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PREFACE.



''"PHIS volume is a reprint of some monthly papers
which appeared in The Broadway magazine, and
must be regarded as containing merely a portion of
the Author's " Notes of Travel," the selection of
which was determined month by month, by accidental
considerations rather than by those which would have
influenced the preparation of a volume on America.

In some degree to supply this defect, to furnish
an opportunity of acknowledging some of the many
kindnesses received, and in the hope, perhaps the
pleasant delusion, that some of his readers may be
interested in so personal a narrative, the author ven-
tures, by way of preface, to give the following outline
of his tour.

As stated in the following pages, I set sail from
Liverpool with my esteemed friend the Rev. R. Bal-
garnie, on Saturday, August 17th, 1867, and anchored
in Boston Bay on the night of Tuesday the 27th.



iv Preface.

After visiting Newtown and Newport, West Point,
and the Catskill Mountains, Saratoga and the Falls
of Trenton, we reached Niagara on Thursday, Sep-
tember 5th, and remained till the 12th, with the
exception of the Sunday, which we spent at the
neighbouring Canadian town of Hamilton, whence
messengers had been sent, earnestly inviting us to
" come over to help them," by preaching to several
of their congregations. The hospitality and kindness
of Mr. Edgar, Rev. Thos. Pullar, and others, will not
soon be forgotten.

We then went, by way of London and Detroit, to
Chicago, where we arrived on Saturday the 14th. On
Wednesday the 18th, we visited Lincoln's house and
grave at Springfield; on the 19th, went to St. Louis ;
and travelling all the next day and night, returned to
Buffalo on the afternoon of Saturday, September 21st.

It was the occasion of the yearly assembly of the
American Board of Foreign Missions. More than a
thousand clergy and lay delegates were gathering to-
gether from all parts of the United States. The most
large-hearted hospitality was shown by the inhabitants.
I was billeted to the house of the Rev. Dr. Calkins.
When I rang at the door the little children, who had



Preface.



seen the preparations, — study and parlour turned into
bed-rooms, &c, — to receive, the " Board," asked —
" Mamma ! is dis de Board ? " I went by this name.
I was a little poorly the. next day, and. the children
came to my room, asking, "Is de Board better?"
I must not linger to descant on the home of affection
I found at Buffalo, and the overflowing kindness of
the many friends who greeted us. The " Board " con-
sists of a certain number of persons, of different
denominations, duly qualified, by whom all the pro-
ceedings of the society are directed. The admission
of the public to debates extending over several days,
with public meetings and sermons, in which some of
the most distinguished Americans take part ; and the
annual gatherings being held in different cities of im-
portance, render this assembly of the Board an "event"
in the religious, world. From Buffalo I made two
more visits to. Niagara, the beauties of which increas-
ingly charmed and enchained me.

On Thursday, September 26th, we went by railway
to Lewiston, at the mouth of the Niagara river,
where we embarked on Lake Ontario. These lakes
are disappointing after those of Switzerland. There
are no mountains • no rocky coast scenery ; the



vi Preface.

shores are level, and the almost boundless prospect
of water has not the majesty of the sea.

At Toronto we were cordially received by the Rev.
Mr. Marling and other friends. No words can express
the warmth with which we were welcomed throughout
Canada as representatives of the Mother-country,
and fellow-subjects. While some Canadians wish for
" annexation," and while most would admit that this
would increase the value of property, chiefly by
the security it would afford against possible danger
through implication in any difference between Great
Britain and the States, yet there is a very large
section of the inhabitants with whom loyalty to the
Mother-country is not a mere poetical sentiment
but a strong passion. We happened to see a British
regiment march through the town with their mounted
band, and a dozen Lancaster guns, headed by the
colonel, and at his side a North-American chief, in
native costume, with a huge head-piece of feathers.
He was well mounted, and, of course, rode with
great ease. The people looked at the display with
delight and pride.

The city abounds with beautiful churches of vari-
ous denominations, erected on the voluntary principle.



Preface. vii

We were pressed to preach in the evening, and to
address a large assembly early next morning ; and
the people spontaneously urged me to accept a sum
of money, which subsequently, by contributions from
other towns, amounted to ^ioo, for putting up a
Canada memorial church-window. The Canadians
wish to cherish the closest ties with the Mother-land,
and frequently expressed their regret that they
seemed to be overlooked by Englishmen, who cross
the Atlantic to visit a neighbouring nation and neglect
their own countrymen.

