New York State Agricultural Experiment Station.

Annual report of the Board of Control of the New ..., Issue 3; Issue 26 online

. (page 3 of 36)
Online LibraryNew York State Agricultural Experiment StationAnnual report of the Board of Control of the New ..., Issue 3; Issue 26 → online text (page 3 of 36)
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Per ct


13,121,498


13-05


8,681,105


S-oi


12,178,462


4.23


11,587,766


2.52


8,304.539


1-75


10,412,675


1.58


in




New York.


Per ct.


17,858,400


3.01


20,061,049


2.34


16462,825


2.16


25,690,156


1.46


15,109,969


.71


20,024,865


.754



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i8



Twenty-fifth Anniversary Report.



Number of bushels of oats in

United States. New York. Per ct.

1850 146,584,179 26,552,814 18. 1

i860 172,643,185 35,175,134 20.03

1870 282,107,157 35»293»625 12.51

1880 407,858,999 37,575»5o6 9-21

1890 809,250,666 38,898479 4.85

1900 943.389,375 40,785,900 4.32

Number of bushels of rye in

United States. New York. Per ct.

1850 14,188,813 4,148,182 29.2

i860 21,101,380 4,786,905 22.7

1870 16,918,795 2,478,125 14.65

1880 ... 19,831,595 2,634,690 13.28

1890 28,421,398 3,065,623 10.78

1900 25,568,625 2,431,670 9.5

Number of bushels of barley in

United States. New York. Per ct

1850 5,167,015 3,585,059 69.4

i860 15,825,898 4,186,668 26.5

1870 22,761,305 7434,621 24.9

1880 43,997,495 7,79^,062 17.7

1890 78,332,976 8,220,242 10.49

1900 119,634,877 2,943,250 2.46

Number of bushels of buckwheat in

United States. New York. Per ct.

1850 8,956,912 3,183,955 35-5

i860 17,571,818 5,126,307 29.2

1870 9,821,721 3,904,080 39.7

1880 11,817,327 4,461,200 37.8

1890 12,110,349 4,675,735 38.6

1900 11,233,515 33iS'35o 33-9

Number of sheep in

United States. New York. Per ct

1850 21,723,220 3,453,241 1590

i860 22,471,275 2,617,855 II .65

1870 28,477,951 2,181,578 7.66

1880 35,192,074 1,715,180 4.87

1890 35i935i364 1,528,979 4-25

J900, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 6x,6o5,8ii 1,745*746 ^•83



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New York Agricultural Experiment Station. 19
Number of oxen in

United States. New York. Per ct.

1850 1,700,744 178,909 10.50

i860. . 2,254,911 121,703 5.39

1870 i,3i9»27i 64,141 4.86

1880 993.841 39.633 3.99

Number of milch cows in

United States. New York. Per ct.

1850 6,385,094 931.324 14.58

i860 8,581,735 1,123,634 13.93

1870 8,935,322 1,350,661 15. II

1880 12,443,120 1,437.855 11-55

1890 16,511,950 1,440,230 8.72

1900 17,139,674 1,501,608 8.76

Number of swine in

United States. New York. Per ct.

1850 30,354,213 1,018,252 33. 54

i860 33,512,867 910,178 27. 16

1870 25,134,569 518,251 20.6

1880 47,081,700 751.907 15.9

1890 : 57.409,583 843,342 14.6

1900 62,876,108 676,639 10. 76

Number of cattle in

United States. New York. Per ct.

9



9
6

84
93
83



1850 9.693.069 767.406 7

i860 14,779.373 727,837 4

1870.. 13,566,005 630,522 4

1880 22,448,550 862,233 3

1890 33,734,128 653,869 I

1900. . . . , 67,822,336 2,596,389 3

It will be noticed from the above tables that the relation of the
cattle of the State of New York to those of the United States has
changed in 50 years from 7.9^ to 3.83^

Milch cows 14.58^ to 8.76^

Oxen 10.50^ " 3.99^

Sheep 15.91^ " 2.83^

Swine 33545^ " 10.765^

Wheat •.»,,..♦♦.♦.»»»..»»».♦ 13*05^ *' J'58^



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20 Twenty-fifth Anniversary Report.

