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works— Lieut. -Governor Bross — Giant Trees — Fire Sig-
nals — Churches — Schools — Young Men's Christian Asso-
ciation — Robert Lincoln . . . . . '137



Contents. xxv



CHAPTER VII.

THE PRAIRIES AND LINCOLN'S HOME.

PAGE

Scenery of the Prairies — Prairie Corn, &c. — Bloomington —
Springfield — Lincoln's Grave and House — History and
Anecdotes of Lincoln — The Mississippi-^St. Louis . 160

CHAPTER VIII.

CHURCHES OF AMERICA.

No Dissenters — No State Church — National Recognition of
Religion — Church Buildings — Power of Voluntaryism —
Hepworth Dixon's America — Baptist Church — Methodist
— Presbyterian — Congregational and Independent — Lu-
theran — Episcopal — High and Low Church — Mr. Tyng
— Evangelical Alliance — Clerical Salaries — Renting of
Pews — Order of Service — Preaching .... 187

CHAPTER IX.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS.

State of Feeling towards Great Britain — Democrats — Re-
publicans — Southerners — A " Gentleman of Virginia" —
Fenian Meeting at Cooper Institute — Opinions of Clergy-
men in New York — Reception at Bunker's Hill — At the
Stock Exchange, Wall Street — At Washington — Address
to the American People 229



FROM

Liverpool to St. Louis.



CHAPTER I.

THE OCEAN BROADWAY.

Westward ho ! — Life on a Cunarder — Our Fellow-Passengers —
Queenstown — Sunday and Religious Service — Sectarianism —
Deck Described — Sea-birds — Heaving the Log — Correction of
Time — Taciturn Captain — Collisions at Sea — Greenland
Missionary — Sailors' Yarns — The Furnaces — Visits to the
Forecastle — The Judge and his Sunday Scholars — Newfound-
land — Cyrus Field and the Atlantic Telegraph — Boston.

ON Saturday, August 17, 1867, I embarked with
my friend and travelling companion, the Rev.
R. Balgarnie, on board the Cunard ship Cuba, com-
manded by Captain Stone. The deck of the tender,
as it put back for the shore, was crowded with people
who had come to see their friends off, and who waved
their handkerchiefs till the lessening distance rendered
us no longer distinguishable to each other.

We had upwards of two hundred passengers. Both

B



The Ocean Broadway.



the saloons were crowded. The first business was, by
placing a card, to secure a seat at table for the voyage.
Unluckily, we were not alive to this, and had to sit
just above the screw, which was anything but soothing
and conducive to digestion. Let all travellers on this
Broadway secure sleeping-berths and seats as far as
possible from the screw. We weighed anchor at noon.
The first hour was one of great bustle ; identifying
luggage, selecting from that which was to be lowered
into the hold as much as was needed for the voyage,
finding the sleeping-berths, and arranging the few
articles of comfort those narrow cells could hold.

We were soon in the open sea. The coast of
Wales looked beautiful, the mountains partly con-
cealed by clouds and rain, and partly resplendent in
the sunshine. At four o'clock we were summoned to
dinner, and had an opportunity of making some in-
spection of our fellow-passengers. The chief por-
tion were Americans returning from their Continental
tour. Some were evidently in the commercial line.
A few were English visitors to America. A judge of
the Supreme Court of New Brunswick was returning
to his post, and a Presbyterian clergyman of Halifax
was going home after his marriage-tour. A lady of



The Ocean Broadway.



rank was on her way to visit her property in Prince
Edward's Island; a R.N. surgeon to join his ship; &
Church of England missionary, with his family, to
return to his frozen district in Hudson's Bay; Vis-
count and Lady Amberley to study American institu-
tions. At our table we had partizans of slavery from
the South, zealous Emancipationists from Boston,
adventurers of California and the Far West, and one
young man who seemed to live only to eat, and whose
performances and comments on the food approached
the very sublime of absurdity, and formed some diver-
sion from the monotonous grinding and grumbling of
the screw beneath.

A clergyman from Boston addressed me with a
frankness characteristic of his country, and bade me
thus early " Welcome to America." Another gentle-
man, pleasantly accosting me, said there was a doctor
on board, so he hoped many would be ill. I asked
why ? " Because every man should have employ-
ment." " Then," said I, " many should be hung be-
cause there is such a man as Jack Ketch." He bowed,
and said, " I hope you won't hang me, sir ! " Though
I had the best of the logic, I complimented him on
his sharpness of repartee, and prudently beat a retreat.



The Ocean Broadway.



