UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
JUNE 5, 1909.
THREE EPOCHS IN
NEW YORK CITY"
PUBLISHED BY NEW YORK UNIVERSITY AT THE UNIVERSITY BUILDING,
WASHINGTON SQUARE, EAST, MONTHLY, JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH,
AND WEEKLY, APRIL, MAY, JUNE, AND ENTERED AT THE NEW YORK
POST OFFICE AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER UNDER ACT OF JULY 16, 1894.
The Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission
was incorporated by chapter 325 of the laws
of 1906 of the State of New York to arrange
for "the public celebration or commemoration
of the tercentenary of the discovery of the
Hudson River by Henry Hudson in the year
1609, and of the first use of steam in the navi-
gation of said river by Robert Fulton in the
year 1807, in such manner and form, either
permanent or temporary, as may be found ap-
propriate by said commission."
Under the provisions of the statute the
officers of the commission are: President, Gen.
Stewart L. Woodford; presiding vice-president
and acting president, Mr. Herman Ridder;
treasurer, Mr. Isaac N. Seligman; secretary,
Mr. Henry W. Sackett. In accordance with
the original statute and amendments and by
appointment by the Governor of the State and
Mayor of New York City the entire commis-
sion is constituted of more than 300 prominent
citizens of the State, including the presidents
of 38 incorporated villages along the Hudson
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
The Commission of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration,
representing the State of New York and the City of New
York, invite New York University to join in the celebra-
tion from Friday, September 24th, to Saturday, October
2d, of the tercentenary of the beginning of civilization in
New York from Hudson's visit to this region in 1609, and
of the centennial of Fulton's first trip by steamboat from
New York to Albany, in 1807.
The Commission rightly emphasize the educational char-
acter of the entire commemoration. They especially ap-
point Wednesday, September 29th, as Educational Day,
The official announcements of the Commission are given
It happens that September 29th is the opening day of
our College year at University Heights. To bring the exer-
cises of that day into accord with the plan of the celebra-
tion, it seems advisable that two orders for the day should
First. The College work by professors and students in
the morning hours should be related to the historical events
to be commemorated.
Second. Suitable public exercises should be held in the
afternoon. The program for the afternoon will be an-
nounced in due time in the public prints.
A program for the morning has been prepared, to con-
sist of three hours of lectures, beginning respectively at
9.15 A.M., 10.30 A.M., and 11.30 A.M. The morning
4: THBEE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YORK CITY
prayers will occupy a quarter of an hour as usual, be-
ginning at 10.15. Each of the four classes in the College
of Arts and in the School of Applied Science will be re-
quired to attend the lecture of one hour specially prepared
for it as indicated below. The roll will be called and
absences noted. Each member of the class will be re-
quired to take notes of the lecture and to attend a quiz
upon the same within a week after September 29th.
Each of the eight lectures will be open to the students
in general and to the public so far as the capacity of the
respective lecture rooms will permit, the seats being re-
served in the first place for the members of the class for
which the lecture is announced.
PROGRAM OF WEDNESDAY
COLLEGE OF AKTS AND PUEE SCIENCE,
Professor Francis Hovey Stoddard, at 9.15 A.M., in
the English Koom.
Subject: "The Literature of the First Two Centuries
of New York City, 1609-1809."
Professor Joseph French Johnson, at 10.30 A.M., in the
Subject: "Conditions determining the Greatness of
New York City as a Commercial and Financial
Professor Marshall S. Brown, at 11.30 A.M., in History
Subject : "The Political History of New Netherland."
THEEE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YORK CITY 5
Professor Herman H. Home, in Chemical Lecture
Subject: "History of Education in "New York,
SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE.
Professor Daniel W. Hering, at 9.15 A.M., New
Physics Lecture Koom.
Subject: "Fulton and Other Promoters of Steam
Professor Charles E. Houghton, at 10.30 A.M., in Engi-
neering Lecture Room.
Subject : "The History of Steam Navigation."
Professor Collins P. Bliss, at 11.30 A.M., in Drawing
Subject: "A Comparison of the Steam Engine before
1809 with Eulton's Steam Engine."