Corn 3.01,'^ " .754;^

Barley rx>4;< ** 2.46^^

Rye 29.2;^ '' 9.5^

Oats 18.1^ " 4.32;^

Buckwheat ; 35.5;^ " 33.9^

Yet as to the amount of the jjroducts, New York produces prac-
tically as much in 1900 as she did in 1850. This is true of oats
and buckwheat, while in the case of corn and cattle the product
of the State of New York in 1900 exceeded that of 1850, never-
theless the difference in the relation of the agricultural produc-
tions of the State of New York and the United States in the period
mentioned is due almost entirely to the increased production in
the United States. Thus it will be seen that New York has grown
to be less and less of a factor in the cereal and meat markets owing-
to the great progress made by the country as a whole; that she
has had to turn her attention in other directions in order to main-
tain the position which she should occupy among the states of the
union, having practically i/io of the population. To-day New
York stands first among the dairy states of the Union, as will be
seen by the following table :

I Dairy Dairy Gallons

1900 farms cows of milk Value

N. Y 64,457 1,501,608 772,799,352 $55474,155

Pa 32,600 943,773 4^7,033318 35,860,100

Wis 25,246 998,397 472,274,264 26,779,721

Me 17,740

Vt 16,700

Ill 15,605 1,007,664 457,106,995 29,638,619

Mass 14,900

Mich 14,116 309,617,046 16,903,087

Ohio 12,768 818,239 425,870,394 25,383,627

Iowa 1,423,648 535,872,240 27,516,870

Texas 861,023 251,342,698 15,510,978

Mo 765,386 258,207,755 15,04^,360

Minn 753,632 304,017,106 16,623,460

Kansas 676,456

From every point of view New York ranks the leading dairy
State.

It stands second as a fruit producing State, California alone being
ahead of her, as will be seen by the following table:



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New York Agricultural Experiment Station. 21

California $28,280,104

New York 15,844,346

Pennsylvania 9,884,809

Ohio 8,901,220

Michigan 5.859.362

These five states produce 52.3;^ of all the fruit in the United
States.

As a dairy State, New York has produced, as shown by figures
collected biennially by the Department of Agriculture since 1892,
butter in factories as follows:

1892 19497.357

1894 23,218,626

1896 21,429,694

1898 30,586,088

1900 39,183,311

1902. 49,919,794

1904 64,923,779

1906 51,299,681

During the same period of time she has produced cheese in
factories as follows:

1892 130,991,310

1894 115,760,325

1896 87,765,143

1898 105,405,266

1900 126,658,672

1902 123,987,516

1904 124.594.538

1906 135.863,770

The future of agriculture in New York State is to be determined
or modified by the action that the State, itself, may take relative to it ;
but to keep abreast of the times, education, such as is given by the
agricultural colleges, and information, such as is acquired and dis-
seminated by the agricultural experiment stations, must continue
to be given to the people so that this State may be in the front rank
of all the movements involving the application of new knowledge
in the agricultural world, and the State must protect the markets
against the unfair substitution of imitations of food products for the



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22 Twenty-fifth Anniversary Report.

pure food product, and the question of market values must be
studied and influenced from an agricultural standpoint to such an
extent that the agricultural producer shall not be a prey to the
greed of the distributor.

The mistake, however, must not be made of thinking that the
aid thus rendered by the State is for the benefit of the agricul-
turist, that aid is primarily and purely in the interest of agriculture
and whatever is in the interest of agriculture, is in the interest of
the great consuming public, and the public being interested, it is
justly and essentially a cause of the people and for the people and
should not be neglected by the people.

I
FEDERAL AND STATE AID TO INVESTIGATION.