The ship was beginning to pitch, and I went forward
to enjoy the waves and the fresh breeze, but was at
once warned off the foredeck by the officer, who said,
" she may dive and ship a sea." " But I could hold
on ? " " No, you couldn't ! " I acted on the advice,
though there was no sign of danger. I heard many
anecdotes during the voyage of accidents which had
occurred to passengers through disobedience to orders
of which they could not see the reason. A lady had
gone to the upper-deck during rough weather, and
was standing near the wheel-house. The officer begged
her to descend, but she refused. Presently the stern
"dived," and had he not rushed to her and "held
on " with her she would have been washed overboard
by the wave, which half drowned her. A gentleman
had lately persisted in sitting on the bridge projecting
over the side, in spite of the remonstrance of the
junior officer, and, on the vessel lurching, fell over and
was torn in pieces by the screw. I have often seen
similar foolhardiness on the Alps. Those who are
most accustomed to dangers are best able to judge
as to what is prudent, and half the accidents which
occur are attributable to the folly of the victims.
We were favoured with a cabin on deck, the second



The Ocean Broadway. 5

officer's. This is a great advantage, especially in the
summer. We were away from the crowd of passen-
gers below, could open our window and breathe the
fresh air, and could step out at once upon deck. Each
of us had just room to lie flat without turning ; and
between the two shelf-beds there was barely room for
one of us to stand ; taking turns at dressing. We
awoke on Sunday morning in Queenstown Harbour, the
lovely Cove of Cork, with its fortified crags, its green
hills, and crystal water in which every cloudlet was
mirrored. Here we waited a few hours for the mail,
and some of the passengers took the opportunity to
go ashore. I had been told that on the Cunard ships
no clergymen but those who were of the Episcopal
church were ever allowed to conduct divine worship,
and that thus I must needs have an enforced rest
during the voyage. It seemed scarcely credible that
so absurd and sectarian a restriction could be imposed
in any ship traversing the ocean. If men must be
exclusive on shore, and never worship but in their
own favourite church, surely, when thrown together
on the sea, they may meet to pray to their common
Father. Especially would such a restriction be odious
in vessels passing between England and a country



The Ocean Broadway.



where no established church is recognized, and where
the great majority repudiate Episcopacy. It was at
any rate my duty to offer to conduct service when there
was no appearance of any preparation for it. I there-
fore spoke to the captain, who said that generally, when
in port, there was no service ; but, if it were wished,
he would give orders accordingly. So the saloon was
arranged for service, the bells were rung, and a large
company assembled. I read the beautiful and com-
prehensive Litany of the Church of England ; we
joined in singing a familiar hymn, my friend offered
an extempore prayer, and then a short sermon was
preached. By consent of the captain an evening
service was held, when our Episcopalian missionary,
the Rev. J. Horden, read the evening prayers. By
request of many passengers, services w r ere held every
evening, and on the following Sunday, in which Eng-
lish and Americans, Episcopalians and Presbyterians,
clergymen and laymen, took part. Whatever were
our differences, none were exhibited, none were felt.
We were fellow-voyagers on a greater ocean than the
Atlantic, and knew that there was but one life-boat,
though large enough for all mankind, that could carry
us safely across. Alas ! that Christian people should



The Ocean Broadway.



take such pains to make others think they are utterly-
divided from each other, and should themselves lose
the benefit and pleasure of recognizing and cherishing
that love and likeness to the same Lord which makes
them one.

Monday, 19th. — Roused up by a book falling on
my head from the shelf above. Saw coats, &c,
swinging violently. A sudden lurch of the ship sent all
our moveables to the floor, where they writhed about
in great confusion. Looked out of window and saw
the waves tossing their crests above the bulwarks, and
every now and then flinging their spray upon deck.
Felt disposed to lie still till luncheon. Met very few
of our fellow-passengers at the tables, which had
guards along the edges and down the middle, to keep
the plates and glasses from being thrown off. The
day was uneventful. It was very pleasant and very
suggestive, during the night of storm, to hear the bells
strike the hour on deck, and to listen to the cry of the
watch thrice repeating, " All's well ! "

Tuesday, 20th. — Pleasant walking on deck, watch-
ing the deep indigo waves with their snowy crests.
From stem to stern of the ship I counted one hun-
dred and forty good paces. Let me try to describe the