Professor Joseph Edmund Woodman, at 11.30 A.M.,
Geology Lecture Room.
Subject: "Physiographic Development of the Hudson
6 THREE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YORK CITY
PROGRAM OF TUESDAY AND THURSDAY
On Tuesday, September 28th, will take place the his-
torical parade in the City of New York. The students
of New York University are invited to take charge of two
of the floats or moving tableaux in this parade. For this
a considerable body of students will be required. Each
student receiving this bulletin is invited to volunteer for
this work upon Tuesday. Students who send their names
in first will be given the preference, other things being
equal. Each volunteer will please write his name and
address upon a postal, with the name of the particular
school of the University of which he is a member, and send
the same to Dr. George C. Sprague, Registrar of New
York University, Washington Square, City.
Upon Thursday will occur the military parade of
25,000 troops. The line of this parade, it is expected,
will touch the north side of the University Building on
Washington Square, extending through W T averly Place
from the foot of Fifth Avenue to Broadway. It is hoped
that arrangements can be made for tercentenary exercises
in connection with the schools at Washington Square in the
large hall upon the tenth floor of the University Building,
at a convenient hour on Thursday, either before the be-
ginning of the parade or after it has passed by. The
Women's Advisory Committee of New York University
will be invited to take part in arranging the program at
Washington Square. The details of this program will be
announced in the daily newspapers at least a week before it
THREE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YORK CITY T
*From September 25 to October 9, 1909, the State of
!N"ew York, under the auspices of the Hudson-Fulton Cele-
bration Commission, will commemorate with appropriate
exercises the 300th anniversary of the discovery of the
Hudson River by Henry Hudson in 1609, and the 100th
anniversary of the successful inauguration of steam navi-
gation upon the same river by Robert Fulton in 1807.
The people of the State at large, and particularly the
authorities, students and members of all educational in-
stitutions, are earnestly invoked to make due observance
of the anniversaries.
It is proposed that Wednesday, September 29th, be
devoted to the dedication of parks and memorials and to
General Commemorative Exercises throughout the State.
Wednesday is essentially an educational day, designed
to be participated in by the universities, colleges, schools,
museums and learned and patriotic societies throughout
the whole State. While the commemoration of 1909 must,
from geographical considerations, largely center around the
Hudson River, the glory and the material benefits of Hud-
son's and Fulton's achievements are the heritage of the
people of the entire State, and the programme for Wed-
nesday affords a practical means for a general observance
of the occasion from one end of the State to the other.
*From a pamphlet entitled "Hudson and Fulton," copyrighted,
1909, by the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, New York.
8 THREE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YOEK CITY
Features of this day's observances will be as follows : Com-
memorative exercises in Columbia University, ~New York
University, College of the City of New York, Cooper
Union, University of St. John at Fordham, Hebrew Uni-
versity, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, Public
Schools, Historical Societies, and all the universities, col-
leges and institutions of learning throughout the State of
New York; with free lectures for the people in New York
City under the auspices of the Board of Education.
The Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission offers the following
suggestions to aid the holding of general commemorative exercises
throughout the State:
Municipal Authorities and Citizens Generally
Municipal authorities are requested to cause flags to be displayed
on all public buildings during the secular week beginning on Monday,
Citizens generally are requested to display flags from their houses
and office buildings and merchants to decorate their store windows
with the national colors and the colors of the celebration. The latter
are orange, white and blue, the colors of Holland, under which Henry
Hudson sailed in 1609.
Learned and Patriotic Societies
On Wednesday, September 29 or on any other day of that week
if more convenient it is recommended that patriotic, historical
and other learned societies hold literary exercises bearing on the
events commemorated or on the consequences of those events. The
leading speakers of the community should be invited to participate.
Exhibitions of books, prints, maps, paintings and relics will be
very interesting. Comparative pictures showing the appearance of
the localty in 1609 or in 1807 and in 1909 will be instructive.
Historical societies will naturally consider the historical aspects
of the events.
Scientific societies may consider the flora and fauna of Hudson's
THREE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YOEK CITY 9
time; Hudson's and Fulton's contributions to the science of navi-
The preservation of local landmarks and the marking of historic
sites is recommended.