About noon on the 27th, we re-embarked. When
we awoke next morning, we were entering the St.
Lawrence. Threading the Thousand Islands and
shooting the Rapids, we reached Montreal on Satur-
day night. Many friends waited to welcome us. Mr.
and Mrs. Redpath hospitably received us at their
mansion, where we met General Russell, the com-
mandant, who presided at a religious meeting, at
which my friend and myself addressed young men.
The general's own speech, backed by the great
weight of his character, was very impressive. Mr.
Dougall, editor of the Montreal Witness^ Dr. Wilkes,
and others, showed us no little kindness.



viii Preface.

On Monday night we took the " sleeping-cars," and
the next morning, October ist, were at Quebec. Here
we were entertained by Mr. Musson, a veteran, re-
taining at 84 the agility and enthusiasm of youth.
He drove us to the Falls of Montmorenci and the
Natural Steps, returning to Quebec, where it had
been arranged that we should preach in the after-
noon and evening. Between the services we went
to the Heights of Abraham, and read the simple
inscription on the memorial pillar : " Here fell Wolfe,
victorious, Sept. 13, 1759." Next day we went to
see an Indian Village in the neighbourhood, and
took the night train to Gorham, which we reached
at 9.30 on Thursday morning. A drive through
forests, gorgeous with autumnal tints, brought us to
the " Glen House Hotel," in the heart of the White
Mountains. We had good views of " Carter "
and "Imp;" then of "Madison" and "Jefferson."
How new the names — how old the hills ! It was
past noon when we had breakfasted and started to
climb "Washington." First, through the primeval
forest — how solemn, silent, beautiful ! — then out on
the schist rock, white and sparkling. What a prospect
over an unbroken ocean of forest, the varied shades



Preface. ix



of green illumined by the scarlet blaze of the maple !
A hurricane began to blow — we could scarcely stand
against it — thick mists were driving, which froze on
our whiskers. At four o'clock we reached the " Tip-
top-house," 5,000 feet high. The thermometer was
1 4 below freezing. We were back in the hotel before
seven. We saw a railway which was in progress, the
gradient of which was 1 in 3 \ designed to take moun-
taineers straight up the side, the engine to work by a
cog-wheel.

The next day, through lovely scenery, we travelled
to Portland, where we were courteously welcomed by
the Mayor and the Rev. Dr. Carruthers. We visited
the tomb of Payson, enjoyed a glorious view from
the Observatory, embracing the vast bay and up-
wards of 300 islands, beyond which was the blue line
of the Atlantic ; while inland we saw Mount Wash-
ington, at a distance of 80 miles. In the evening I
addressed the citizens on international relations, the
ex-Governor of Maine presiding.

The next day the Mayor conducted us over the
city. We were specially interested in the public
schools. For a population of 30,000, there are 16
primary schools, with accommodation for all the chil-



x Preface.

dren between 5 and 10 years of age. The school I
visited had 900 children, instructed by 16 lady
teachers receiving salaries of ^50 to ^60. There
were 6 "Grammar schools" for children above 10
years of age who have reached a certain stage of pro-
ficiency ; and then there is the " High School " for
persons above 14 years of age who have passed cer-
tain examinations. Here young men and young
women are instructed in class together, though they
have separate " study-rooms." The schools are sup-
ported by local taxation self-imposed by the * inhabi-
tants. No fees are paid by the pupils. Any lad with
brains and perseverance, if his parents are willing
to support him while at school, may pass into the
High School, and be there fitted for the University.
A first-class education is within the reach of the
poorest. The Mayor pointed out to me his own son
sitting with the other boys. Several young ladies be-
longing to families of high standing were studying
alongside the children of tradesmen and mechanics.
I asked why the rich sent their children there. The
answer was — " Because we pay for the schools, and
like to share in them ; because we can't get a better
education for our children ; and because those who,



Preface. xi



in a few years may mix on equal terms, may as well
prepare for it at school."

