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author of tiie Pastor Fido— the
CoML Ottarini — ^is still inhabited
by the marquises of that name.

In 1849 the Austrians took
possession of the town, but were
compelled to abandon it at the
commencement of the Italian
campaign in June 1859.

In April 1860, Ferrara, with
the state of which it is capital,
was formally annexed to the
kingdom of Italy under Victor

Leaving Ferrara we proceed
to Ponte Ijagoscuro (32^ miles), a
place of importance as being the
chief port on the lower Po. We
here cross the Po, over a long
wooden bridge, and reach Santa
Maria Maddalena (37 miles), for-
merly the Austrian frontier
station. Passing some other
places, we reach Rovigo (61|
miles), {Hotel : La Corona Ferred^.
The Dtwmo possesses no archi-
tectural details or works of art
of any interest. In the Piazzi
Maggiore is a column upon which
the Lion of St Mark formerly

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stood. The Chapd of the Mor
donna contains numerous yotive
offerings, and inferior painting.
The Oalleria Munidpale contains
several paintings, taken from
various churches and convents,
some of which are of the early
Venetian school. There are two
square towers here, leaning like
those of Bologna. We now pro-
ceed across a nuurshy plain, pass-
ing on the ri^ht a fort erected
by the Austnans, and cross the
Adi^. Passing Stanghdla, we
reach Este (60f miles), {ffotel : la
Speranza). pleasantly situated
beneath tne Monte Cero, which is
at the southern extremity of
the range of the Euganean hills.
The Mooca or Casue, built in
1343, is a fine mediaeval fortress,
and was long the residence of the
noble family which took its name
from the place. The canmanile
of the church of San Martino
leans as much as that of Pisa.
Este contains, moreover, a band-
some independent belfiy tower,
and a curious clock of great size.
Monselice (64^ miles), {Hotel:
OraiMU)y has a fine Ca^le of the
13th century, standing upon a
lofty and precipitous rock. The
palace on the hill, the church,
and the seven detached chapels,
were designed by Scamozzi. [An
excursion may be made to Arqua^
4^ miles distant, where Petrarch
spent his last days. The house
which he is said to have occupied
is shown. It contains the poet's
chair among other relics. His
tomb, in the churchyard, is of red
Verona marble, witii an inscrip-
tion by himself, and surmounted
by his bust, in bronze.

"Three leagnes from Padua stands,

and long has stood
(The Padoan stadent knows it, honoors

A lonelj tomb beside a mountain

church."— RooKBS.]

Batta^lia (68i miles), {Hotel:

di Batlaglia)y has some spring
which are greatly frequented m
the summer. Near this place
are the Castles of Montecelli and
Catajo ; the latter contains some
good, frescoes, and a museum of
armour, weapons, and other an-
tiquarian objects. There are hot
baths at Monte^etto (70J miles),
and elsewhere m the neighbour-
hood, but the principal ones in
the district are at Albano (72 J
miles), (Hotel: delV Orologio).
These baths were celebrated in
the time of the Romans. Their
temperature varies from 77* to
185° Fahr. Their source is from
a tumulus rising in the middle of
a plain of great fertility.

Padua (781 miles).

(For the route from Padua to
Venice see Route 170).

ROUTB 170.


62 miles; express first cl^iss, 9*05
francs; second, 6 '35 francs.

(For that part of the route be-
tween Florence and Pistoja, see
Route 167).

EAVING Pistola we
pass Pieve a Nievole,
Pescia (34 miles), ana
several unimportant stations be-
fore reaching Lucca (48 miles),
{Hotels : Croce di Malta, V Uni-
verso, Delia Corona). It was once
the capital of the Duchy of the
same name. The town is well
built, and possesses some inter-
esting buildings. It has several
handsome squares.

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The Dmmoy erected in 1060-70,
has a richly sculptured facade.
The interior, in the form of a
Latin cross, with nave and aisles,
contains some fine paintings, and
several of the modem stained
:laa8 windows are very fine.
jear the Duomo is the ancient
church of San Giovanni, a basil-
ica of the 8th or 9th century.

The Palazzo Pubblico contains
a small but choice selection of

[Fifteen miles from Lucca are
the Baths of Lucca. Omnibus
several times a day in 2J hours,
fare 3 francs; carriage with 2
horses, 15 francs. These baths,
which are much frequented in
summer, are situated in a charm-
ing vaUey which enjoys in the
hot season the most stgreeablo
temperature of any part of Tus-
cany. The name of Baths of
Lucca is given to three or four
adjoining villages. The best
hotels are at Fonte a Serraglio ;
they are, Pacini's Hotel de
VEur&pe et d^Ameriqv^ Hotel de
New York, Grand Hotel des Bains.
At Baffno alia Villa are the
pleasantest private apartments.