W. O. THOMPSON.



The modern practice of government shows a considerable de-
parture from the early theories current among those who laid the
foundation upon which we have built. For a long time after the
Constitution of the Federal government was adopted there were
those who in accordance with a theory of strict construction of the
fundamental law resisted any attempt to engage the government
in enterprises based upon a liberal construction of the "general
welfare " clause of the Constitution. Nor is there to-day any large
class of thoughtful men who would recklessly commit either Federal
or State government to lavish expenditures for causes not sanc-
tioned by the people or approved by a sound theory of the functions
of the State. The departure from early theory has not been with-
out reason and ample debate. The Louisiana Purchase was a great
strain upon the theories of men who had clear and well defined
views upon the place of the United States among the nations, and
upon the duties incumbent upon the young republic. A wise judg-
ment upon the issues involved coupled with practical reasons of a
substantial nature, set aside the theory to which men were devoted
and opened the way for a national growth otherwise impossible.
The evils avoided by this purchase were doubtless of as great im-
portance as the positive advantages secured in the enlargement of
territory. The universal approval now accorded to this departure
from political theory demonstrates that our fears are often begotten
of our fancies. The teaching of the publicist is not, however, to be



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New York Agricultural Experiment Station. 23

lightly regarded, nor is it to be blindly followed. Theories should
always be brought to the test of experience, and a wise people will
always see the importance of harmonizing a conservative theory
with a progressive practice.

Following upon this new accession of territory were certain
others of less importance. It was an easy transition to the issue
of internal improvements which assumed large proportions as ex-
pressed in national political platforms. The development of the
new and unsettled country then encouraging most liberal emigra-
tion from Europe called for the improvement of public highways,
means of transportation, and other forms of Federal or State aid
under the theory of general welfare. Subsidies for railroads were
justified under this plea.

The most important of all these movements was the Morrill Act
which provided that the Federal government should initiate the
movement for a form of education for the industrial classes which
prior to that time had not received adequate consideration or at-
tention. This act sought to bring to these classes, and indeed to
all interested, education in the sciences related to agriculture and
the mechanic arts. It is true that these sciences had not been
overlooked in the existing system of education, and equally true
that their application or study in the interest of these two great
classes of industry had not received any serious attention. The
government sought to develop this interest through the application
of science to industry. In the debates concerning this measure
much political artd irrelevant discussion occurred, but it reflects
great credit upon Mr. Morrill that he was able to fasten the atten-
tion of Congress and the country upon the essential and vital issues
in the bill. Among these I make mention of the following: First,
that the unappropriated public domain was the property of all the
people and should be used for the benefit of all the people, a national
domain for national purposes. It was in no sense a local question,
but always to be regarded as the interest of the nation. Certain
recent movements to preserve portions of the national domain for
forestry reservations lay a clear and unmistakable emphasis upon
this doctrine. The proceeds of this public domain when sold did
not change in character because the title had passed from all the
people to particular individuals. This theory of the public lands
while under consideration brought to the public mind a new em-
phasis upon the responsibility for the use of public funds, suggested
that the use of public money could not be justified for private



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24 TWENTV-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY RePORT.

purposes and compelled the statesman to give new consideration
to the general welfare of all the people.

The second general consideration in the Morrill Act was that
education being fundamental in the development and maintenance
of national strength and prosperity should be universalized so as
to include all classes of people. Prior to this time public lands
had been dedicated to the support of common schools, but this act
was the beginning of a revival in education applied to the indus-
tries of the country. No one familiar with the progress of modern
education can fail to see that this act was the beginning of the
most important feature of the new education.

The act could never have been passed and certainly could not
have been justified if it had not brought to the attention of Con-
gress its economic importance in maintaining and developing the
resources of the country. It was clearly seen that the fundamental
industry of agriculture upon which the nation was so dependent
had already begun to lose ground and that a further continuance
of the policy of indifference would surely result in an impoverished
soil with all the attendant evils to both the people and the govern-
ment. In the debates of Congress the education here provided
was considered with reference to its relation to the wealth and
wealth producing power of the country. The logic of the situation
was that a fertile country permanently assured meant a happy
and contented people and a strong, stable government. The formal
statement of the economic importance of industrial education was
not so complete as it has been made since we have had a genera-
tion of experience with it, but the essential truth was clearly ap-
prehended by the leaders associated with Mr. Morrill. These men
never lost sight of the main issue. The importance to the revenues
of the nation of education in the mechanic arts was not so clearly
defined or stated. Men could see its importance as related to the
arts of war then so prominent in the minds of the people, but did
not realize its infinitely greater importance in the arts of peace.
That is now more clearly apprehended. The argument for one
form is essentially the same as for the other. Industrial education,
as a guarantee of the perpetuity of the resources of the people
and therefore of the government, has a permanent place in the
judgment and policy of the nation.

