best American
portrait painters of the French School. He died at Chicago.

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Matthew van Helmont (1653-1719).

Flemish painter, bom at Brussels, who studied under
D. Teniers and painted similar subjects to those of that
master. He died at Antwerp.

Bartholomew vander Helst (1611-1670).

Dutch painter, bom at Haerlem, who painted historical
subjects and portraits. He died at Amsterdam.

Egbert van Hemskerk (1645-1704).

Called "the younger, '^ was bom at Haerlem and died at
London. He studied under Peter Grebber and painted
dmnken scenes and drolls.

Martin van Veen Hemskerk (1498-1574).

Dutch painter, bom at Hemskerk, the son of Jacob
William van Veen. He studied under John Lucas and in
the school of John Schoorel. Later he studied the works
of Michael Angelo.

GuiLLiAM Van Herp (1614-1677).

Bom and died at Antwerp. Pupil of Damiaan Wortel-
mans and painted history and genre. He came under the
influence of Rubens.

John vander Heyden (1637-1712).

Bom at Gorcum; he obtained his knowledge of design
from a glass painter. He painted churches, palaces, ruins
and views of cities. Died at Amsterdam.

Thomas Hicks (1823-1890).

Born in Newtown, Pa. He studied in the Pennsylvania
Academy of Fine Arts and in 1838 entered the National
Academy in New York. After studying abroad he returned
to New York City in 1849 and began a successful career as
a portrait painter.

John William Hill (1812-1879).

Born in England and died in this country. He did
aquatint work and drew upon stone for the lithographers.

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Later he painted landscapes in water-colors and achieved
considerable reputation.

Thomas Hill (1829- ).

Bom in Birmingham, England. He came to the United
States in 1840 and settled in Taunton, Mass. Until 1853
he followed the profession of ornamental painting, then
studied in the life-class of the Pennsylvania Academy at
Philadelphia. He removed to California and painted


Bom at Coeverden, Holland, and resided at Amsterdam.
He was a friend of Ruysdael and their styles are similar.

William Hogarth (1697-1764).

Born at London. His father was a schoolmaster, who
apprenticed him to an engraver, after which he entered the
Academy of St. Martinis Lane.

Hans Holbein (1497-1554).

A Swiss painter and wood engraver, born at Augsburg.
He was the son and scholar of John Holbein. He visited
England and painted a number of portraits, including
Henry VIII., who gave him apartments in the palace. He
died at London.

Gerard Honthorst (1590-1656).

A Dutch painter, bom at Utrecht, who studied under
Abraham Bloemaert. Going to Rome he studied the works
of M. A. Caravaggio and later settled at The Hague.

Peter de Hooge (1632-1681).

A Dutch painter, born at Rotterdam and died at Haerlem.
His usual subjects were interiors of Dutch apartments with

John Horremans, the Elder (1682-1759).

A Flemish painter, bom at Antwerp, whose favorite
subjects were conversation pieces. Studied under Michiel
Vander Voort and Jan van Pee.

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Jean Antoine Houdon (1740-1828).

Sculptor, bom at Versailles, France; died at Paris. He
studied his art under Michel Ange Slodtz and later under
Pigale. In 1785 he accompanied Franklin to the United
States and spent two weeks at Mount Vernon to prepare
his statue of Washington, now in Richmond, Virginia. He
produced many masterpieces which placed him foremost
of French sculptors.

Jan van Hugtenburg (1646-1733).

Dutch painter and engraver, born at Haerlem. He studied
under Thomas and Jacob Wyck and later became acquainted
with Vander Meulen who gave him instruction. Died at

Daniel Huntington (1816-1906).

Bom and died in New York City, and was a classmate
of Charles L. Elliott at Hamilton College. In 1835 he
studied with Samuel F. B. Morse. In 1839 he visited
Europe and again in 1844. Returning to New York in
1846 he devoted himself chiefly to painting portraits, and
was elected President of the National Academy of Design.

Cornelius Huysmans (1648-1727).

A Flemish landscape painter, born at Antwerp, who later
settled at Mechlin. He was placed in the school of Caspar
de Wit and then studied under Jacques Artois. He is also
known as Houseman of Mechlin, where he died.

Charles C. Ingham (1797-1863).

Bom in Dublin, Ireland ; died in N. Y. City. He studied
in the Academy of Dublin and settled in New York in 1817,
being one of the founders of the National Academy of Design.

Henry Inman (1801-1846).

Bom in Utica, N. Y. ; died in New York City. Pupil of
John Wesley Jarvis, with whom he studied seven years,
painting miniatures. Later he acquired a high reputation
as a portrait painter.

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Chauncey B. Ives (1812- * ).

Sculptor, born in Hamden, Conn., the son of a farmer.
At the age of sixteen he apprenticed himself to E. R.
Northrup, a wood carver, and later studied with Hezekiah
Augur. He lived most of the time abroad at Rome, making
occasional visits . to America. For a short time in 1855 he
had a studio in New York and received many orders.

Karl du Jardin (1625-1678).

Born at Amsterdam and studied imder Nicholas Berghem.
He went to Italy where he was received by the Bentevogel
Society. His works are mostly confined to landscapes.

John Wesley Jarvis (1780-1834).

Bom in South Shields, England ; died in New York City.
He came to Philadelphia in 1785 and with but little instruc-
tion began to paint portraits in which he became popular.
The bust of Thomas Paine, now in the Society collection, was
executed by Jarvis.

William Jewett (1792-1873).

