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He went to Amsterdam when very young, and later visited
Paris and Rome to study.

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Sebastian Llanos y Valdes (1602-1668).

A Spanish painter who flourished at Seville and studied
under Francisco d'Herrera the Elder. He became president
of the Academy of Seville.

Artemisia Lomi (1590-1642).

Called Gentileschi. An Italian paintress, born in Rome;
went to England and later resided at Naples, where she
married Pietro Antonio Schiattesi. She was the daughter
and pupil of Orazio Lomi who adopted the name Gentileschi
from his maternal uncle.

Lorenzo il Monaco (1370-1425).

An Italian painter who died at Florence. He was a
follower of Angiolo Gaddi.

Anthony de Lorme.

A Dutch painter of whom little is known. He flourished
at Rotterdam about 1640-1666. His pictures represent
interiors of churches and other edifices.

Claude Lorraine (1600-1682).

Born in Chamagne, Lorraine, and learned the first rudi-
ments of art from his brother, who was an engraver on wood.
He entered the Academy of Godfrey Waal at Naples and
later studied under Agostino Tassi, a landscape painter at

Bernardino Luini (1475-1530),

Bom at Luino in the Milanese on the Lago Maggiore,
and from his style is considered to have been a follo\Yer
of Leonardo da Vinci, but first studied under Stefano

Nicholas Maas (1632-1693).

A Dutch painter, born at Dort. He entered the school
of Rembrandt and became an excellent colorist. After
painting historical subjects for a while, he devoted himself
to portrait painting.

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John de Mabuse.

A Flemish painter, bom at Maubeuge about 1472 and
died in 1533. It is not known under whom he studied. He
went to Italy in 1508. His family name was Gossart.

Macrino D'Alba.

A native of Alladio, and a citizen of Alba, whose name was
Fava. It is not known with whom he studied or when he
was born or died. His works are dated 1496 to 1508.

Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506).

He was bom at Vicenza and became the pupil and adopted
son of Squarcione. He married the daughter of Jacopo
Bellini. He was also an early engraver and did much for
that art.

Otho Marcellis (1613-1673).

A Dutch painter, bom and died at Amsterdam. It is not
knowTi under whom he studied. He painted curious plants,
insects, serpents and other reptiles, and acquired great
celebrity in this singular branch of the art.

Edward D. Marchant (1806-1887).

Bom in Edgarton, Mass.; died in Asbury Park, N. J. In
1843 he went West, and in 1845 settled in Philadelphia and
painted many portraits.

Jacob Marrel (1614-1685).

Born at Utrecht; died at Frankfort. Was a pupil of
Georg Flegel and painted flowers and fruit.

QuiNTiN Matsys (1450-1530).

A Flemish painter, born and died at Antwerp. He was
a blacksmith until his twentieth year, and it is not known
under whom he studied art. His style was unUke any other

LuDOVico Mazzolini (1481-1530).

Born at Ferrara, and a student of Lorenzo Costa. There
is a great confusion of names as applied to this artist. He
may be placed after Garofalo, among the masters of his
native town.

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Francesco Mazzuoli (1504-1540).

Called ''II Parmiggiano " ; was born at Parma. He j-e-
ceived instructions from his uncles, who taught him what
they knew in the art. He was also distinguished as an

John vander Meer (1656-1705).

Born and died at Haerlem; the son of John vander Meer,
under whom he first studied and afterwards with Berghem.

Jan Memling (1430-1494).

Flemish painter, born at Miimling, who studied imder
Roger Van der Weyden. He settled in Bruges.

Simone Memmi (1283-1344).

A Sienese painter and one of the earliest who distinguished
themselves after the revival of the art. He was a pupil of

Georges Michel (1763-1843).

French painter, bom and died at Paris, whose work
was chiefly landscapes. Pupil of Leduc.

John Miel (1599-1664).

Bom near Antwerp, and studied under Gerard Seghers.
Went to Rome and entered the school of Andrea Sacchi,
who employed him to assist in his works. He died at Turin.

Pierre Mignard (1610-1695.)

Bom at Troyes, and resided at Rome twenty-two years,
where he acquired the name 'Hhe Roman." He studied
under Jean Boucher and in the school of Simon Vouet at
Paris, where he died.

Clark Mills (1815-1883).

Sculptor, bom in Onondaga Co., N. Y.; died in Washing-
ton, D. C. In 1835 he discovered a new method of taking
a cast from a living face, which enabled him to make busts
very cheaply. Later he began cutting busts in marble with
much success and executed the statue of ''Freedom'' now

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standing above the dome of the Capitol at Washington,
D. C.

John Molenaer (1610-1668).