Visitors will find here all the
usual accompaniments of fre-
quented bathing places. The
neighbourhood abounds in plea-
sant drives. 1

Leaving Lucc^ we pass Ripa-
fratta (60 miles), San Giuliano
(68 miles), a much frequented
bathing place, .and reach Pisa.
(See Route 172).

Route 171.


Distance 53 miles- fares, 1«<, 9-50
Jrancs; 2d, Q-70 fravics.

HIS route follows the
ancient Via Aemilia
over a fertile plain,
on the right of which
are the Apennines. The im-

grtant towns on the route are
lola (22 miles), the Forum
Comelii of the Romans. Pass-
ing Castel Bolognese, where our
line goes oflP to the east, diverg-
ing from the line to Brindisi, we
soon reach

Ravenna (JSTofe^: Spadad^Oro,
S. Marco). Principal objects
OP interest — Baptistery, S.
Vitale, S. Nazario-e-Celso, S.
Mario-in-Cosmedin, Tomb of
Dante. This ancient town is
situated in an imhealthy plain
between the rivers Lamone and
Ronco. It was once a seaport,
but it is now six miles distant
from the sea, with which it is
now connected by a canal. It
is remarkable for its ancient
churches and mosaics, most of
them dating from the fifth and
sixth centuries. The cathedral,
rebuilt in the eighteenth century
on the site of a church of the
third century, consists of nave
and aisles with transepts, a dome
in the centre, and a round cam-
panile. In the sacristy is the
ivory throne of St Maximian,
witti bas-reliefs of the fourth
and sixth centuries. In the
limette above the entrance to
the sacristy is Guide Reni's
fresco of " Elijah in the Desert
fed by the Angel." In a chapel
in the north transept is Guido
Reni's " Falling of the Manna."

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The Baptistery adjoining the
cathedral is octagonal, with two
arcades in the interior, one above
the other. In the cupola are
fine mosaics of the fifth century,
representing the "Baptism of
Christ;" they are the most an-
cient in Rayenna. Church of S.
Vitalis erected on the spot where
St Vitalis suffered martyrdom.
It is said to have served for a
model to Charlemagne for his
cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle.
It contains many interestii^
mosaics. The Church of S.
Maria-in-Cosmedin has an octa-
gonal dome adorned with mosaics
of the sixth century. S. Nazaruh
e-CeUOf the mausoleum of Galla
Placidia, daughter of Theodosius
the Great, was founded by that
empress in 440. The interior is
adorned with beautiful mosaics
of the fifth century. The altar
is made of transparent, oriental
alabaster, and is intended to
be illuminated by lights placed
within it. Behind it is the
marble sarcophagus of Galla
Placidia, in which the empress
was interred in 450 in a sitting
posture. On the right is the
marble sarcophagus of the Em-
peror Honorius, her brother, and
on the left, that of Constantius
III., her second husband. Se-
veral of the other churches have
interesting mosaics and monu-
ments. ^

Adjoining the Church of S,
Fraricesco is the tomb of Dante,
who died at Ravenna, and was
interred in the adjoining church.
The tomb was erected in 1482
by Bernardo Bembo, and was
restored in 1692 and 1780. It
is in a square form with a
dome; opposite the entrance is
a half-length relief of Dante, and
below it, Sie marble urn to which
the poet's remains have been
tran^erred from the wooden
coffin in which they were origin-
ally placed.

Route 172.


61 miles; exvressy 1st clasSy 11
francs ; zrf, 7 '70 francs.

EAVING Florence, we
pass through a very
beautiful country to
SiGNA (10 miles). It
is connected, by a bridge over
the Amo, with the village of
Lustra, and these two places are
among the principal seats of the
manufacture of straw hats and
straw plaitinp^, for which this
part of Italy is celebrated. We
now proceed through the narrow
gorge of Gonfolina, cross the
Amo, and pass Monte Lupo with
its Roccttf or castle, and the
ancient fortress of Cajoraja on
the opposite side of tne river.
We next cross the Pesa, and
pass, on the ri^ht, VAmhrogiana,
a castellated villa, built by Fer-
dinand I. 'We next reach Em-
POU (20jl miles), (iTote^ : Locanda
del Sole). It is situated in a very
fertile region v\ the lower valley
of the Amo. Its streets are
narrow, and the upper storeys
of its quaint old houses overhang
the lower. The Collegiaie Church,
built in 1093, was restored in
1738. It contains many fine
paintings. The Baptistery ad-
joining it has some paintings
near the altar representing the
martyrdom of St Andrew. The
Church of San Stefano has some
good frescoes. In the princi^
square stands a fine fountam,
erected in 1830.

