New York State College of Agriculture.

Annual report of the New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell University and the Agricultural Experiment Station online

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Nostrand Company, New York City.

The fertility of the land. I. P. Roberts. The Macmillan Company,
New York City.

The changes taking place during the storage of farmyard manure.
E. J. Russell and E. H. Richards. The Jourmd of Agricultural Science
8:495-563. 191 7.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C.

Barnyard manure. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Farmers* bulle-
tin 192. Price 5 cents.

Fertility of soils as affected by manures. U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, Bureau of Soils. Bulletin 48. Price 10 cents.

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66 The Cornell Reading Course for the Farm



THE CORNELL READING COURSE FOR THE FARM

Residents of New York State may register without charge for one or
more of the following series in the reading course. Each of the reading
course lessons is available for distribution on request.

SERIES LESSONS

THE SOIL

74 Introduction to the principles of soil fertility

42 Tilth and tillage of the soil

50 Nature, effects, and maintenance of humus in the soil

70 Soil moisture and crop production

78 Land drainage and soil efficiency

127 Farm manure: its production, conservation, and use

FARM CROPS

66 Meadows in New York

90 Alfalfa for New York

108 Culture of sweet clover and vetch

no Buckwheat

112 Potato growing in New York

124 Field b^n production

LIVESTOCK

1 14 Silos, and the production and feeding of silage

115 Keeping sheep for profit

116 The dairy herd

117 Computing rations for farm animals

119 The curing of meat and meat products on the farm
126 Swine production in New York

DAIRYING

86 The production of clean milk

102 Cooling milk

82 Cream separation

32 Composition of milk and some of its products

60 Farm butter-making

98 Practical examples in dairy arithmetic

118 The Babcock test, and testing problems

FARM FORESTRY

1 2 The improvement of the woodlot

62 Methods of determining the value of timber in the farm woodlot

28 Recent New York State Laws giving relief from taxation on lands

used for forestry purposes
40 Cotmty, town, and village forests

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Farm Manurb: its Production, Conservation, and Use 67

SERIES lessons

fruit growing

125 Orchard soil management

104 Pruning

84 Insects injurious to the fruit of the apple

123 Top-working and bridge-grafting fruit trees

36 Culture of red and black raspberries and of purple-cane varieties

48 Culture of the cherry

52 Culture of the blackberry

72 Culture of the grape

PLANT breeding

38 Principles and methods of plant breeding

44 Methods of breeding oats

68 Improving the potato crop by selection

THE HORSE

46 Feeding and care of the horse
56 Practical horse breeding
113 Judging draft horses

POULTRY

80 Incubation
88 Feeding young chickens
353 The interior quality of market eggs

VEGETABLE GARDENING

120 Hotbeds and cold frames

122 Planting the home vegetable garden
92 Summer care of the home vegetable garden

FLOWER GROWING

106 Spring in the flower garden

121 The culture of garden roses

COUNTRY LIFE

64 The rural school and the community

76 Birds in their relation to agriculture in New York State

94 The farm fishpond

96 The surroundings of the farm home

59 Sewage disposal for coimtry homes

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THE CORNELL READING COURSE
FOR THE FARM



PUBLISHED BY THE NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE

AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, NEW YORK

A R. MANN, DIRECTOR OF EXTENSION SERVICE

LESSON 127 THE SOIL SERIES AUGUST. 1917



FARM MANURE

rrS PRODUCTION, CONSERVATION, AND USE

DISCUSSION PAPER

The discussion paper takes the place of the teacher in encouraging
thought and self-expression on important points in the lesson, and in
giving an opportunity for questions by the reader. Each discussion
paper filled out and returned is read carefully, and a personal reply is
made to questions on any agricultural subject. In order to continue a
course, the reader should sign and return the discussion paper so that
another lesson may be sent. Questions are included on the discussion
paper for the purpose of assisting those readers who desire to give the
lesson special study. The preparation of answers is optional.

The available reading course lessons for the farm are arranged in series
on the following subjects: the soil, farm crops, livestock, dairying,

FARM FORESTRY, FRUIT GROWING, PLANT BREEDING, THE HORSE, POULTRY,
VEGETABLE GARDENING, FLOWER GROWING, COUNTRY LIFE. NeW readers

may enroll in one or more of these subjects. The first lesson in the series
is sent on enrollment, and subsequent lessons are sent, one at a time, on
the return of discussion papers. The reader may register for The Soil
Series by signing and returning this discussion paper. The space below
on this page is reserved for registration in other series, and also for names
and addresses of residents of New York State likely to become interested
in the reading course.