8 The Ocean Broadway.

deck. There is a row of structures along it, leaving - '
room for two people to pass between them and the
bulwarks. Next the stern is the wheel-house, where
the quarter-masters steer, protected from the weather,
and having a window through which they can look
along the upper deck. Then come, in succession, the
large saloon, pantries, smoking-house, engine-house,
officers' cabins, and fore saloon. Then follows the post-
office, with its pigeon-holes all round, where the Post-
master and his assistant are occupied the entire voyage
in sorting the letters for their various destinations in
the Western world. Beyond this is the forecastle,
with the seamen's quarters. Above these is the upper
deck, affording a grand promenade. Behind the roof
of the wheel-house is the taffrail, where I often used
to sit with my back to the ship, seeing only the sky
and the great ocean, with the long wake we made.
At night this troubled water was often sparkling with
phosphorescent stars. In the day-time we used to
watch the sea-birds which wheeled about in mystic
dances, sometimes sweeping across the top of a wave,
as if in quest of food, sometimes soaring high up in
the air, sometimes hovering over the deck, apparently
motionless, sometimes settling on the water and drop-



The Ocean Broadway.



ping far astern, then with a fleetness that seemed to
mock our slower progress, overtaking the great ship
that, with one even pace and unvarying course, ploughed
her way onward. As these birds flew backward, up-
ward, sideways, and in circles, it was difficult to re-
member that all the time they were also sailing onwards
with us at the rate of twelve or fourteen miles an
hour. Their motion suggested the true idea of the
Christian life, which should combine all that is lawful
and innocent in the present, with a constant progress
towards the future life ; unlike the ascetic who keeps,
or thinks he keeps, one dull straight line ; unlike the
worldling who sweeps upward and downward and
around, but makes no progress onward.

I noticed how orders are given. The officer on
duty passes the word to the boatswain, whose whistle
summons the men, and who tells them what to do, and
then marks the time of their pulling by his whistle ;
then, by a sort of final flourish or shake, he bids them
" fasten on." There is always something interesting
going forward. Often in the day they " heave the log."
A line is attached to it, divided by coloured knots into
distances, which bear the same proportion to a nau-
tical mile as the time of emptying the sand-glass,,



io The Ocean Broadway.

Avhich the officer holds, bears to an hour. At a given
signal the " log " is let go, and the line runs out ; then,
when the sand has run through, another signal stops
the line. The number of knots which have run out
show the number of miles per hour which the ship is
then making. This day, with wind astern, we made
fourteen knots ; afterwards the wind got round to
the westward, and we sailed " very near " to it,
making only thirteen.

The correction of the time was a daily event. As
Ave were travelling westward, or with the sun, we kept
him longer above us than if we were stationary. In
other words he came later to the meridian, that is, our
noon was every day retarded. The captain, by obser-
vations and calculation announced daily the moment
of noon. The ship's clock, by that time about
half an hour in advance, was then put right. At
8 o'clock the bells on deck are struck 8 times; at
8.30 once; at 9 twice; and so on till, at 11.30, seven
bells sound ; but eight bells are not struck till the cap-
tain gives the true noon, so that the last " bell " prior
to noon is a whole hour, when going at the rate of
about 300 miles daily. To-day at noon, watches set
at Liverpool pointed to 1.30. At every eight bells,



The Ocean Broadway. II

or four hours, the watch changes, half the crew being
on duty at a time. That all may share alike as re-
gards night-work, the afternoon watch is divided, and
called the "dog-watch." At four bells, or 6 p.m., the
watch is changed, and again at eight bells, or 8 p.m.,
so that those who on one night are on duty from mid-
night to 4 a.m., are below at the same time the next
night.

I have often felt that writers take for granted
too much knowledge in their readers, and therefore, I
venture to presume that there may be some who will
not object to an explanation of these very simple but
interesting matters.

Wednesday, 21st. — Feeding is a great institution
during the voyage, and the many meals give pleasant
opportunities to the passengers for friendly reunions.
The breakfast-bell rings at 8.30, when a varied and
abundant table is spread. Luncheon at noon. Dinner
of first-class quality at 4. Tea at 7. Supper at 9.30.
The sea-air and exercise on deck enabled many to
do justice to every opportunity. After a day or
two, the passengers are drawn together by kindred
affinities, and form pleasant coteries on deck. Politics
are discussed here, philosophy yonder, and in a third



12 The Ocean Broadway.

group narratives of travel are given, and tales of the
sea. Some are musical. Others spend hours in the
cabin at cards.