[A line branches off to Siena
and the south.]

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Soon after leaving Empoli,
we see, on the hills to the right,
the lofty tower in the town of
San Mtniato del Tedeschi the
birth-place of Frarvcesco Sforza.

PONTBDBRA (36^ miles), situ-
ated in the lower valley of the
Amo, near the confluence of the
/ river of that name with the Era.
/ We pass through a beautiful and
I richly-cultivated tract of coimtry

Pisa (49J miles) {Hotels: see
" Hotel List ").

Cabs. — One horse from station,
1 fr.y baggage extra ; coiurse in
town, 80 c. ; by time, first i
hour, 1 /r. ; each additional
J hour, 70 c. ; two horses, one-
1 third more.
\^ (Two hours are sufficient for a

V^Vvisit to the Cathedral, Baptistery,
Xioaning Tower, and Campo Santo.
Guide useless. Cab from the sta-
^ tion to the Piazza del Duomo, 1 fr. )
^^ Pisa stands in a fertile plain,
^ bounded .by the Apennines on
I the north, and on the south open
N^ to the sea.

_J^a^ The city covers an enclosure of

N^ near seven miles in circumference ;

the river intersects and divides it

* into two par.ts nearly equal ; the

• ^uays on both sides are wide,
JP hned with edifices in generid

M ^^ stately and handsome, and imited

^Ni)y tlu-ee bridges, one of which

<^ (ttiat in the middle) is of marble.

As the stream bends a little in its

^ course, it gives a slight curve to

' -/ the streets that border it, and
adds so much to the beauty and
effect of the perspective, that
some travellers prefer the Lang*
Arno at Pisa to that at Florence.
The streets are wide, particularly
well paved, with raised flags for
foot passengers, and the houses
are lofty ana good looking. There
are several palaces, not deficient
either in style or magnificence.
The finest group of buildings,
perhaps, in the world, is that
which Pisa presents to the con-

templation of the traveller in
her Cathedral, and its atten-
danf edifices, the Baptister y,
the Bei^fry. and the UembxE&y.
These labncs are totally de-
tached ; they occupy a very
considerable space, and derive
from their insulated site an
additional magnificence. They
are all of the same materials,
that is, of marble ; all nearly
of the same era, and, excepting
the cloister of the cemetery, in
the same style of architecture.
The^gAlgEDRAjjjJs the grandest,
as it is the most ancient. It
was begun in the middle, and
finished before the end of the
eleventh century. It stands on
a platform raised five steps above
the level of the ground, and
formed of great flags of marble.
The sides are divided into three
stories, all adorned with marble
half -pillars ; the imdermost sup-
port a row of arches ; the second
a cornice under the roof of the
aisles; the third bear another
row of arches an^ the roof of
the nave. The front consists of
five storeys, formed all of hatf-
pillars supporting semi-circular
arches ; the cornices of the first,
second, and fourth storeys imr
all around the edifice : the third
storey occupies the space which
corresponds with the roof of the
aisles, and the fifth is contained
in the pediment. In the central
point of section (for the church
forms a Latin cross) rises the
dome, supported by columns
and arches, which are adorned
with pediments and pillars sur-
mounted with statues. The
dome itself is low and elliptic.
The interior consists of a nave
and double aisles, with choir
and transept. The aisles are
formed by four rows of columns
of oriental granite. The altar
and the pulpit rest upon por-
phyry pillars ; the gallery around
the dome is in a very hght and


Digitized by



Route in.— FLORENCE TO LEGHORN, italt.


airy style. The roof of the
church is not arched, but of
wood, divided into compart-
ments, and gilt; a mode ex-
tremely ancient, and observable
in many of the early churches.
The doors are of bronze, finely

Tradition states that the oscil-
lations of the large bronze lamp
suspended in the nave first sug-
gested to Galileo the theory of

The BAPTia TBRY, or church of
St John, opposite the cathedral,
an almost equally remarkable
structure, was completed in
1162 by Diotisalvi. The main
building, which is circular, and
raised on several steps, supports
a leaden-roofed dome, havmg a
second dome above it, sur-
moimted by a statue of St John.
The beautifully-proportioned in-
terior, noted for its wonderful
echo, contains a pulpit, which
ranl^ as the greatest master-
piece of Nicolo Pisani, various
pieces of sculpture, and a large
octagonal marble font.