{Detach, sign, and return for the next lesson in this series,)

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70 The Cornell Reading Course for the Farm

{In answering questions, attach additional paper if needed and number
the answers.)

I. How much manure is produced on your farm annually from each
type of animal?



2. What part of this manure is actually saved and put on the land
in such a way that it is effective in the production of larger crops?



3. What are the important constituents of manure?



4. What part of each of these constituents in the feed is regained in
the manure?



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Farm Manure: its Production, Conservation, and Use 71

5. How much manure will a thousand pounds live weight of each of the
following animals produce annually in total: horse, cow, pig, sheep, hen?



6. What are the effects of manure on the soil?



7. What is the value of a ton of manure on your soil and on the crops
there produced?



8. What methods are in use in your region for the conservation of
manure?



9. Where in the rotation do you find that it pays best to apply manure?

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72 The Cornell Reading Course for the Farm

lo. What method of handling manure seems to be most profitable
in your region: storage or direct application; before plowing or after
plowing; plowing under deep or shallow; distribution by hand or with
spreader?



II. What is the character of your soil?



12. Do you know of any one who is storing liquid manure in a cistern?
How is it applied to the land? With what results?



Name

Address

Date

(Address all correspondence to the Reading Course for the Farm, College
of Agriculture, Ithaca, New York.)

860

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THE CORNELL READING COURSE
FOR THE FARM



PUBLISHED BY THE NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE

AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA, NEW YORK

A R. MANN. DIRECTOR OF EXTENSION SERVICE

LESSON 128 FLOWER GROWING SERIES SEPTEMBER. 1917



AUTUMN IN THE FLOWER GARDEN

DAVID LUMSDEN



A FLOWER-FRAMED DRIVEWAY

The while flowen oa either wle of the driveway are Japanese anemones, of windflowert. They are excellent for
antnom ctfecti, and have been preceded by Gemian iri^ perennial larbpun, and Canterbury bells



Publiilied and dntributed m furtherance of the purposes provided for in the

Act of Congress of May 8. 1914

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THE FLOWER GARDEN

Douglas Jerrold

And there a brook should murmtir with a
voice of outdoor happiness; and a little garden
brimming over with flowers should mark the
days and weeks and months with bud and
blossom; and the worst injuries of Time be
fallen leaves. A garden is a beautiful book,
writ by the fingers of God; every flower and
every leaf is a letter. You have only to learn
them — and he is a poor dimce that cannot,
if he will, do that — to learn them and enjoy
them, and then go on reading and reading,
and you will find yourself carried away from
the earth to the skies by the beautiful story
you are going through. You do not know
what beautiful thoughts — for they are noth-
ing short — grow, out of the groimd, and
seem to talk to a man; and there ^re some
flowers, they always seem to me like ever
dutiful children; tend them ever so little, and
they come up and flourish, and show, as I may
say, their bright and happy faces to you.



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AUTUMN IN THE FLOWER GARDEN

David Lumsden

FLOWER garden is of interest to men,
women, and children alike, and the planning
of a garden may well occupy the spare
moments of each member of the family
diiring the long evenings of the winter. The
cultivation of a garden tends to foster a
sense of kinship with the other persons hav-
ing a love for the beautiful. It has been
stated that the house and the grounds make
the home; therefore the grounds as well
as the house should reflect the .personality
of the owner.

Every one interested in the trend of
modem horticulture has been delighted to
observe the renewed interest in the old-
fashioned garden, which embraces such plant material as was in evidence
many years ago in the section of the grounds designated as ** grand-
mother's garden." The plant material used was largely of the hardy
herbaceous kind, such as larkspur, iris, hollyhock, phlox, peony, Mich-
aelmas daisy, day lily, madonna lily, colimibine, spiraea, poppy, evening
primrose, rocket, lupine, foxglove, anemone, bluebell. The reasons for the
general planting of these hardy herbaceous or perennial plants are obvious;
when once planted in good soil they come up season after season and
provide a beautiful floral display with Uttle attention on the part of the
individual beyond an annual dressing of decayed manure spread over the
border.

