New York (State). Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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1,681 members (a gain of 200). The textile workers have 22
unions (an increase of 21) and 1,657 members (a loss of 700,
largely in Cohoes).

III. MetalSy Machinery and Shipbuilding. — In this group there
was an increase of 31 unions and 4,291 members. The machin-
ists gained 7 unions and 900 members; blacksmiths, 200; blast-
furnace men, 200; boiler makers, 300; horseshoers, 200; machin-
ists' helpers, 200; allied metal mechanics, a new organization^
400 ; while the foundry and machine shop laborers declined from
1,500 to 100 and the iron molders from 5,350 to 5,150, a loss of
200. The growth of smaller organizations counterbalanced
these losses so that the iron and steel trades altogether gained
1,500 members. In the subdivision of " Metals other than iron
and steel " there was a decline of 400 (largely among New York
City chandelier makers) which was partly made up by a new
union of wire frame makers with 200 members. The stationary
engineers gained 5 unions and 1,G00 members (from 4,800 to
6,400); the marine engineers, 300; the stationary firemen, 300;
and the marine firemen, 600, making a total increase of 6 unions
and 2,800 members in the subdivision of " Engineers and fire-
men ". In the subdivision of shipbuilding there was an increase
of 1 union and 200 members (ship carpenters and ealkers).

IV. Transportation. — In this group the increase in number of
organizations was 35, of members, 3,517, distributed among the
subdivisions thus: Railroads, 11 unions and 3,100 members;*
street railways, 4 unions and 500 members; coach drivers and
livery employees, loss of 1 union and 100 members; seamen and
pilots, gain of 1,350 members; freight handlers, truckmen, etc.,
gain of 21> unions with a loss of 1,300 members. Of the indi-

•The actual difference between the nnures In last year's report and this U 8.600 : but 700 memberB
are accoanted for by transfer of car builders and painters from Group IX.

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Report of Bubeau of Labob Statistios, 1901. 7

vidnal trades the largest are the locomotiye firemen, with 39
unions each year and a present membership of 4,050, an increase
of 300; the street railway employees, 8 unions and 4,033 mem-
bers, a gain of 500; longshoremen, with 18 unions (a gain of 5)
and 4,000 members (a loss of 200); trainmen, 36 unions (loss of 1)
and 3,844 members (an increase of 300); locomotive engineers,
38 unions and 3,489 members (an increase of 130); seamen, 1
union with 2,900 members (an increase of 1,300); car builders
and repairers, 6 unions (an increase of 3) with 2,084 members
(a gain of 1,600, chiefly in BufFalo); conductors, 22 unions (loss
of 1 union) and 1,808 members (loss of 32); switchmen, 3 unions
and 747 members (new); grain shovelers, 2 unions and 951 mem-
bers (decline of 200); truckmen and team drivers, 29 unions
(increase of 19) and 1,672 members (increase of 400).

V. Tjfpographicdl Trades. — ^These trades gained 8 unions and
869 members, about equally divided between New York City and
the interior. The compositors have 42 unions (gain of 7) and 7,911
members (increase of 300); the pressmen's assistants and press
feeders, 5 unions (loss of 1) and 2,109 members (decline of 26);
lithographers, 3 unions and 1,037 members (increase of 50);
photo-engravers, 6 (gain of 2) with 939 members (increase of
250); pressmen, 10 unions and 1,948 members (increase of 60).

VI. Toba<ioo Trades. — This group gained 2 unions but lost 2,139
members. The 2 unions of cigarette makers in New York City
gained 100 members; the tobacco workers gained 1 new union
(Utica) and 40 members; the 5 unions of cigar packers with
614 members lost only 100; but the cigar makers, who com-
prise most of the organized workers in the tobacco trade (46
unions and 8,531 members) lost 2,200 (700 male and 1,500 female
members, in New York City).

VII. Food and Liquora. — While there was an increase of 17
unions in this group, the gain in membership was only 21. The
brewery employees (including also a few workers in the mineral
water business) have 58 unions (a gain of 9) and 4,851 members
(a gain of nearly 400). The bakers and confectioners with 33
unions (a gain of 3) have 2,185 members, which is a decline of
400 (confined to New York City); the butchers with 22 unions

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8 ^Ew YoBK Statb Depabtmsmt of Laboa.