A third consideration should be mentioned, namely, the unifying
effect this movement for industrial education has had upon the
people north and south. The rommon school has been a great force



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New York Agricultural Experiment Station. 25

in prodticing a common sentiment. It has been a bond of union,
but in many ways it has failed to unite the people for the reason
that there was lack of intelligence in the work, and the local spirit
often prevailed, to such a degree, that its influence was much less
than we should desire. The colleges of Agriculture and Mechanic
Arts at once put emphasis upon their common work. The passing
of teachers from north to south and from south to north was much
easier and more frequent than in the experience of other forms of
education. The first revival in the south after the war was the
revival of the industries with which these colleges were associated.
The fact that they were engaged in solving the same problems
and in developing after jfuU conference a new type of education
led to a close fellowship from the start. No other educational body
at this date is so heartily united in its work as the Association of
American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. This
unity has been a potent factor in developing a genuinely national
spirit. It is to be observed also that the great increase in the
number of students in our colleges since the war has been most
marked in the direction of technical, industrial and professional
education, especially that looking toward the professional training
of teachers. These Colleges of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts
were sometimes separate institutions and often associated with the
State universities of the west. They represent to this day the
greatest and most important body of technical instruction in
America. They are a part of the State and of the Nation, and
are really national colleges located within the states for national
development. The first effect of these cpUeges was to bnid together
certain educational forces representing the entire country. The
commercial development of the country and the increasing import-
ance of agricultural pursuits have made their students in great
demand. As a patriotic measure these colleges have been most
effective in bringing about a common interest among our industrial
classes in the development and prosperity of the entire country.

When these colleges were put into operation it was under con-
siderable embarrassment. There was no body of teachers prepared
to do the work before these new enterprises. It became necessary
to prepare men and women who were in full sympathy with the
purposes in view. This fact, together with the commercial demand
for the graduates, soon revealed a large field of usefulness. The
several states were awake to the importance of the new form of
education and supplemented the grants of the Federal government



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26 Twenty-fifth Anniversary Report.

with local appropriations most generously. This joint participation
by the Federal and State governments has resulted in deepening
the interest in the work of the colleges and in spreading the in-
terest among the secondary schools also. Recently, in a number
of states, the question of extending industrial education to the rural
schools has been taken up with vigor and intelligence. The colleges
are in position now to advance this work by furnishing properly
equipped teachers for such schools. The Federal government in-
creased its grant to these colleges in 1890, by making a direct and
equal appropriation to each State of $25,000 annually, and the
last Congress before adjournment, made provision by which this
amount should be annually increased in the amount of $5,000 until
the appropriation shall reach the annual sum of $50,000, with the
proviso that a portion of this increase might be used in the prepara-
tion of teachers in the subjects of instruction in these colleges.
This provision, together with the aid given by the states, will make
these colleges representing industrial education the greatest national
force binding together in common aims and ideals the multitudes
of our people.

Before these colleges were some important and difficult problems.
They sprang into a popularity that made the demand upon teachers
more than they could meet. The management believed that they
were set to teach the sciences related to agriculture and the mechanic
arts. Above all things else they were to be teaching institutions.
They realized that if the sciences, especially those related to agri-
culture, were to be taught successfully there must be a body of
truth constituting that science. The case was not so desperate in
the mechanic arts. Unless the Colleges of Agriculture were to
continue to teach men to plant their potatoes in the moon and to
follow the signs of the zodiac in the several other agricultural
operations, there must be something else than a body of agricultural
tradition as the court of appeal in the class room. The laboratory
of investigation and research was a fundamental necessity. This
could not be the result of the s|>oradic effort of an enthusiastic and
tireless worker here and there. It was soon discovered that a
systematic and comprehensive plan of investigation into all the
problems of agriculture was vital and fundamental both for the
teacher of agriculture and for the practical farmer.