Born and died at Haerlem, he painted country scenes in
the style of Steen and Brouwer. Was the best of the

Nicholas Molenaer (1629-1676).

Born at Amsterdam, and painted landscapes in the man-
ner of Ostade.

Peter Molyn (1632-1701),

the Younger, called II Tempesta by the Italians, was born
at Haerlem, and studied under his father, and then unitated
the style of Francis Snyders. His sea subjects and storms
at sea gave him the name II Tempesta.

Luis Morales (1509-1586).

A Spanish painter, born at Badajos in Estremadura.
His works are said to resemble in many respects those of
Leonardo da Vinci.

George Morland (1763-1804).

Bom and died at London. He was the son of Henry
Robert Morland, a portrait painter in crayons, and en-
graver. He exhibited many pictures at the Royal Academy^

Samuel F. B. Morse (1791-1872).

Born at Charlestown, Mass.; died in New York City.
He graduated at Yale in 1810 and then studied under
Washington AUston, with whom he went to London, where
he was admitted to the Royal Academy, also studjdng
under Benjamin West. In 1823 he settled in New York
and opened a studio, painting portraits. He was a founder
of the National Academy.

Frederick Moucheron (1633-1686).

Flemish painter, born at Embden and died at Amster-
dam. He studied under John Asselyn, a landscape painter^
He designed everything after nature.

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Isaac Moucheron (1670-1744).

Bom and died at Amsterdam. He was the son of the
preceding and received his instruction from his father.
He followed the style of Gaspar Poussin, painting chiefly
landscapes, decorating the saloons and halls of the nobility
and wealthy persons.

William S. Mount (1807-1868).

Born and died in Setauket, L. I. At the age of seventeen
he came to New York and became associated with his elder
brother, Henry S. Mount, as a sign painter. In 1826 he
entered the National Academy of Design, and in 1829 estab-
lished himself as a portrait painter. Later he devoted him-
self to genre painting.

Bartolome Esteban Murillo (1617-1682).

Spanish painter, born and died at Seville. Was placed in
the academy of his uncle, Don Juan del Castillo, and later
studied under Velasquez at Madrid.

Michael van Musscher (1645-1705).

A Dutch painter, born at Rotterdam and died at Amster-
dam. First studied under Martin Zaagmoolen, and after-
wards under Abraham vander Tempel, Gabriel Metzu, and
Adrian van Ostade.

Jan van Neck (1636-1714).

Born at Naarden, and studied under Jacob de Backer.
He settled at Amsterdam. He painted portraits and his-
torical subjects.

Peter Neefs (1577-1657).

Bom at Antwerp. Studied under Henry Steenwyck
and painted interiors similar to those of his master.

Arnold vander Neer (1604-1677).

Bom at Gorinchem and removed to Amsterdam. His
instructor is not known. He painted landscapes and ex-
celled in moonlight views.

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Victor Nehlig (1830- ).

Born in Paris, and was a pupil of Leon Cogniet and Abel
de Pujol. He came to the United States in 1856 and settled
in New York. Many of his works are illustrative of Ameri-
can History. He returned to Europe in 1872.

CoNSTANTiNE Netscher (1670-1722).

Dutch portrait painter, born at The Hague, who studied
under his father, Caspar Netscher, whose style he followed.

Caspar Netscher (1639-1684).

Bom at Heidelberg, Germany, and died at The Hague.
He studied under Koster and in the school of Terburg. He
settled in Holland and acquired fame as a portrait painter.

Gilbert Stuart Newton (1797-1835).

Born in Halifax, N. S.; died in Chelsea, England. He
received some instruction from his uncle, Gilbert Stuart.
WTien a youth he went to Europe and entered the Royal
Academy in London. There he lodged with Washington
Irving. In 1831 he sailed for the United States, married
in Boston and returned to England in October, 1832, and
died three years later.

Jacob van Ochtervelt.

A Dutch painter, of whom little is known except by his
works, in which he imitated the style of Gerard Terburg. He
flourished about 1670.

Balthasar Paul Ommeganck (1755-1826).

Bom and died at Antwerp. He studied with H. Antonis-
sen and became an eminent landscape and animal painter.

Jacob van Cost (1600-1671).

A Flemish painter, born at Bruges and died there. He
imitated Annibale Caracci after he went to Rome to further
his studies.

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. f

Bernard van Orley (1490-1542).

Born at Brussels and at an early age went to Rome and
studied under Raphael and later assisted him. He returned
to Brussels with a distinguished reputation.

Samuel S. Osgood (1808-1885).