All universities, colleges, normal schools, high schools, public
schools and private schools are requested to observe Wednesday,
September 29, as General Commemoration Day. Programmes should
be arranged comprising two or more of the following general
1. Patriotic songs.
The following songs are recommended: "America," "Star Spangled
Banner," "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean," "Keller's American
Hymn," "Hail Columbia."
Any good sailors' songs, and songs of England and Holland would
also be appropriate.
Songs of other nations, with the display of corresponding flags,
would typify the State's welcome to the people of all foreign
Debating societies will find material for public debates in both
Hudson's and Fulton's achievements. The following subjects may
suggest others :
"Was Henry Hudson justified or not in sailing to America in
1609 under his contract with the Dutch East India Company?"
"Were the Dutch or the English best entitled to the territory
called New Netherland?"
"Did the presence of Indians in this State on the whole promote
or hinder the coming of civilization?"
"If the British had controlled the Hudson River in the War of
the Revolution, could the Colonies have won their independence?"
"Which has conferred the greater benefits on mankind, the steam-
boat or the steam locomotive?"
10 THREE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YORK CITY
"Which has had the greater influence on the prosperity of the
State, the Hudson River or the Erie Canal?"
"Which did the most for the advancement of civilization, Henry
Hudson or Robert Fulton?"
Essays and Compositions
The discovery of the Hudson River and the invention of steam
navigation offer a wide range of subjects for essays and compo-
sitions. A few subjects are suggested as follows:
"Henry Hudson the Navigator."
"State of Geographical Knowledge in 1609."
"The Sea Kings of England and Holland and what they did
for free navigation."
"Instruments used in navigation in Hudson's time."
"The League of the Iroquois."
"The River Indians and how they received Hudson."
"Legends of the Indians."
"The settlement of New Netherland."
"The fur trade of New Netherland."
"How the beaver influenced the history of New York."
"Customs of the Dutch settlers."
"The relation of the Hudson River to the history of the State."
"Robert Fulton the inventor."
"Fulton's debt to other inventors."
"Progress in steam navigation in 100 years."
"Description of an ocean voyage in 1609."
"The scenery of the Hudson River."
"Legends of the Hudson River."
"The rank of the Hudson River with other rivers of the United
"The Influence of the Erie Canal on the development of New
York City and State."
"The settlement of " (in the blank space insert
the name of the town or city in which the writer lives.) This
subject is especially recommended to stimulate the study of local
It is difficult to make suggestions for tableaux which will be
applicable to all parts of the State, to the different conditions
under which they are to be given and to the varying resources of
the participants. Tableaux can be given out of doors with natural
surroundings which cannot be given in-doors; and effects can be
THREE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YOKK CITY 11
produced in a theatre or large auditorium which cannot be had in
a schoolroom. Each community must be guided largely by its
own history, and each company by its own facilities.
While the primary object of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration is
to commemorate the achievements of Hudson and Fulton, it is
designed also to stimulate the study of the local history of all the
communities of the State. Therefore, any important or picturesque
or interesting event in the annals of a town or city may appro-
priately be represented.
School exhibitions may include the following things:
Pictures of Henry Hudson; the Half Moon; Amsterdam; the
Dutch people; scenes along the coasts of Norway, Spitzbergen,
Iceland, Greenland, Hudson Bay, the Maine coast, and the Hudson
Indian relics of all kinds.
Relies of early settlers.
Pictures of Robert Fulton, early and modern steamboats and
scenery of the Hudson River.
Pictures of the locality in which the exhibition is held, showing
its early and present appearances in contrast.
Views relating to the Erie Canal.
Old maps of North America and New York State, with pins used
as markers to indicate voyages of early explorers. A large globe
of the earth thus marked would be instructive.
Wednesday, September 29, and Saturday, October 2, are assigned
to the children of the State for out-door festivals.
Places. These festivals may be held on the rivers, river-sides,
village greens, parks, park lakes, roads, boulevards, avenues, streets
or parts of streets set aside for occasion, recreation piers, open
fields, vacant lots, playgrounds, campuses and athletic fields. If
the weather should be inclement or if for other reason it should
be advisable to have the festivals under cover, use could be made of
armories, large halls, recreation centers and roof gardens.