(gain of 3) have 1,637 members^ a loss of 250 (Buffalo); the cooks
with 6 unions (gain of 2} have 722 members, an increase of 280
(new unions in Buffalo).

VIII. Theaters and Music — ^This group of trades gained 6
unions and 1,990 members. The principal trades organized are
the actors and the musicians; the actors have 3 unions and 3,202
members (increase of 50), the musicians 23 unions (increase of
7) and 7,147 members (increase of 1,900, of which 1,400 is in
New York City). Stage mechanics with 8 unions have 1,001
members (increase of 18).

IX. Wood Working and Furniture. — ^This group of trades has
been virtually stationary, having gained only 3 unions and 84
members. The leading trades are piano and organ workers (8
unions and 1,805 members,), machine wood working (15 unions
and 1,628 members), cabinet makers (3 unions end 1,384 mem-
bers), coopers (16 unions and 819 members), upholsterers (7
unions and 969 members) and wood carvers (6 unions and 665
members). . . ,

X. Restaurants and Retail Trade. — ^The trades under this head-
ing have gained 27 unions and 1,501 members. The bartenders
with 31 unions (increase of 9) have 2,213 members, a gain of
over 700, and the clerks and salesmen with 27 unions (gain of 5)
have 2,381 members (increase of 500); the ice handlers with 4
unions (increase of 2) have 322 members (gain of 130); milk ped-
dlers, who are not all wage workers, but are recognized as labor-
ing men by the trades councils, have 9 unions (increase of 5) and
810 members (gain of 220); the newsboys and bootblacks' organi-
zations have disappeared from all the cities but Albany, where
it has a membership of 24 (total loss of 325 in the trade),

XI. Public Employment. — In this class there are 23 additional
organizations and 994 new members. Letter carriers have 60
unions (increase of 25) and 3,272 members (a gain of 350); dock
builders with 1 union in New York City have 1,800 members
(gain of 1,100); drivers and hostlers, with 3 unions have 447 *
members (loss of 100); post office clerks with 6 unions (decline
of 1, Albany) have 956 members (a loss of 800, principally in



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Bepobt of Bureau of Labob Statistigs, 1901. 9

New York City); street cleaners with 3 unions have 1,205 mem-
bers (an increase of 600).

XII. MiscelUmeous. — An increase of 1,655 members in this
group is to be princii>ally attributed to the organization of new
trades. The glass workers with 15 organizations and 694 mem-
bers have lost 6 unions and 340 members, but the barbers on the
other hand with 33 unions and 1,788 members have gained 400.
The paper makers, whose organization began in 1900, have made
rapid progress and now have 11 unions (5 in 1900) and 510 mem-
bers (185 in 1900); the tanners and curriers have also increased
and now with 3 unions have 335 members as compared with 27
in 1900 (the gain being largely due to a new union in Glovers-
ville- Johnstown); the organizations composed of workers at dif-
ferent trades (mixed employment) have 13 unions (gain of 1)
and 1,949 members, an increase of 700.

The growth of 34 leading trades (comprising all that had over
2,000 members in 1901) is shown in the following table:

* TABLBB.



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10



New Yobk State Depabtmekt of Labob.



The only explanation of this table that is needed relates to
the blanks in the 1894 column. Such blank spaces signify that
the particular trade was not then separately organized,
although members thereof may have belonged to unions in
clo«ely allied trades; thus the pressmen's assistants in 1891 were
members of pressmen's and press feeders' unions.

GBOOBAPHICALr DISTRIBUTION,

Table II of Appendix IV exhibits the total number and mem-
bership of labor unions in each city and town of the state, in
their alphabetical order. The number of towns containing one
or more labor organizations is 146 as compared with 135 in
1900, 111 in 1899 and 87 in 1898. The following table shows the
strength of trades unionism in the principal industrial centers
of New York, every town being represented which according to
Table II had at least 1,000 members of labor organizations in
any one quarter:



TABLE 6.

MEMBBESHIP OF LaBOB OBOAXIZATIORS W PBINOIPAL ClTin AM) TOWW.






TOWNS.


KUMBBB or OROAlOZATIOXa
AT THl BUD OF—


VUMBBB OF MKMBRmS AT
THB BBD OF—




Sep..

i9oa


Dea,
1900.


Mar.,
1901.


June,
1901.