Born in Boston, Mass.; married Frances S. Locke (who
wrote under the nom de plume of ''Fanny Forrester '0-
He studied art in Europe and settled in New York City,
making a specialty of portrait painting.

Adrian van Ostade (1610-1685).

Dutch painter, born at Haerlem and studied under Francis
Hals. He was an ardent friend of Adrian Brower, a fellow
student. His subjects are always from low life.

Isaac van Ostade (1621-1649).

Brother of Adrian, under whom he studied and whose
style he imitated, but later adopted a style of his own in
painting out-door scenes.

Jean Baptiste Oudry (1686-1755).

French painter and engraver, bom at Paris, and studied
under Nicholas Largilliere. He acquired distinction in
painting hunting pieces, cavalcades, etc. He died at

William Page (1811-1885).

Bom in Albany, N. Y.; died in Tottenville, S. I. He
studied under James Herring and Samuel F. B. Morse;
also entered the Academy of Design. He spent eleven years
in Europe, from 1849 to 1860, and returning to New York,
was president of the Academy of Design. He painted
mostly portraits.

Jacopo Palma (1480-1528).

Called II Vecchio, to distinguish him from his great
nephew, called II Giovine. He was a native of Serinalta in
the Bergamese Territory.

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» — ^

Erastus Dow Palmer (1817-1904).

Sculptor, bom in Pompey, Onondaga Co., N. Y. Was
first a carpenter by trade, then executed carneo portraits,
and finally undertook sculpture proper. All his knowledge
was acquired in America, and it was not until he had
become famous that he visited Europe.

Giovanni Paolo Pannini (1691-1764).

Born at Piacenza. He studied under Pietro Lucatelli at
Rome, but followed the style of Salvator Rosa, and became
a master of the art of perspective and architecture.

John Paradise (1783-1834).

Bom in New Jersey: died in New York City. He was
a pupil of Denis A. Volozan at Philadelphia, and in 1810
removed to New York. He is principally known by his
portraits of Methodist divines.

Jean Baptiste Pater (1695-1736).

French painter, born at Valenciennes, and became the
pupil of Anthony Watteau, whose style and subjects he

Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827).

Born in Chestertown, Md.; died in Philadelphia, Pa.
He changed his profession from saddle-making to portrait
painting. He received some instructions from John Sin-
gleton Copley and in 1770 went to London, where he met
Benjamin West, under whom he studied. In 1776 he
established himself in Philadelphia, painting portraits.
He became a Captain in the Revolutionary War, a member
of the Legislature, and founded, in 1802, ''Peale's Museum."
He took up in turn the making of coaches, harness, clocks
and watches, besides working as a silversmith; he was a
naturalist, dentist and author, but was most famous as a
portrait painter, having painted fourteen portraits of
Washington from life.

Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860).

Son of Charles Wilson Peale; was born in Bucks Co., Pa.,
and died in Philadelphia. After receiving instructions from
his father he went to England and studied under Benjamin

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West. He made several trips to Europe and painted many
portraits in various cities in the United States. At the age
of seventeen he painted Washington's portrait.

PiETRO Perugino (1446-1524).

Born at Citta della Pieve, near Perugia, and died at the
latter place. It is believed that he studied imder Andrea
Verocchio at Florence. The family name of Perugino was

BoNAVENTURA Peters (1614-1652).

Flemish painter, bom at Antwerp, who became one of the
most eminent marine painters of his time. It is not known
by whom he was instructed.

Giovanni Battista Piazzetta (1682-1754).

A Venetian painter, who was first instructed by his father
and later became a pupil of Antonio Mplinari. He died at

Robert Edge Pine (1742-1790).

Son of John Pine, an English designer and engraver, who
instructed him. He was born in London and came to
Philadelphia in 1784 to paint the portraits of distinguished

Sebastiano del Piombo (1485-1547).

Bom at Venice; his real, name was Sebastiano Luciano.
He first studied with Giovanni Bellini and then with Gior-
gione, becoming the most distinguished disciple of his school.

Egbert vander Poel (1621-1664).

A Dutch painter, native of Delft, and died at Rotterdam.
His favorite subjects were conflagrations, fire-works and
interiors by candle-light.

Cornelius Poelemburg (1586-1667).

Bom at Utrecht, he studied under Abraham Bloemaert
and then went to Italy. His style was a combination of
the Flemish and Italian schools.

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Francis Porbus (1570-1622),

''the younger,-' was bom at Antwerp and studied with
his father. He acquired distinction as a portrait painter in
Paris, where he died.

Peter Porbus (1513-1584).

A Dutch painter and architect, born at Gouda. He
settled at Bruges, where he died. He acquired distinction
in history and portraits.

Paul Potter (1625-1654).