On Saturday evening, October 5th, we reached
Boston. Our hospitable friends Mr. and Mrs. Ropes,
were waiting to welcome us. Alas ! after so short an
interval, what a harvest has Death been reaping among
those whose names I feel a pleasure in mentioning as
having shown us great personal kindness. Boston is
the most English-looking town I visited throughout
my journey. The streets, unlike those of other Ameri-
can cities, are very irregular. I must not linger to
speak of the public library, the churches, the schools,
the arsenal, the Bunker's Hill monument, &c. One
evening was spent with Longfellow. He lives at Cam-
bridge, near Boston, in an old mansion which was
Washington's head-quarters. One day there was a
turn-out of the Boston volunteers to give a public re-
ception to General Sheridan, whom I had the honour
of meeting in the evening. From Boston I visited
Plymouth, and paid my pilgrimage to the rock on
which the Pilgrim Fathers landed. Another day was
spent at Springfield, where we took part in a con-
vention of Young Men's Christian Associations. Our
kind and intelligent host, the Rev. S. Buckingham,



xii Preface.

took us a drive in the neighbourhood, the beauty of
which will never be effaced from my memory. We also
visited the Theological College at Andover, where we
were entertained by Professor Park, editor of the
" Bibliotheca Sacra," and were invited to address the
students under his charge.

I had the privilege of meeting the poets Lowell,
Holmes, and Whittier. It is a pleasure to recall the
names of the Rev. W. Hale, Dr. Kirk, Mr. Toby,
Mr. Kimball, Judge Warren, and especially of Mr.
John Tappan, my own and my father's friend, an aged
veteran in philanthropy, as having shown me great
kindness. At Boston, as elsewhere, we were cour-
teously constrained both on Sundays and week-days,
to occupy the pulpits of various churches, and to ad-
dress large public meetings.

On Friday, October 18th, I went to Providence,
where the governor was my host, and presided at a
lecture on international relations. The next day I
visited " Brown's University," and went forward
to Hartford, where I received the hospitality of
Professor and Mrs. Beecher Stowe, with whom I
had the great pleasure of spending a long morning,
in the course of which, Dr. Bushnell called. It



Preface. xiii

was a rare privilege to hear two such persons con-
verse as they did on the most interesting and
important of all subjects. I was much interested in
learning the origin of " Uncle Tom's Cabin." The
death-scene vividly flashed on the mind of the author-
ess one day at the Holy Communion. This was first
described, and then the rest of the story was composed
as an introduction.

Sunday, the 20th of October, was spent at New
Haven ; where I had been invited to preach to
the students of Yale College. To Dr. and Mrs.
Patten, my kind hosts ; to Judge Wayland and Mrs.
Wayland ; to Professor Hoppin and others, I would
record my obligations. How pleasant were the
rides and drives in the neighbourhood ; the clamber
to the "Judge's Cave," where some of the "regicides"
who sat in judgment on Charles I. were once se-
creted ; the strolls beneath the graceful elms of the
common : the pleasant intercourse with many friends !

Wednesday, October 23rd, I went to New York ;
where I was successively the guest of the Hon. N.
White, and Hon. W. E. Dodge, known for Christian
philanthropy all through the States ; and then of my
friend Dr. Cuyler. In these families I again had an



xiv Preface.

opportunity of knowing how much at home an English-
man can be in America; and in how great a degree
refinement, cheerfulness, affection, and godliness may
combine to dignify and beautify the domestic life of a
large portion of the people. Space will not allow me
to mention the names of others who showed me kind-
ness. They were so numerous that the list would
seem ostentatious, and any omission might appear
like forgetfulness. My time was fully taken up at
New York in preaching, lecturing, visiting schools, re-
formatories, homes for vagrants, asylums for the deaf
and dumb, for aged negroes, &c, &c. I was deeply
impressed with the intense religious and philanthropic
energy at work in a city where also may be found, by
those who seek it, all kinds of evil. But New York,
in its vice, is not a sample of America ; for being the
principal port of immigration, it is the sink of Europe.
I may say, however, that accompanied by a missionary,
Dr. Cuyler, and a police-officer, I visited at midnight
some of the worst parts of the city, and I fear that
the worst of London has no reason to pride itself on
the comparison.

To the clergy of all denominations ; especially to
Dr. Thompson, Dr. Storrs, Dr. Budington, Dr. Adams,



Preface. xv

the Rev. Dr. Tyng, and his son, Dr. Duryea, Dr.
Skinner, H. W. Beecher, Dr. Cuyler, and others, I
would express my obligation for opening to me their
pulpits and showing me every ministerial courtesy. I
had the great pleasure of hearing Henry Ward Beecher
preach, thrilling his audience in a marvellous way.
One day he showed me over the Arsenal ; but, what
was much more interesting, revealed to me in some
degree his own great, poetical, loving heart. I also
heard my friend Cuyler preach to his own congre-
gation, and did not wonder at the enthusiastic affec-
tion of his people. At New York I was invited to
address large audiences, on International Relations,
on Temperance, Sabbath Observance, &c.