The Campanilb, or belfry,
which is the celebrated leaning
tower of Pisa, stands at the end
of the cathedral, opposite to the
Baptistery, at about the same
distance. It consists of eight
storeys, formed of arches sup-
ported by pillars, and divided
by cornices. The undermost is
closed up, the six others are open
galleries, and the uppermost is of
less diameter, because it is a con-
tinuation of the inward wall, and
surrounded by an iron balustrade
only. The elevation of the whole
is about 180 ft. The staircase
winds through the inward wall
The form and proportion of this
tower are graceful, and its mate-
rials, whidi are marble, add to
its beauty ; but its grand dis-
tinction, which alone gives it so
much celebrity, is a defect which
disparages the work, though it

may enhance the skill of the
architect, and by its novelty
arrest the attention.

As to the obliquity of this
tower, some ascribe its cause to
accident, others to design; the
latter affirming, from the dimi-
nished inclination of the upper
tiers, that the German architect
contrived this declination, which
his Italian successors endeavoured
to rectify. As, however, a neigh-
bourmg belfry, and the observa-
tory in the adjoining street, have
been found to lean to the same
side, there can be little doubt
that the Campanile leans only
from the same cause — the soft-
ness of the soil on which it
stands. But, whatever be the
cause of its obliauity, the tower
seems to be in no aanger of falling.
Notwithstanding its threatening
appearance, it has now stood
more than 600 years without rent
or decay.

Cam'po Santo, — This cloistered
cemeterjr, constructed in the 13th
century, is a vast rectangle 383 ft.
in length by 127 ft. in width,
surrounded by arcades of white
marble. The arches, like those
met with in Roman architecture,
are round, and the pillars facea
with pilasters ; but each arcade,
with the exception of onlv four,
includes an intersection of small
arches, rising from slender shafts
like the m^Qlions of a Gothic
window. This, however, is sup*
posed to be an addition, the
arcades having, to all appearance,
been open originally down to the
pavement. In their present state
they are not unlike so many
Gotiiic windows stripped of their

In this Camno Santo it was,
that, at the dawn of modem
painting, the more distinguished
of the Tuscan artists were taught
to emulate each other's powers.
Here Giotto executed certain
historical pieces from the life of

Digitized by






Job, which, though amongst his
earliest performances, are not
altogether devoid of merit. Herr
Gozzoli finished, in the short
space of two years, his "Noah
Inebriated," his "Building of
the Tower of Babel," with other
scriptural subjects which cover
one entire wing of the cemetery
~a work that might, as Vasari
well observed of it, awalawhole
host of painters. Here, also,
Andrea Orcagna gave a repre-
sentation of the Last Judgment ;
and Bernardo Orcagna another
of the Inferno. In a painting in
the comer of the rectangle to
the right of the entrance, An-
drea mis taken occasion to re-
present the effects of the sacred
soil of which the cemetery is

It is said to have been filled, to
the depth of 9 ft., with earth
brought by the Pisans from the
Holy Land, on their return from
the third crusade. This earth
was thought to possess the pro-
perty of decomposing ammal
substances in the space of four-
and-twenty hours. Buch, at least,
is the prevailing notion, though
Simond, on the contrary, asserts
that " bodies buried in it are said
to be safe from decay." Elanged
round the walls are a number of
interesting sarcophagi, Egyptian
\ and other antiqmties, and several
^ modem statues. On one of the
walls are the chains of the
ancient harbour of Pisa, captured
by the Genoese in 1362, parts
of which were given to the
Florentines, and restored to Pisa
in 1848.

The University of Pirn is one
of the oldest in Italy; it was
founded in 1298, and is still ac-
counted the seat of Tuscan edu-
cation. It has three colleges
with thirty-five professors, also a
library, a botanical garden, a
cabinet of natural history, and
an observatory. The expenses

are wholly defrayed by govern-
ment, but the number of students
never exceeds 500.

Among tile other public build
ings, special notice is due to the
churches of La Madonna della
Spina and San Stefano, both rich
in paintings and sculptures, and
the latter famous for its organ,
the largest in Italy ; the Orand
Diical and Lanjranchi Palaces:
the Torre del Fame,so called from
its being supposed to have been
the spot in which Ugolino Ghe-
rardesca and his chudren were
starved to death in 1288.

The Pa lazzo Toscanelli, formerly
Lanfranchiy is attributed to Mi-
chael Angelo. Lord Byron re-
sided here in 1822. Galileo was
bom in the Palazzo ScottOf on
Febmary 18th, 1564.

The Academy of Fine Arts,
established in 1812, by Napoleon,
contains some very good paint-
ings, chiefly of the Pisan and
Florentine schools.