Son of Peter Potter, bom at Enkhuysen, and was the pupil
of his father. His subjects were landscapes with different
animals, in which he excelled. He established himself at
The Hague.

Caspar Poussin (1613-1675).

Bom at Rome, the son of a Frenchman, and was adopted
by Nicholas Poussin as his son, and taught him to paint.
He became an eminent landscape painter and died at Rome.

Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665).

Born at Andely, in Normandy, and was descended from
a noble family. He received his first instructions in art
from Quinton Varin and then went to Paris and later to
Rome, where he died.

WiLLiAJii H. Powell (1823-1879).

Bom and died in New York City. He was a pupil of
Henry Inman and later studied in Paris and Florence. He
painted historical subjects and portraits.

Robert M. Pratt (1811-1880).

Bom in Binghamton, N. Y. ; died in New York City. He
studied under Samuel F. B. Morse and Charles C. Ingham,
and became a figure and flower painter. He also painted

Pierre Paul Prud'hon (1758-1823).

French painter, bom at Clugny, and studied in the Acad-
emy of Dijon and later went to Rome, retuming to France
m 1789.

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Adam Pynaker (1621-1673).

Dutch landscape painter, bom at the village of Pynaker.
He visited Rome while very young and on returning to
Holland gained distinction.

Augustus Querfurt (1696-1761).

A German painter, bom at Wolfenbiittel, who after re-
ceiving instructions from his father went to Augsburg and
studied under Rugendas. He died at Vienna.

John Ramage.

An Irishman who painted miniatures in Boston, Mass.
In 1777 he was established in WilUam Street, New York,
where he painted the military heroes while the city was
in the British occupation.

Jean Raoux (1677-1734).

A French historical and portrait painter, bom at Montpel-
lier. He studied in the School of Bon Boulogne, at Paris.

Raphael Sanzio di Urbino (1483-1520).

Styled the Prince of Painters, and acknowledged to have
possessed a greater combination of the higher excellencies of
art than has fallen to the lot of any individual. He was
placed in the School of Perugino after having learned the
elements of design from his father, Giovanni Sanzio, a
painter of little celebrity. He visited Florence and Rome,
and died at the latter place at the age of thirty-seven years.

John van Ravesteyn (1572-1657).

Dutch portrait painter, born at The Hague. He was a
pupil of Michael Mierevelt, and his works have great

Paul Rembrandt (1606-1669).

One of the most eminent painters and engravers of the
Dutch School, born at a small village on the banks of the
Rhine, between Leyderdorp and Leyden. He entered the
School of Jacob van Zwaanenberg at Amsterdam and later
studied with Peter Lastmann and Jacob Pinas.

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GuiDO Reni (1575-1642).

Bom at Bologna, the son of Samuel Reni, who placed
him in the School of Denis Calvart and later in the Academy
of Caracci. He was also a pupil of Lodovico. He visited
Rome and Naples and died at Bologna.

Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792).

Bom at Plymouth, England, and studied under Hudson.
After visiting various cities in Italy ne settled at London
and was appointed President of the Royal Academy in 1768
and shortly after was knighted by the king. He is called
the founder of the British School of Painting.

Jose Ribera (1588-1656).

Called II Spagnoletto. A Spanish painter, born at Xatia,
in Valencia. He entered the School of Francisco Ribalta
and later studied under Caravaggio at Naples.

Andrew Richardson.

An English painter of landscapes who exhibited a number
of paintings, and of whom Dunlap says: ^'I am ignorant
of his history."

Hyacinthe RiGAUD (1659-1743).

A French portrait painter, bom at Perpignan; he settled
at Lyons and in 1681 visited Paris to study historical paint-
ing, but accepting the advice of Charles Le Brun, he con-
fined himself to portrait painting.

Hubert Robert (1733-1808).

Bom at Paris, where he acquired the rudiments of art.
He visited Rome and studied in the French Academy under
the direction of Carlo Natoire. His work was principally
architectural and perspective views.

Jacopo Robusti (Tintoretto) (1512-1594).

Called II Tintoretto, because he was the son of a dyer.
He was born at Venice and a pupil of Titian, who became
jealous of his success and banished him from his studio.
His works are numerous and exhibit an extraordinary corn-

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bination of beauties and defects. He died at Venice, aged
eighty-two years.

Henry Martin Rokes (1621-1682).

A Dutch painter, born at Rotterdam, who acquired a
knowledge of art from William Buyt enweg, and later studied
under the younger Teniers, whose style he followed.

Gig Francesco Romanelli (1610-1662).