?S!;;


?^


Dec.,

1900.


Mar.,
1901.


June,
1901.


^


Kew Tork, all borou^ks


3

16
138
803
1
8
24
IS


8

20
183
802

24
18


8
21
188
803

1
10
86
18


8

81
181
803
1
9
87
18


4

22
183
804

9

80
18


5,658

2,187

36.805

116,585

147

1.222

1,643

857


8,954

8,185

2.1,662

104,975

"7i956

1,550

7U2


8.841

8,439

23.822

106.010

755

6.650

1.631

801


8.439

8,759

24,944

110,068

160

6,400

1,747

652


8,791

4.840

86.887

124,038

1,879
606


New York,' Bronx ...T.....*.

New York, Brooklyn

New York. Manhattan

New York, Manhattan and Bronx
New York. Manhattan and B'klyn
If ew York, Queens


New York, Rlehmoad


New York City


603

1S5
71
68
77
41
89
28
99
25
22
87
16
83
34
14
27

8
18
'i\
20

6
33


506

151
78
66
80
48
40
28
89
26
23
89
18
81
22
16
85

8

13
19
32

7
25


610

162
78
67
80
60
41
81
28
26
82
85
24
82
23
17
34

7
14
19
88

7
25


509

159
77
64
80
61
43
80
84
38
32
85
82
87
25
2i
24
11
15
18
24
7
85


515

159
65
70
78
52
44
80
88
80
21
85

87
27
24
24
14
15
18
81
8
M


164,504

36,612
7,540
6.9U9
6,439
8,857
8,602
2,105
1,572
1,513
1,786

913
1,514
1,299

689

1,413
1.085
1,667
996
1,067


150,278

27,599
7,409
5,900
6,585
4,569
8,596
2,079
1,564
1,551
1.779
1,966

897
1,825
1,131

69S
1,556

940
1,133

979
1,411

945
1,022


149,849

28.469
8,117
5.949
6,899
4,626
3.680
2,823
1.594
1.577
1,851
1,865
1.13«
1.333
1.212

767
1,406

927
1,184

9ft9
1,429

981

955


166,069

28,534
8,602
6.155
6.496
4.585
8,670
2.441
2.048
1.843

i.sai

1.653
1.657
1.415
1,299
1,210
1.822
1,229
1.158
1,091
1.857
1,017
991


174,033

26,688
9.28S
6,694
6,406
4,484
8,647
2.441
2.481
2.013
1.891
1.846
1,628
1,886
1.877
1.248
1.289


Buffalo

Rochester

Albany ........••••••.......•.


Syracuse


Troy .......•....•••.....•....•...•


tJtlca


Schenectady


Nlanira Falls


Elmira


Newburgh


Blngharaton

Jamestown

lockport

Auburn

Oswego


Watertown


OlorersviUe

Cohoes


1.233

1.199


Yon^^s •••.•..


1,097


BomelliTllIe

Port Jorrls

Amsterdam


1.066
1,071
1,018



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Bkfort of Bukeau of Labor Statibtios, 190L 11

The flnctnations in the growth of organization in the several
cities are frequently remarkable. New York, with an increase
of only 13 unions, has gained 20,000 (nearly all in the last quar-
ter, and as preyiously noted, principally in clothing trades
unions). Buffalo, which for two years led all interior cities In
rapidity of growth, reached its limit, at least for the time being,
in June and lost ground in the last quarter. Rochester
(increase of 1,700) Albany (800) and Troy (600) made substantial
gains, while Syracuse and Utica declined, the one relatively so
that Albany passed it in the race, the second in actual member-
ship. Schenectady (300) and Elmira (500) increased at normal
rates, while Newburgh (100) and Binghamton (18) were nearly
stationary. Large gains are noticeable in Niagara Falls (850),
Jamestown (700), Oswego (600) and Oloversville (400), while
Lockport, Watertown, Gohoes and Hornellsville have all lost in
membership if not in unions. Auburn, Yonkers, Port Jervis and
Amsterdam have remained very nearly stationary.

It is always interesting to compare the metropolitan half of
the state's population with the other half; since the incorpora-
tion of "Greater New York" the figures have been as follows:

TABLBl
OBOARIZATIOltS. MSMBSBSHIP.