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL

Thoro tillage of the soil is absolutely essential for best results, whether
shrubs, herbaceous plants, or annuals are to be grown. There is no sub-
stitute operation that will take the place of thoro preparation of the soil.
This fact would appear to be a truism, but nevertheless the initial prep-
aration of the soil is often neglected or the work done superficially. When
preparing the soil, it must be remembered that this work is being accom-
plished not for one season but for several, hence the importance of doing
it thoroly.

The soil may be prepared either in the fall or in the spring. The digging
or the trenching, which is better, should be done to a depth of two to

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76 The Cornell Reading Course for the Farm

two and one-half feet, so that there may be if possible two feet of good
prepared soil to receive the plants. This deep preparation of the soil
lessens the need of continuous watering so often practiced in American
gardens. When the ground is spaded, all roots of trees or shrubs and all
weeds should be removed. If the soil is clay, the addition of sandy loam
will benefit it greatly; on the other hand, if it is sandy loam, then clayey
loam may be added. A dressing of well-decayed manure covering the
groimd to the depth of two inches should be apphed and well incorporated
into the soil. For light soils cow manure is preferable, while for heavy or
medium heavy soils horse manure may be used. Decaying leaves are also
valuable to spade into the border, as they are one of the sources of himius.



Fig. 25. COLUMBINE, a very satisfactory hardy border plant

The period of bloom may be extended thruout the whole stunmer if the seed vessels are cut oflF as soon

as they fonn

An occasional dressing of lime on the flower border is beneficial, espe-
cially if the soil is somewhat acid. Lime not only neutralizes soil acidity,
but also improves the physical character of soils, promote? decomposition,
making plant-food available, and enters into the composition of plants.
Lime should be applied in the spring in preference to the fall. Lime
should never be applied with manure, because it releases the ammonia.
The quantity of lime to use varies according to the acidity of the soil, but
in general one poimd of hydrated lime to twenty-five sqtiare feet should
be sufficient. The lime should be applied evenly over the surface of the
groimd and worked into the soil with a garden rake.

If the soil is likely to be wet, some system of drainage may be necessary;
but, as a general rule, in very few cases does the garden need to be drained.

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Autumn in the Flower Garden 77



Pig. 26. GOOD planting and pleasing color harmony

rexmial larkspurs screen the wall and
Japanese sp

55 865



The tall blue perennial larkspurs screen the wall and form a background for the low creamy white

Japanese spiraea



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78 The Cornell Reading Course for the Farm

In fact, it is good to have some moisture in the soil during the warm, dry
summers. After preparing the soil, it should be allowed to settle for a
day or two before setting out the plants.

PROPAGATION OF HARDY PERENNIALS

Hardy perennial plants are propagated from seed, by division of the
roots in the early spring as the plants commence growth, and by cuttings.

SEEDAGE

Seeds of perennial plants should be sown in coldframes from May until
early in August. The seedbed shotild be of equal parts of light friable
loam and leaf mold with sufficient sand added to it to keep the compost

open. After the soil
is spaded thoroly, the
surface of the bed
should be brought to
a fine tilth by smooth-
ing it with the back
of a garden rake.
Drills about one-
eighth inch deep and
four inches apart
should be made
lengthwise of the
frame. For conven-
ience, the straight
strip or narrow piece

Fig. 27. A BUNGALOW MADE GAY WITH HOLLYHOCKS of board USCd f OT

Light-colored flowers arc more pleasing for use near the hotse; therefore making^ thcSC driUs
soft shades of yellow and pink were combined in this planting ^

should be the exact
length to fit ,4nside the frame. The seeds should be sown evenly and
not too thickly in the drills. They should be covered very lightly with
screened loam and then watered with a fine sprinkler. The sash should
be replaced on the frame, and a slight coat of shading applied to the glass
to keep the warm stm from drying out the bed and to assist in conserving
moisture during the germination period. Cheesecloth stretched on frames
the exact size of the sash forms an excellent shade under which to start
seeds. The frames should be kept as cool as possible by admitting air,
and the ground should be kept moist, not wet, until the seeds germinate.
Germination usually takes place from ten to twenty-five days from the
time the seed is sown.