The transition to the Experiment Station was natural and easy.
The Hatch Act, by which the Federal government made provision
for experiment, investigation and research, was the logical result



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New York Agricultural Experiment Station. 27

of steps already taken and of needs now manifest. Here, as in
the case of the teaching institutions, the several states joined the
Federal government in th6 maintenance and equipment of insti-
tutions whose function should be that of experiment and research.
So satisfactory and yet so incomplete has been this work, that
recently the Federal government has provided for doubling the
appropriation of the Hatch Act, in order that the work of investi-
gation and research should not be hampered, but given abundant
opportunity for development. The co-operation and support of the
several states in this matter has been on the whole very commend-
able. The states with largest resources and greatest interests have
naturally been most generous. Even those states whose tax dupli-
cates are small, land somewhat impoverished or undeveloped and
population more or less limited, have not failed to make a com-
mendable record in the maintenance of this fundamental work.

The third great movement in this general field has been the
organization and development of the Department of Agriculture.
The importance of this department to the country is well understood
by intelligent men who are familiar with its work. Here as in many
other places occasional statistical statements of brilliant achieve-
ments receive attention in the public press, but they do not in any
great degree represent or convey to the public mind the solid, sub-
stantial work that is carried on by nearly two thousand men devoted
to the scientific and administrative problems that underlie the suc-
cessful administration of the great interests of agriculture. It is
not the purpose to-day, to offer any discussion of this department
futher than to suggest, that in the comprehensive view of Federal
and State aid to investigation, a large place must be given to the
Department of Agriculture, and that these three movements as
represented in the Colleges, Experiment Stations and Department
of Agriculture, are bound up in a harmonious attempt to preserve
and develop the agricultural resources of the country. One of
these lines is chiefly experimental, another is chiefly teaching, and
yet another is chiefly, although not exclusively, administrative. As
the country comes to recognize these three agencies and the import-
ance of the work undertaken a new enthusiasm will be developed
and a new interest taken in a study of what is purely a develop-
mental function of the government.

Let us turn now for some consideration of the theory under-
lying these great movements. Let us ask ourselves what justifica-
tion there is for so great an enterprise on the part of the people



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28 Twenty-fifth Anniversary Report.

through their Federal and State governments. Here, I remark
first, that it is a fundamental consideration in the administration
of the State, that its patrimony shall not be diminished. Individuals
are temporary, but states are perpetual. States exist because
people may permanently occupy and inhabit a given territory. It
is manifest upon first thought that the perpetuity of the State is
dependent upon the ability of the people occupying a given territory
to maintain themselves. There are just two ways of doing this —
first by living at the expense of people in other territories as a
reward for success in battle ; the other is so to use and develop the
resources of the native country as to make a continuous and com-
mercial prosperity inevitable. It is further manifest that, if any
State permits its natural resources to decline, it thereby threatens
its own dignity, prosperity, and eventually its existence. Experi-
ments abundantly prove that uneducated men left to themselves
will neither preserve nor develop the original resources of a country.
An impoverished soil precedes an improverished people, and a reck-
Isss use of natural resources precedes a decline of national vigor.
There is a certain high type of patriotism therefore in preserving
and rightly using the resources at the command of any people.
Now agriculture is the great industry which provides for the main-
tenance of the people. Food, shelter and protection are the most
fundamental of human wants. With these agriculture has im-
mediate relation. An aroused intelligence soon perceives two
things: First, that a great population is necessary for the greatest
national and individual development. Second, that unless the
natural resources are preserved this increase of population is
the prophecy of its own disaster. Agricultural education has
already discovered that much of our country is less productive now
than three generations ago. It has also discovered that much of
this may be reclaimed by judicious treatment and brought to a high
state of production. Even in a generation these experiment stations
and colleges have demonstrated beyond question the open road to
larger production, greater agricultural prosperity, and therefore a
financially stronger government. On the theory, therefore, of self
preservation, the State can clearly justify the expenditure of money



Online LibraryNew York State Agricultural Experiment StationAnnual report of the Board of Control of the New ..., Issue 3; Issue 26 → online text (page 3 of 36)