<■' ^ \ ^ ■ ■ * ■■ ■»

Mew York All other NewTork Other The

Sept. SO* City. towns. TotaU City. pl*oee« Bute.

1898 440 647 1«(«7 ia9.4ai 45.688 171.087

1899 477 U3 1.890 141.681 67.838 809,090

1900 008 1.188 1.630 154.804 90.877 845,881

IWl 515 1.336 l.fn 174.098 102.119 876.141

It thus appears that until this year the metropolitan growth
has been much smaller than that outside. Between 1898 and
1901 membership in the metropolis increased 40 per cent and
in the remainder of the state 124 per cent. The result of the
development of trade unionism in the smaller industrial centers
of the state has been to reduce New York City's proportion of
the aggregate, thus:

TABLB 8.

Pkbcshtaob ov Total Ximbbbship at
THK End of Sbttsmbbb Bklomoxmo to

OKOARIZATIOirs IH—

*• * * POPULATIOl.

1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. IBOO.

NewTork city 73.3 67.9 68.9 68.0 47.3

Buffalo 5.8 7.0 10.8 9.7 4.b

Rochester 8.6 8.5 8.7 8.4 a.4

SyracuM 8.7 8.8 8.8 8.8 1.6

Albany 8.0 8.1 8.4 8.4 l.a

Troy-Lanaliigbnrg 1.8 1.8 l.B i.e i,o

Utioa 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.8 0.8

Total-eeTen cltlea 89.4 87~ 88.8 88.7 59.1

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12 Hkw York State Dkpabxmkmt of Labob,

Of the seyen cities only Albany and Troy have maintained
their proportion throughout the four years. The seven cities
in the aggregate now contain 83.7 per cent of all the unionists,
in the state as compared with 89.4 per cent in 1898,

ORGANIZED WORKING WOMEN,

Table 1 above shows that, with the exception of two or three
quarters, the female unionists of New York have steadily in-
creased in number since 1897, and that their progress has been
especially rapid in 1901. Thus the percentage of women in the
total membership of labor organizations at the end of Septem-
ber was 3.4 in 1897, 4.4 in 1898, 4.0 in 1899, 4.8 in 1900 and 5.3 in
1901. While the percentage of women may continue to increase
somewhat, it can never become very large for the reason that
the industries which in this state lend themselves to organiza-
tion but rarely employ women; thus the building trades unions^
which alone contain one-third of all the unionists in New Yor k^
have not a single female member. In fact the only organiza-
tions in which a considerable number of women are found are
those in the clothing, textile, tobacco and printing trades as
shown in the following table:



TABLE 9.
NUUBBB or OROAMIZXD WOBKUrO WOMZX.

SEPTKMBCR, 1901. RatlO Of

-% women



New to total

Dec., March, Jano, York Interior member-

TRADSa. 1900. 1901. 1901. City. towns. ToUI. ship.

Garment making 4,295 4,614 4,589 6,729 1,926 8.655 25.4

Hats, caps and furs ',, 75 92 168 75 120 195 10.1

BooU, shoes, gloves, etc 214 351 555 • 549 555 21.4

Sblru. collars, etc 800 264 247 ISl 131 7.»