When the plants show their true leaves, they should be transplanted
into other frames and spaced four inches apart each way. They should

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Autumn in the Flower Garden 79

be watered thruout the fall, and as winter approaches covered directly
on top with hay, straw, or leaves. The sash shotild be replaced on the
frames, and, for further protection, straw mats should be placed over the
sash. Protected in this manner hardy perennial plants will winter over
and remain dormant until the noddle of March, when all coverings should
be removed and the frames aired on all seasonable days. The plants
should be set out in permanent quarters as soon as the ground is workable.
Hardy perennial plants generally require two or three years to reach
full maturity. Such plants as peonies, iris, lilies, and the like, take much
longer, hence the importance of very carefully looking over their require-
ments regarding cultivation during this period. Timely transplanting
is essential; weeding
must be attended to;
and an occasional
cultivation of the soil
after transplanting is
very beneficial to the
plants.

DIVISION

Propagation by di-
vision of the roots
insures the reproduc-
tion of varieties that
in many cases would
not come true from
seed. Most of the
plants recommended
for the hardy garden ^^^- ^^- ^ ^^^^ planting around a porch

•rvto^r K^ A\TiAr^ VVi '^^ clematis vines (Clemalis paniculata) add coolness, charm, and

may Oe aiViaea Wlin privacy to the porch. Petunias, variety Rosy Mom, and sweet al)rs8um

4.U«. .«.,^^4.^^4. ^^ ^ ' ^ are planted around the foundation, and pink geraniums, marguerite

the greatest ease; a daises, and fountain plants fill the boxes

few require special

care. Among those that are readily and easily divided are simflowers,
Michaelmas daisies, phlox, and chrysanthemums. The roots of these
plants may be readily ptilled to pieces or divided by inserting the blade
of a strong knife or the edge of a sharp spade thru the climip of roots,
severing them into portions containing from three to five growths. Peonies
and other plants having large rootstocks and plants the roots of which
are crossed, are best divided by first washing away the soil and then care-
fully pulling apart the roots, using a sharp laiife to sever the division from
the main stem and observing most closely that there are one or more
growing buds to each section, or division. For most hardy perennials this
method of propagation should be practiced in early spring.

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8o The Cornell Reading Course for the Farm



Fig. 29. A GOOD position for a planting of hollyhocks

fiUthe
r was ct

868



They join the house with the Rrotrnd, and fill the space made by the graceful curve of the path
to the bade yard- This light-colored varkty was chosen because it was especially suitable for ose
Mttrtbel



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Autumn in the Flower Garden 8i

cuttings

The advantages in propagation by cuttings are that young plants may
be quickly raised, and species and varieties may be kept true to type.
Such plants as larkspur, hardy garden phlox, and Scotch pinks may be
propagated by this method. For propagating by the cutting method, soft
wood growth in which woody fibers, fibro-vascular btmdles, have not yet
formed, should be selected. Portions of growth hardened by age or
exhausted by flowering are of little use for propagating. If plants are
cut back after flowering, they will produce young growths suitable for
cutting material. The cuttings should be made from two to three inches



Fig. 30. A PLANTING EFFECT PRODUCED IN ONE YEAR

The low bushes in front are barberry, and the flower border along the side of the house is of tender

annuals

in length, the lower leaves removed, and the cut made in a horizontal
direction close to the base of the leaves, directly under the joint known as
the node. These cuttings root best in warm atmosphere. If a greenhouse
is not available, a hotbed may be made. The heat is furnished by decom-
posing horse manure, over which should be placed three to four inches of
clean, sharp sand, or one-half sand and one-half light, fibrous, screened soil.
Plants may be propagated by root cuttings in the following way. Por-
tions of the roots are cut into pieces about one and one-half to two inches
long, and inserted in rows in the sandy soil of the hotbed or placed in
shallow boxes containing sandy soil. The tops of the cuttings should

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83 The Cornell Reading Course for the Farm

just protrude from the soil. If a greenhouse is available, this method of
propagation should be done in the winter; if a hotbed is used, March and
April are preferable. A temperattu"e of from 50® to 55® F. suits the cuttings
best. Root cuttings should receive practically the same treatment as
other cuttings. When they have started, they should be transferred to
small flowerpots and given some protection before being bedded. Phlox,
bergamot, stokes' aster, gaillardia, sea lavender, globe thistle, oriental
poppy, Japanese anemone, and other perennials are readily propagated
by this method.

DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING
WHEN TO PLANT

Shrubs and hardy perennial flowers may be transplanted with success
either during April and May or dtiring October and early November.

WHERE TO PLANT

It is as important to know where to plant as it is to know when and
what to plant. In many instances much plant material has been set
aroimd the house, but unfortunately it has not been planted in the right
place to create the best effects.

In planning the home grounds it is first necessary to prepare a plan or
a rough sketch on paper, and to study carefully the plants that are to be
used in the arrangement. Perhaps the best place to grow flowers, espe-
cially on the farm, is in a border on the side of the lawn, in front of shrub-
bery, or against the foundation of the house. Nine feet is a very satis-
factory width for the border. The three feet along the back should be
set with tall plants four to six feet apart. A few flowering shrubs and
ornamental foliage plants and grasses, such as lilacs, Chinese crabs, rugosa
roses, Japanese bamboos, miscanthus, and giant reeds, add to the attrac-
tiveness of this back row. It is admissible to place flowers in beds bordering
the walks, and roses, both hybrid perpetuals and hybrid teas, are most
useful for this purpose. The center of the lawn should not be cut up in
order to create a flower bed. The lawn should be the open foreground
in the home ground picture and is much more satisfactory when preserved
in one unbroken surface.

WHAT TO PLANT

Most of the flowers for the farm home should be herbaceous perennials
including all the old-fashioned flowers previously mentioned. The new
improved forms of these are especially noticeable in purity of tone, size
of flower, and compactness of growth. Herbaceous perennials, when

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Autumn in thb Flower Garobn



83



established, will come up every year without further trouble, but they
should be lifted and divided every three or four years. They take less



m



VEGETABLE



CARDEt^



GARAGE






TUS^^TES. •:



^2251S££^2S3 P-'?!-?'^'?f^'^?T'"'!^



..•BORDER,"-




KOAD

Fig. 31. PLAN SUITABLE FOR A SUBURBAN HOME

Flower borders and evergreen hedges (A) sldrt the driveway and screen the vegetable garden from
the lawn. Shrubbery (B) is used at the edge of the lawn and near the house

attention and are generally more satisfactory than annuals. The latter,
however, perform a very useful service if planted in the herbaceous border
to bridge over the time between the flowering of the various perennials.

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84



The Cornell Reading Course for the Farm



HOW TO PLANT

The plants should be set in the border according to height, with the
taller ones at the back and the lowier ones toward the front. The grading
shotild not be too pronounced, as an tmeven line is much more pleasing.

In setting plants the roots should not be crowded into a small space,
but should be allowed ample room to spread, and the earth should be
pressed firmly around them. If the weather is warm and dry, the plants




Pig. 32. AN OPEN LAWN FRAMED BY AN HERBACEOUS BORDER

Japanese privet is especially suitable for the hedge, and low herbaceous plants should be used in

the border

should be well watered after being set. Several plants of each kind should
be grouped in order to create a massed effect and so that there will be
well-balanced bloom in all parts of the garden continuously.

WINTER PROTECTION

On a dry day soon after the first killing frost in the fall, bulbous and
cormous plants, such as the dahlia and the gladiolus, should be lifted.
The stems should be cut, leaving about three or four inches attached to

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Autumn in the Flower Garden 85

the tubers. The tubers should be left on the ground to dry for a few
hours, and should then be stored in a cool, dry cellar, where the tempera-
ture will not drop below 40° F. during the winter months. The decaying
stems and leaves of the perennials should be removed and burned before
the material used for winter protection is placed on the plants. The use
of the stems and foliage of the plants for winter protection is to be con-
demned, as oftentimes they harbor the dormant spores of plant diseases
over winter. Strawy manure, cheap hay, or leaves of trees furnish the
best winter protection for the flower garden. This material should be
placed over the border to a depth of from two to three inches. Care
should be exercised, however, in placing a covering over such plants as
foxgloves or sweet williams, as their foliage is retained thruout the winter,
and if too heavy a dressing is applied over them, it has a tendency to
cause the leaves and crowns of the plants to decay.

ANNUALS

In order to be grown to perfection, annuals require much more careful



Online LibraryNew York State College of AgricultureAnnual report of the New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell University and the Agricultural Experiment Station → online text (page 42 of 78)