Italian painter, born and died at Viterbo. He studied
in the school of Pietro da Cortona, under the patronage of
Cardinal Barberini. He visited Paris, where he was honored
by Louis XIV.

GiULio Romano (1492-1546).

Bom at Rome, and was a pupil of Raphael and his most
distinguished disciple. He was particularly successful in
battle-pieces and also gained great distinction as an architect.

Theodore Rombouts (1597-1637).

A Flemish painter, born at Antwerp, who studied under
Abraham Janssens. He visited Rome and Florence, then
settled at Antwerp, where he died.

John Henry Roos (1631-1685).

A Dutch painter, born at Otterberg. He was apprenticed
to Julian du Jardyn, a painter of little note, and later
studied under Adrian de Bie, an able designer of landscapes
and animals.

Salvatore Rosa (1615-1673).

Born at Renilla, near Naples, he first studied under
Francesco Fracanzani, his brother-in-law, and later in the
Academy of Giuseppe Ribera. He died at Rome.

John Roitenhamer (1564-1623).

A German painter, bom at Munich. He received his
first instruction from an obscure artist named Donnaver.
At Venice he studied the works of Tintoretto. After years
of study in Italy he returned and settled at Augsburg,
where he died.

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Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640).

Bom at Siegen of a distinguished family, he was placed
under the instruction of Tobias Verhaecht, and later entered
the schools of Adam van Oort and Otho van Veen. He was
one of the most original painters that ever lived, and his
subjects are unlimited. He died at Antwerp.

Jacob Ruysdael (1630-1682).

Dutch landscape painter, bom at Haeriem. He was
the son and pupil o£ Izack van Ruysdael and became a
great landscape painter.

Solomon Ruysdael (1616-1670).

Brother of the preceding, bom at Haeriem. He was a
pupil of Van de Velde and Jan van Goyen. His subjects
were river views and landscapes.

David Ryckaert (1612-1661).

Bom at Antwerp and instructed by his father, David
Ryckaert. He devoted himself to interiors with peasants,
fairs, etc. He died at Antwerp.

Cornelius Saftleven (1607-1682).

A Dutch painter, born at Gorinchem. It is not known
under whom he studied, but he settled at Antwerp, where
he acquired considerable reputation.

C. B. JuLiEN St. Memin (1770-1852).

Born and died in Dijon, France. He introduced in
America, a machine called a ''physionotrace,'' by which
the human profile could be copied with mathematical
accuracy and produced over 800 engraved portraits of
distinguished citizens. Later he took up portrait and land-
scape painting and in 1817 was appointed director of the
Museum at Dijon.

Giovanni Battista Salvi (1605-1685).

Called II Sassoferrato, from the place of his nativity.
He first studied under his father, Tarquinio Salvi, and then
in Rome and Naples.

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Andrea del Sarto (1487-1531).

Bom at Florence. His real name was Andrea D'Agnolo,
but called del Sarto from the occupation of his father, who
was a tailor. He studied first under Gio Barile, a wood
engraver, and then under Pietro di Cosimo.

Sassoferrato, see Salvi.

Walter Satterlee (1844-1905).

Bom in Brooklyn, N. Y., and was a graduate of Columbia
University in 1863. Student of the National Academy of
Design and imder Edwin White. At Paris he studied with
Leon Bonnat.

Edward Savage (1761-1817).

Bom and died in Princeton, Mass. He was a goldsmith,
who turned his attention to portrait painting, and painted
Washington's portrait for Harvard University.

Louis Jaques Schaal (1800- ).

Bom at Paris, he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1816,
and was a pupil of Daguerre and Lethi^re. He was a
painter and engraver.

Godfrey Schalcken (1643-1706).

Dutch historical portrait painter, born at Dort. He first
studied with Soloman van Hoogstraten and later entered
the school of Gerard Douw at Leyden. He died at The

Bartolomeo Schidone (1560-1*615).

He was born at Modena. His early history is very con-
tradictory, but he emulated the style of Correggio very

Martin Schoen (1445-1491).

A German painter and engraver; also known as Schon-
gauer. Bom and died at Colmar. He was the earliest
German engraver on copper plates.

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Cesare da Sesto (1480-1521).

He is regarded as the most distinguished disciple of
Leonardo da Vinci. Born at Milan. He went to Rome to
study and became acquainted with Raphael there.

James Sharpless (1751-1811).

Bom in England; died in New York City. He first came
to this country in 1794. He travelled through the country
making pastel portraits of distinguished persons; among
them is Washington's, which he made in 1796 at Philadel-
phia. He was buried in the churchyard of St. Peter's
Church in Barclay Street.

James H. Shegogue (1810-1879).

He painted mainly portraiture, and first exhibited at the

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