Textiles 750 738 710 621 621 87.5

Totals In clothing and textiles... 5,664 6,859 6,269 6,810 S,4'I7 10,157 24.8

Metals, machinery, etc 15 2S 20 20 0.1

Transportation 8 6 3 8 3 0.0+

Prinilng 791 777 878 480 426 906 6.0

Tobacco 3,897 2,478 2,663 2,842 147 2.489 24.4

Theat^-rs and music 493 492 692 458 66 609 4.4

Woodworking 25 25 22 22 22 0.8

Restaurants, retail trade 618 461 483 810 192 602 7.4

Public employment 10 17 11 10 10 0.1

Ulscellaneous ||

Total 10,404 10.128 11.046 10,413 4.200 1«,618 S.ft



Digitized by VjOOQIC



Bepobt of Bureau of Labob Statibtics^ 1901. 18

In the garment-making industry 25.4 per cent of the members
are women as compared with 23.4 per cent in 1900 and 17.1 per
<;ent in 1899. In the manufacture of hats, caps and furs, 10.1
per cent are women as compared with 5.8 j?ev cent in 1900 and
5.2 per cent in 1899. In boot, shoe and glove making 21.4 per
cent are women as compared with 7.8 and 3.1 per cent in the
preceding years; but in the shirt-making and laundry trades
the percentage of women has fallen from 8.4 in 1899 and 18.8
in 1900 to 7.8 in 1901. In textiles the percentage for the three
years specified has been 44.1, 33.1 and 37.5; in printing 3.7, 4.4
and 5.0; in tobacco trades, 21.0, 31.6 and 24.4; in theatrical and
musical trades 4.5, 4.9 and 4.4; in retail trade, 5.4, 7.0 and 7.4
per cent. A few women appear in this year in the metal work-
ing trades ; they are wireframe makers and might equally well
be classed among the millinery trades.

II. Unemployment
[Sammarj tables E-M Id Appendix III ; deUiled tables III-TTI In Appendix IT.]

Of the 272,600 trade unionists who reported to the Bureau
the duration of their employment in the third quarter of 1901,
5,341 or 3.1 per cent were idle throughout the three months
-embraced in that quarter and many more were idle part of the
quarter. In fact, less than two-thirds of alj the members of
labor unions worked anywhere near full time (not less than 70
days, there being 77 working days in the quarter). To measure
the extent and ascertain the causes of all this lost time is one
of the problems of statistics.

The simplest measurement of unemployment is to count the
unemployed on any particular day and compare the result with
the number employed. If the number of idle workmen remained
fairly constant throughout the year, this simple method would
answer our purpose fairly well; but that number by no means
remains the same week after week. There are more people
•employed in summer than in winter, when inclement weather
prevents many outdoor operations, particularly in the building
industry. Many lines of work, notably the clothing trades, go
by seasons, work being rushed at certain periods and almost



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14 New York State Department of Labor.

general idleness prevailing at certain other periods. Hence the
necessity of counting the idle at different periods in the year,
in order to obtain an average that takes into account the
periodical fluctuations. Such a count ought to be made at least
as often as once a month, as will be done hereafter by the
Bureau in connection with a certain number of representative
unions; but up to this time, the Bureau's information has been
derived from quarterly reports furnished by secretaries of the
various unions.

These reports are exceedingly valuable from many points of
view. A minor defect, frequently pointed out in the Bureau's
reports, is the fact that union secretaries are sometimes unable
to furnish information concerning members who, while idle at
their own trade, may be employed in other occupations. A
maltster, for example, may be reported as idle during the
inactive season, while as a matter' of fact he may have outsiJe
employment. Hence these figures of unemployment somewhat
exaggerate the actual amount of idleness. It is believed, how-
ever, the number thus employed is relatively small and that, in
any event, it varies little from one year to another. For com-
parative purposes it* may therefore be excluded.

The following table discloses the number and proportion of
unemployed members of labor organizations at the end of each
quarter and also the number and proportion idle during the
entire quarter:

TABLE IQL
Nttmbrb AMD PKBOUTTJias ov Mbmbbrs ow Iolbou OROAioiinoiri iB&a III Each or tbb Fova

QnABTKR&
inmBER. PEBCKMTAOB.

, _ , ^ , First Second. Third. Fourth. FlrtU Second. Third. Fooitk.

A, AtendofqytarUr,

1897 48.654 37,378 23.290 89,353 80.6 18.1 18.8 Zt,%

1898 87.837 85.648 23.483 46.603 21.0 20.7 10.3 26.f

1899 81.751 20.141 9.590 41.698 18.t 10.9 4.7 19.4

1900 44.836 49,399 31.469 49,110 SO.O 80.6 13.3 22.0

1901 42.244 t9,336 18.617 18.8 11.9 6.9 C*ll.8]

B. Throughout entire quarter,

1897 35.381 17.877 10.898 10.133 S4.8 11.8 6.5 S.8

1898 18.103 10.273 9.734 15.477 10.1 6.0 5.7 8.9

1899 22.658 6.730 4.790 10.238 13.1 8.7 2.8 4.6

1900 22.899 22,841 12.936 10.489 10.1 9.4 5.4 4.4

1901 26.841 B.63I 8.341 11.3 2.3 3.1 [*2.4]

* An estimate based on reports from 188 representative onions, oomprlslmr more than one-third of
the aggregate membership.