Pisa contains some Roman
remains, amongst which are the
baths, called Ba^i di Neron^,
and the vestibule of a temple,
now forming part of the Arckivio
del Ihwmo.

Pisa is a place of great an-
tiquity, having been one of the
twelve towns of Etruria, and
afterwards augmented by a colony
from Rome. It did not however
become distinguished till the
tenth century, when it took the
lead of the commercial republics
of Italy. In the eleventn cen-
tury its fleet of galleys main-
tained a superiority in the Medi-
terranean, commanding the coasts
of Sicily, Sardinia^ Corsica, and
Barbara, and assisting the French
in the Crusades. In the thir-
teenth century, the ascendancy
of Genoa cast Pisa into the shade ;
in 1298 its fleet was destroyed
by its rivals ; and since the be-
ginning of the sixteenth, it was
subject to Tuscany, until it

Digitized by



Route 17Z.—PISA TO ROME.

became a part of the
kingdom of Italy.

Leghorn {Hotels : see "Hotel
List.") It is of a square form,
and about 2^ miles in circuit, but
has two large suburbs. The
streets are, in general, wide,
straight, clean, and well paved.
The north-west end of the town,
or that lying between the citadel
and the old castle, is intersected
by canals which carry the mer-
chandise to the doors of the ware-
houses. The private houses are
for the most part well built, but
there are few public buildings of

.The town itself is chiefly of
modem origin, and destitute of
the historical associations and
classical monuments which invest
most Italian cities with their
highest interest ; its fine Mediter-
ranean site, animated aspect, and
great commercial life are its prin-
cipal attractions. The churches
are numerous.

The principal church is the
ZhumOf originally only a parish
church, and of such limited di-
mensions that a new cathedral on
a larger scale has been begun.
Among the objects of interest are
a duc^ palace, of little architec-
tural merit ; a marble statue of
Ferdinand I., by Pietra Tacca;
the Lazarettos of San RoccOf San
JacopOf and San Leo]MldOy all
well managed institutions, and
remarkable structures^ partic-
ularly the last, which is one of
the most ma^iificent works of
the kind in Europe; the Torre
del Marzocco^ built of red marble,
and so called from the Marzocco
or lion, by which it is sur-
mounted; a theatre, public lib-
rary, and aqueduct.

Leghorn is a free port, and has
an elusive trade, both general
and transit. The harbour is of
large extent, but somewhat dif-
ficult of entrance, from the nu-
merous shoals which surround it.

It is also much silted up, par-
ticularly in the inner harbour,
which IS now chiefly used for
repairing and building. The
outer harbour is protected by a
fine mole, which extends about
half a mile into the sea. The
depth of water at its extremity
is not more than 18 ft., and
diminishes rapidly towards the
interior, makdng it inaccessible
to vessels of large burden.

Towards the end of the thir-
teenth century, Leghorn was an
unprotected vUlage, which only
assumed some importance on the
destruction of the port of Pisa,
and especially on its being as-
signed to Florence in 1421. Ales-
sandro dei Medici constructed its
citadel, and fortified the town ;
Cosmo I. declared it a free port,
and from that time dates the rise
of its prosperity. In the seven-
teenth century, under Ferdinand
I., it was a town of great com-
mercial importance ; and during
the French imperial occupation
of Italy, Leghorn was proclaimed
the chief town of the department
of the Mediterranean. ltbec€uiie
part of the kingdom of Italy after
the events of 1869.

Route 173.


^^miles. 1st class, i2.95 francs;
2d, 29.50 francs.

I BOM Pisa {express) we
proceed to Voile Sal-,
veti (10 miles), and
Acquabona (24 miles),
in the neighbourhood of which
latter place alabaster gypsum of
a superior quality is ootained.

Digitized by




From this place we pass through
a fertile plain to Cecina (32 miles),
situated on the southern bank of
the river of that name, near the
sea-coast. Great quantities of
charcoal are shipped from S,
Vincenzo (48 miles). After pass-
ing Comia (54 miles) we cross a
large plain, and go through a
pine forest, with thick under-
wood which harbours abundance
of wild boars and deer. There
are extensive government iron-
works at Follonica (65 miles),
which produce several millions
of pounds of superior metal an-
nufdly. These works are only in
operation from December to
May, as at other seasons malaria
is prevalent. The line now turns
away from the Mediterranean
and passes through a valley to
Potassa (74 miles), which derives

Online LibraryNew York (State). State Board of Tax CommissionersAppleton's European guide book for English-speaking travellers. To ..., Volume 2 → online text (page 41 of 79)