Form of Festivals. The festivals themselves may take the form
of (a) dramatic presentations, with literature and arts portraying
the heroes, the people, the civilization of 1609, and symbols of
development scientific, industrial, social, political, educational.
Or (&) they may take the character of aquatic or land processions
or pageants with arches, poles, banners, emblems, coats of arms,
12 THREE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YOKE CITY
insignia of all kinds, colors, and streamers, so far as possible to be
made by the school children as school work. The symbols should
suggest the sources of the Hudson, the different cities and towns in
succession blessed by its waters, the various products borne by it
for distribution to mankind in all parts of the world; and also the
various nationalities which in succession have come to share in the
blessings of the river. And (c) there may be home parties for
children and young people with costumes, plays, games, charades,
etc., illustrative of different features of the places and events.
Rejoicing. Folk dancing of all nations, in succession and then
in unison as one people, is suggested as a form of rejoicing; also
historical excursions; tournaments; golf; tennis, and other ball
games; all games for kindergarten and older children in parks,
in streets set aside for the purpose, in open fields, and vacant lots
wherever individuals or neighborhood committees make it pos-
sible for children to play. Separate places should be provided for
the segregation of kindergarten and small children. In communi-
ties near the Hudson River, the participants should, if possible,
hold their rejoicings on the shores of the river and harbor.
Co-operation. Schools, committees and individuals arranging
children's festivals should secure, if possible, the co-operation of
departments of education, departments of parks and various other
departments of government; institutions, playground associations,
athletic leagues, clubs, associations, societies, neighborhood leagues
and committees. An individual, a committee or a society may
select and improve even a vacant lot as a possible place for some
form of celebration by children. Each school, institution, club,
society, or neighborhood committee should provide a building or a
playground and organize for the children of the school or neigh-
borhood various forms of entertainment. The improvement of such
vacant lots may lead eventually to the establishment of permanent
parks or playgrounds.
Following is a partial bibliography for the aid of the student.
In some of the books mentioned are more extensive lists:
Indians. Morgan's "League of the Iroquois," and Ruttenber's
"History of the Indian Tribes of the Hudson" (rare) are recom-
mended with the following more accessible publications of the
New York State Museum: "History of the New York Iroquois,"
"Aboriginal Occupation of New York," "Aboriginal Chipped Stone
Implements of New York," "Polished Stone Articles Used by the
THEEE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YORK CITY IB -
New York Aborigines," "Earthenware of the New York Aborigines,"
"Wampum and Shell Articles Used by the New York Indians,"
"Horn and Bone Implements of the New York Indians," "Metallic
Implements of the New York Indians," "Metallic Ornaments of the
New York Indians," etc.
England and Holland. Greene's "Short History of England" and
Motley's "History of The Netherlands" will give the relations
of the countries prior to and at the time of Hudson's voyages.
"Motley's Dutch Nation," by William Elliot Griffis, D.D., L.H.D.,
condenses into one volume Motley's "Rise of the Dutch Republic"
and in addition brings the historical narrative down to 1908.
Early Voyages. John Fiske's "Discovery of America," chapters
I and II of his "Old Virginia and Her Neighbors" and his "Dutch
and Quaker Colonies in America" are fascinating reading concern-
ing the sea-kings, western discoveries and American colonization.
Volume IV of Winsor's "Narrative and Critical History of America"
contains a great fund of information on the subject. "Purchas His
Pilgrimes," published in 1625, is difficult of access but useful to
the critical student. "Hakluyt's Voyages," containing original
records of the principal navigations of the English nation, may now
be obtained in eight volumes of "Everyman's Library" at 35 cents
a volume. For individual pre-Hudson voyages, the following "Old
South Leaflets," published by the Directors of the Old South Work,
Boston, Mass., and costing five cents apiece, are very useful: No. 17,
"Verazzano's Voyage"; No. 29, "The Discovery of America"; No. 31,
"The Voyages to Vinland"; No. 37, "The Voyages of the Cabots";
No. 115, "John Cabot's Discovery of North America," and others
mentioned in their list, which is sent on application to them.