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Keport op Bureau of Laijcr Statistics, 1901. 15

The most obvious inference from the preceding table is that
the amount and proportion of enforced idleness are very much
smaller in summer (second and third quarters, April 1 to Sep-
tember 30) than in the winter quarters (first and fourth.) As
might be expected, the inclemencies of the weather cause much
more idleness in December and March than in June and Sep-
tember, thus:

TABLE 11.
Ol4vna or Idlbmcss at thb Sid ow^



Hnmber. Percentage). Number. Percentage.

r- « > < * -I

OAUra. 1900. 1901. 1900. 1901. 1900. 1901. 1900. 1901.

Lack of work 18.394 80.988 41.8 73.4 28.848 11,259 75.1 60.5

Inclement weather 30.867 8,545 46.0 15.8 166 418 0.5 3.3

Strike or lockout 8.031 866 4.8 fl.l 4,080 8.978 18.0 16.0

Lack of material 7 377 7 7 1.349 7.2

Sickness or accident 1,833 1,849 8.7 4.4 1,481 1,476 4.7 7.9

Old age -.. 638 613 1.4 1.4 601 875 1.8 3.0

Other specified causes 1,8&5 675 8.1 1.8 1,468 683 4.7 8.7

Unknown causes 88 683 0.0 1.3 181 85 0.4 0.5

44.836 43,344 100 100 81.460 18,617 100 100

The weather conditions accounted for 46 and 15.5 per cent of
all the idleness at the end of March, 1900 and 1901, respectively,
and only 0.5 and 2.2 per cent at the end of September in the
same years. This cause really affects but two groups of trades,
the building trades and the lake trades (grain handlers, marine
engineers and firemen).

Trade disputes, and personal oavBes, like sickness, accident
and old age, account for a good deal of the reported idleness;
but the principal cause in every instance is inability to find
employment. It is, then, lack of work on the part of working-
men able and willing to work that creates the problem of the
unemployed.

In order to compare 1901 with previous years, it will be con-
venient to obtain a yearly average. In this case the simple
arithmetical average of the percentages will be found nearly as
accurate as the geometrical average of the basic figures and is
therefore to be preferred. The results are as follows:

TABLE 12.
kTKEAOS PBOPOBTIOH OP TRADB UNlOIIXSTa IDLB—

▲t any one tlma. All the tlm«.

Per centb Per cent,

1897 S1.8 13.3

1898 19.7 7.7

1899„ 13.8 6.9

1900 19.0 7.8

1901 13.4 ri8.43 5.6 [4.81



Digitized by VjOOQIC



16 New Yoke Stats Depa&thekt of Labob.

The averages for 1901 are for three quarters, as the fourth
quarter is not included in the present official year; if the fourth
quarter were included the estimated average for 1901 would be
those stated by the bracketed figures. In either case 1901
appears to be a more favorable year for employment than any
one of the four preceding years, with the possible exception of
1899.

These results are confirmed by more complicated calculations
based on the number of days worked by all members o(f labor
organizations. Thus in the third quarter of 1901, 8,341 mem-
bers were continuously idle and 258,807 members were employed
one or more days. The number of days worked by each mem-
ber being reported, it is a matter of simple multiplication to find
the aggregate number of days worked by all members. For the
third quarter of 1901 that aggregate was 18,125,904 days. But
if the 267,148 members had been fully employed during the quar-
ter they would have accomplished 20,570,396 days' work. They
therefore lost 2,444,492 days or 11.9 per cent of full time. This
la as accurate a statement of the actual amount of idleness in.
this period as it is possible to obtain by any practicable method.
In the first quarter of the year the amount of idleness was of
course larger; the a^eerage for the two quarters was 17.2 per cent.
Following this method of calculation for the preceding years,
we reach the following results:

TABLE IS.
PiBcuiTAOB ov Tims Loit bt UmoB Hkmbbbs nr tmb Fibst ahd Tbibd Quabtbbb, 1897-1901.

AirgregBto
BnmberofdAjt Aetnal

reckoned Bt nnmber of Percent*

fall time. dayn* work age of

(77 days a qnmrtar). performed, time loti.

1887 29,062.424 16,083.495 80.8

1896 26,400.857 20.113,023 24.0

1899 28,660,098 23,670,788 18.0

1000 85,899.441 28,081,188 20.6

1901 88,713,218 82,003,677 17.2

It appears therefore that the proportion of members continu-



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