Born in East Haddam, Conn., and died at Bayonne,
N. J. He began life as a farmer and was apprenticed
to a coach-maker at New London, Conn., for whom he
prepared paints and assisted in coloring carriages. At
New London he met Samuel L. Waldo whose assistant he
became and later collaborated with him in painting portraits.

David Johnson (1827-1908).

Born in New York City and received a few lessons from
Jasper F. Cropsey. His paintings represent mostly Amer-
ican scenery. He was a member of the National Academy
of Design. He died at Walden; N. Y.

Eastman Johnson (1824-1906).

Bom in Lowell, Me., and died in New York City. He
first settled in Augusta, Me., and executed portraits in black
and white and in pastel. In 1845 he removed to Washing-
ton, D. C, and in 1849 visited Europe, returning to the
United States in 1856. In 1858 he settled in New York.
He was an excellent portrait painter.

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Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678).

Bom and died at Antwerp. He studied under Adam van
Oort, whose daughter he married. He was associated with
Rubens, whose style he imitated.

Jean Jouvenet (1644-1717).

French painter, bom at Rouen, the son of Laurent Jou-
venet, who taught him the first principles of the art. Later
he studied with Nicholas Poussin. Died at Paris.

William Kalf (1630-1693).

Dutch painter, bom and died at Amsterdam. He studied
under Hendrick Pot, an historical painter, and after leaving
that master he acquired a reputation painting still hfe.

John F. Kensett (1818-1872.)

Born in Cheshire, Conn. ; died in New York City. Studied
under his father as an engraver and went into the employ
of the American Bank Note Company at New York. He
went to Europe to study Art in 1845 with other artists.
Returning in 1847, he estabUshed himself in New York.

Albert Klomp.

A Dutch painter whose pictures are dated from 1602 to
1632 and have much merit.

Jan Kobell (1779-1814).

The son of Hendrick Kobell, born at Delf shaven. He was
placed under the instruction of W. R. vander Wal, and
adopted Paul Potter for his model.

Bakend C. Koek-Koek (1803-1862).

Born at Middleburg, Zeeland, and died at Cleves. He was
a student of the Amsterdam Academy under Schelfhout and
Van Oos. In 1841 he founded an Academy of Design at

Christian Kohler (1809-1861).

Born at Werben, studied at Berlin Academy, and was
professor at the Diisseldorf Academy 1855-58. He painted
historical subjects and died at Montpellier.

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Edavard J. KuNTZE (1826-1870).

Sculptor, bom in Pomerania, Prussia; died in New York
City. He studied in Stockholm, Sweden, and lived for
some years in London, England. In 1852 he came to Amer-
ica and achieved a reputation.

SiEGMUND Lachenwitz (1820-1868).

Bom at Neuss and died at Diisseldorf . Was a student at
the Diisseldorf Academy 1840-1867, studying animal Ufe.

Gerard de Lairesse (1641-1711).

Flemish painter, bom at Li6ge and died at Amsterdam.
He was the son of Renier Lairesse, who taught him the ele-
ments of design, later studying under Bertholet Flemael.

James R. Lambdin (1807-1889).

Bom in Pittsburg, Pa. ; studied under Thomas Sully, and
established himself as a portrait painter. He was professor
of fine arts in the University of Pennsylvania and an officer
of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.

Louis Lang (1814-1893).

Bom in Waldsee, Wiirttemberg, Germany. He studied
at Stuttgart and Paris, and came to the United States in
1838 and resided in Philadelphia and New York, making
frequent trips to Europe. Died at New York.

Nicholas de Largilliere (1656-1746).

Bom at Paris, and studied under Francis Gobeau, a
painter of landscapes and still Ufe. He became a success-
ful portrait painter.

Robert E. Launitz (1806-1870).

Sculptor, bom in Riga, Russia; died in New York City.
He studied under Thoniv^aldsen and in 1828 came to New
York. He was the instructor of Thomas Crawford and has
been called the father of monumental art in America.

Phillippe Lauri (1623-1694).

Son of Baldassare Ijauri; born at Rome, and studied first
under his brother, Francesco Lauri, and at the latter's death
entered the school of Angelo Caroselli, his brother-in-law.

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Sir Thomas Lawrence (176&-1830).

An English portrait painter, bom at Bristol, England,
and studied under Mr. Hoare and in the Royal Academy.
He was encouraged and advised by Reynolds. After the
death of Benjamin West he was chosen president of the
Royal Academy.

Oliver I. Lay (1845- ).

Bom in New York City, and was a pupil of Thomas
Hicks. He studied at the Cooper Institute and the
National Academy.

Jacob H. Lazarus (1823-1891).

Bom and died at New York. He was a pupil of Henry
Inman and had a successful career as a portrait painter in
this city.

Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680).

A German portrait painter, bom at Soest, in Westphalia.
He studied in the school of Peter Grebber, of Haerlem, for
two years. His style of painting resembled that of Van
Dyck, whom he imitated. He died at London.

Nicholas Bernard Lepicie (1735-1784).

A French painter, the son of Bemard Lepici6; bom and
died at Paris; studied under Carl Vanloo.

Lucas van Leyden (1494-1533).

So called from the place of his birth; was the son of Hugo
Jacobs, who instructed him in the rudiments of art and later
placed him with Cornelius Engelbrechtsen. He became a
friend of Durer.

Henry Leys (1815-1869).

Bom and died at Antwerp. Studied at the Antwerp
Academy and under de Brackeleer.

John Lingelbach (1625-1687).

Born at Frankfort, Germany, and died at Amsterdam*

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