Henry Hudson. John Meredith Read's "Historical Inquiry Con-
cerning Henry Hudson" is the most exhaustive investigation of his
life, but is rare. Henry C. Murphy's "Henry Hudson in Holland"
is also rare. Edgar Mayhew Bacon's "Henry Hudson, his Times
and his Voyages," is perhaps the most convenient and accessible
modern book on the subject.
Discovery of the Hudson River. Asher's "Henry Hudson the
Navigator" is an exhaustive and critical account of Hudson's voy-
ages with full bibliography, but rare. "Purchas' Pilgrims" (rare),
reprinted in the New York Historical Society Collections, Vol. I,
gives accounts of all four of Hudson's voyages. B. F. De Costa 's
"Sailing Directions of Henry Hudson" contains a dissertation on
the discovery of the Hudson, but is also rare. John Fiske's "Dutch
and Quaker Colonies in America" is by far the most readable
14 THEPvE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YORK CITY
and condensed account of the discovery of the river. Bacon's
"Henry Hudson," above referred to, is also excellent. Yates &
Moulton's "History of New York" has a running commentary on
Hudson's voyage up the river. Old South Leaflet, No. 94, "The
Discovery of the Hudson River," gives that portion of Juet's diary
of Hudson's voyage relating to the river. The American Scenic
and Historic Preservation Society's "Eleventh Annual Report"
(1906), contains Juet's Journal, also a fac-simile of Hudson's con-
tract with the Dutch East Indian Company.
Settlement of New Netherland. Chapter VIII of Volume IV of
Winsor's "Narrative and Critical History of America" is an inter-
esting and condensed account of the Dutch in America, with sources
of information and a valuable bibliography. Fiske's "Dutch and
Quaker Colonies" should also be consulted. General James Grant
Wilson's four-volume "Memorial History of New York" is the
fullest and most scholarly account of the discovery and colonization
of New Netherland and the history of New York City. Old South
Leaflet, No. 69, contains the "Description of New Netherland by
Adrian Van der Dorick." "The Story of New Netherland: The Dutch
in America," by William Elliot Grilhs, D.D., L.H.D., is a new and
valuable work written from original sources.
The Hudson River. Lossing's "Hudson from the Wilderness to
the Sea" and Bacon's "Hudson River from Ocean to Source" are
interesting descriptive and historical works.
Robert Fulton. Coideu's "Life of Robert Fulton" and Reigart's
"Life of Robert Fulton" are the fullest biographies of the inventor,
but the date and place of his death are erroneously stated in both.
Convenient small books are "Robert Fulton, His Life and Its Re-
sults" (194 pp.), by R. H. Thurston, and "The Story of Robert
Fulton" (120 pp.), by Peyton F. Miller.
Steam Navigation. The fullest work on this subject is Admiral
Preble's "Chronological History of the Origin and Development of
Steam Navigation." A brief account is to be found in Old South
Leaflets, No. 108, "The Invention of the Steamboat." A valuable
short book is "A Sketch of the Origin and Progress of Steam
Navigation from Authentic Documents" (printed in 1848), by
Bennet Woodcroft, Professor of Machinery in the University Col-
lege of London and editor of the indexes of British patents.
Local Histories. It is not possible in these pages to give titles
of local histories. These should invariably be consulted, however.
The librarians of public libraries will almost always make helpful
suggestions to inquiring students.
THREE EPOCHS IN
IN THE THREE CENTURIES
DUTCH, ENGLISH AND AMERICAN
OF NEW YORK CITY
HENRY MITCHELL MACCRA.CKEN
CHANCELLOR OF NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
This address, given by Chancellor MacCracken at the
Commencement Wednesday, June 2, 1909, which marked
the seventy-ninth year of Tew York University, is printed
in connection with the foregoing Tercentenary Announce-
ments, in the hope that it may help to excite a livelier
interest in the History of Education in ~New York City
in the three centuries from 1609 to 1909.
THEEE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW YORK CITY 17-
THKEE EPOCHS IN EDUCATION IN NEW
New York celebrates this summer her tercentenary.