Friday, November 8th, to Newark, where I was
kindly entertained by Mr. Bradley, and met Mr. Fre-
linghuyser, an eminent senator, and others. Next
day to Philadelphia, where I was the guest of the
Hon. George Stuart, known throughout America as
an earnest philanthropist, and the chief promoter of
the Christian Commission which did so much for the
bodies and souls of the soldiers of both armies during
the late war. Here, as elsewhere, I was not allowed to
be idle, either as regards the pulpit or platform. I



xvi Preface.

had the great pleasure of meeting with the venerable
Albert Barnes, now almost blind through intense
study. He told me his " Commentaries " were com-
posed before breakfast — it having been his custom to
be at his work at 5 o'clock in the morning, winter as
well as summer.

Wednesday, November 13th, I visited the college at
Princeton, and was the guest of the venerable presi-
dent, Dr. Hodge. I addressed the students in the
evening, and next morning at 4 o'clock was out in the
grounds with Dr. Hodge and his pupils watching the
meteors. Then to New York, where I addressed the
convention of the Young Men's Christian Association;
and then to Albany, where I spoke to the citizens on
international affairs, and was very kindly received by
Dr. Clarke, Dr. Sprague, and others. On the 15th,
returned to Philadelphia to fulfil public engagements.

Monday, November 18th, to Richmond. As strong
things uttered against southern slavery might expose
me to some hazard, the Secretary of the Christian
Association kindly offered to accompany me. I
was rather startled when on reaching Richmond after
midnight I heard my name called out through the
cars. But it was by friends who were waiting, un-



Preface. xvii



known to me, to convey me to the official residence
of Governor Pierpoint. A sentry was at the door —
the first I had seen in America ! We had a most hos-
pitable reception, and after a few hours' sleep, the
governor conducted me over the city. There were
marks of the siege in various houses and a general
appearance of desolation. In the Court House I
heard a barrister pleading for the acquittal of a
prisoner charged with murder, on the ground that he
had taken up arms for " the noblest cause for which
men had ever fought !" i. e. because he had been a
rebel : — a sign of the large licence given to the bar,
and the mild rule of the conquerors. I inspected
some negro schools — and a theological college for
negro preachers held in what was the negro jail and
whipping-house. I went to see the Libby Prison and
then a slave-plantation a few miles off, where I had
an interesting conversation with the owner, on the
past, present, and future of the South. On both sides
of the mansion were the rows of nigger cabins, so
recently the dwellings of slaves. In the evening I
preached to nearly 3000 negroes in the " Big Bethel "
Baptist church. The governor sat with me in the
pulpit. I cannot express my emotions on witnessing



xviii Preface.

the fervour of that congregation, and being able to
address as freemen those who had so recently been
slaves. The next morning before it was light Gover-
nor Pierpoint was ready to conduct me to the battle-
field at Petersburg, 50 miles off, where the final strug-
gle took place.

In the evening of this day, Nov. 20th, I reached
Washington, and had a long interview with Mr. Secre-
tary Seward, by whom I was hospitably entertained
on two other evenings, and who courteously listened,
but with some surprise, to what I told him of the good
feeling of the British people towards the American
nation and government, and their sympathy with the
great war of Union and Emancipation. The marks
of the assassin are fearfully evident in the features of
Mr. Seward. From his son, also a victim, I received
full particulars of the atrocious attack. At Washing-
ton I visited the Capitol, that vast palace of white
marble ; the Patent Office, and other public buildings.
I attended several Congress debates; and had the
honour of a private interview with the President at the
White House, in the entrance-hall of which, in a pro-
minent position, is a marble bust of John Bright.
I was taken to Mount Vernon, the estate of General



Preface. xix

Lee, and had a thrilling conversation with an old ne-
gress, who told me of the treatment her daughter had
received for the crime of attempting to escape from
that pattern of Southern chivalry. I walked between
long rows of graves, where lie several thousands of
the bodies of young men who died in the great war
which destroyed the accursed system so valorously
defended by the former owner of that ground.

On Sunday morning I preached in the House of
Representatives and in the afternoon in a negro church.
To Dr. and Mrs. Parker, my most kind host and host-
ess, to Chief-Justice Chase, who presided at my lec-
ture, to Speaker Colfax, General Grant, Senator Sum-
ner, Dr. Boynton, Dr. Gurley, and many others, I
would express my grateful sense of much courtesy
and kindness.

On Tuesday, Nov. 25th, I went to Baltimore to
preach, and nearly got into trouble by remonstrating
against the refusal of admission to some negroes. I
said that had I known it when I entered the pulpit,
I would have refused to preach unless they had been
admitted. That evening I delivered at Washington
the address which will be found in this volume.

I returned to Philadelphia on the 26th, where two

b



xx Preface.

sermons were kindly exacted, and took the night train
to New York, where I had planned to spend Thanks-
giving Day. I attended divine service in Plymouth
Church, and the next day I was honoured with a recep-
tion by the Union Club of New York, the most influ-
ential political organization in America. There was a
large attendance of members, by whom the most
friendly sentiments were expressed towards the British
nation. On Sunday, Nov. 30th, I had the pleasure of
worshipping in Dr. Cuyler's church, and in the after-
noon and evening preached farewell sermons in New
York and Brooklyn.

On Monday, December 1st, I returned to Boston.
On Tuesday I preached my last sermon. It was in a
Unitarian church, which its rector, the Rev. W. Hale
courteously urged me to occupy. At the close of the
service he cordially thanked me both for preaching
and for the subject I had selected. My text was :
" God so loved the world, that He gave His only
begotten son, that whosoever believeth in Him might
not perish, but have everlasting life."

Wednesday, December 3rd, I sailed from Boston,
in the Cuba, and after a rough but rapid and delight-
ful voyage, landed at Queenstown on Friday morn-



Preface. xxi

ing, December 12th, after an absence of seventeen
weeks.

I trust the preceding record of acts of kindness
shown me may not be regarded as ostentatious. By-
far the greater portion of them I attribute simply to
my having been, in some humble degree, a represen-
tative of the friendly English people ; and I record
them partly from gratitude, and partly to illustrate the
hearty good will of America towards Great Britain.
The following notes of travel, are, I am aware, very
defective ; but such as they are I venture to send
them forth, in the hope that they may tend, in how-
ever small a degree, to promote good feeling between
two nations who must love each other more in pro-
portion as they know each other better.

Hampstead, September 1th, 1869.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

THE OCEAN BROADWAY.

PAGE

"Westward ho ! — Life on a Cunarder — Our Fellow-Passengers
— Queenstown — Sunday and Religious Service — Sectarian-
ism — Deck Described — Sea-birds- — Heaving the Log —
Correction of Time- Taciturn Captain — Collisions at
Sea — Greenland Missionary — Sailors' Yarns — The Fur-
naces — Visits to the Forecastle — The Judge and his Sunday
Scholars — Newfoundland — Cyrus Field and the Atlantic
Telegraph — Boston ....... I

CHAPTER II.

FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF AMERICA.

Hospitality of Americans — Boston — Newtown — American
Elm — Hotel Charges — Newport — Noah's Ark Steamers
Hudson River — Washington Irving — West Point — " Use
yourlntellect " — Catskill Mountains — Bears and Wolves —
John Brown — Saratoga — Classic Nomenclature— Trenton
—Rochester-^-" Water-Falls " 24



xxiv Contents.



CHAPTER III.

NIAGARA — THE FALLS.

PAGE

First Impressions — View Point — The Roar — Goat Island —
The Three Sisters — Horse-shoe Fall — Nature's Great
Temple — Intelligent Negroes — Tragedies of Niagara —
Benediction of a Negress — Indians — Cave of the Winds — ■
Sunrise — Crossing over — Midnight Stroll — The Rainbow 53

CHAPTER IV.

NIAGARA — ENVIRONS AND OUTFLOW.

The Town — Cataract Hotel — Current Bath — Shops — The
River — Cutting its own Channel — Trip from Buffalo —
Narrow Escape — Burning- Springs — The Indian Girl —
Incidents — Suspension Bridge — Rapids — Whirlpool —
Maid of the Mist — Lewiston — Queenston — Fort Niagara
— Lake Ontario — River St. Lawrence — Thousand Islands
— Shooting the Rapids to Montreal . . . .90

CHAPTER V.

NIAGARA TO CHICAGO.

Petroleum — Sleeping-cars — Detroit — Forests — Homestead
Law — Prices of Corn, and Wages — Politeness — Sunday at
Chicago — Negro Sermon 116

CHAPTER VI.

CHICAGO.

Advantages of Location — History — Progress — Go-ahead —
Town Lifted — Transport of Houses — Elevators — Water-


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