I heard some characteristic anecdotes of our cap-
tain. I had been warned against the Cuba, because
he was so taciturn he would not talk to the passen-
gers. " For that reason," said I, " I am decided on
going with him, for he is more likely to attend to his
own business — the safety of the ship." I found him a
very courteous gentleman, ready to oblige any one, but
certainly he did not love redundancy of words, nor
encourage questions. One day, on the return voyage,
a heavy sea struck us while we were at breakfast, cups
and spoons flew across the saloon, and the floor was
several inches deep in water. The captain sat immov-
able, looked very stern, and, with a rare communica-
tiveness, muttered something about the blundering of
the steersman. A passenger of rank, not catching what
he said, unfortunately asked across the table : " What
was it, captain ? " The answer was prompt and em-
phatic — " The sea, sir ! " Passing through the fogs off
Newfoundland, a lady asked him whether it was always
foggy there, and received this reply : " Don't know,
ma'am ; don't live here ! "



The Ocean Broadway. 13

We were now nearly a thousand miles from land.
Saw two vessels, about four miles off, the first we had
met. Porpoises were rolling ; and at a distance
the spouting of whales was pointed out. In the
evening we entered a dense fog, and the fog-whistle
screeched terribly. I remarked to one of the officers
that a vessel in our path would have a poor chance.
He said : " Last trip we brought over an old admiral,
who said that one day as he leant over the taffrail of
his ship, he saw two masts rise up and go down.
Though the men on the look-out had seen and felt
nothing, they had sunk a vessel." My informant was
once coming up the channel in a clipper, with two
hundred passengers, on a dark night. He suddenly
saw a schooner under his bows, but too late to avoid
going over her. The ship was put about and boats
lowered, but nothing was seen or heard of the poor
schooner. The passengers were all roused up by the
shock, and they feared the ship was sinking, but on
examination she had not received the slightest damage.
I was told that the mail-packets did not slacken speed
because of fogs. " May you turn aside to help a ship
in distress?" " Yes — not to take it in tow, but only to
put persons on board, or to take a crew off a wreck :



14 The Ocean Broadway.

and we must be quick about it. Her Majesty's mails
must not be delayed."

Thursday, 22nd. — Wind in our teeth. Only eleven
knots. The boatswain's mate accosted me as an old
acquaintance — he had heard me preach amidst the
mountains of Wales. In the evening our friend of the
Church Missionary Society gave an interesting lecture
on his field of labour. He had been there fourteen
years, dependent chiefly for provisions on a ship visit-
ing the station once a year. His district extended
over several hundred miles, and he visited it in a sledge
drawn by dogs, often sleeping in the open air in a
temperature below zero. He had reduced to writing
the language of the natives. The company assembled
were much impressed with Mr. Horden's evident sin-
cerity and disinterested zeal, and collected about ^20,
to furnish his family with some additional comforts in
their dreary frost-bound outpost. What but Chris-
tianity has ever prompted men of culture to spend
their lives amongst savages, simply for the purpose of
doing them good ? The Gospel presents the highest
ends, creates the strongest motives, and thus best se-
cures the secondary objects of civilization also.

Friday, 2yd. — "Where's the wind to-day?" A



The Ocean Broadway. 15

seaman answered, " Where it should be." It was dead
against us, and thus the sails could not be used, and
the sailors had little to do. From what different
points of view w r e look at the same thing ! We were
only going ten knots, and were sorry. Jack was glad.

There w T as a lively discussion at breakfast. A
Southerner said : " Your fanatics of Massachusetts
caused the rebellion." Northerner: " There's a higher
law than the Constitution. I saw a fugitive slave cap-
tured at Boston, and the magistrates could only get
rowdies and cut-throats to do the job." S. : " You,
at Boston, were the rebels, then." N. H. : " They
were asserting their own state-rights ; their law that
every man belonged to himself." S. : " You should
have been a Southerner, standing up for state-rights."
N. H. : " Here's the difference ; at Boston it was
state-rights and God ; at Charleston it was state-rights
and the devil." S. : " Why don't you Northerners let
the South come back easy ? because you want to keep
the power." N. : "We want guarantees for good
behaviour." S. : " They would not attempt to re-
establish slavery." N. H. : " But they would repu-
diate." S. : " That's so."

The evening was glorious. Without a cloud to ob-



1 6 The Ocean Broadway.

scure it, the sun's disc dipped beneath the clear sea-
line. Then the lustrous stars came out. Jupiter cast
a long reflection on the rippled surface of the sea. It
was cold as winter. I walked the deck with one of
the officers, who amused me with his yarns. He was
once wrecked off the Fern Islands, in a fog. Within
five minutes of striking, the ship disappeared. Escap-
ing in boats, the crew were received by Grace Dar-
ling's father. He said that when a ship is sinking the
sailors rush to the spirit-cask, having a notion that it is a
good thing to die drunk. A ship in danger was a very
hell, for the men uttered awful oaths, and if the spirits
were not thrown overboard, they would get mad, and
stab each other. He told me a curious coincidence.
Two women married two Cunard sailors, who both fell
from the mast during the same voyage, and were killed.
The widows married again, and their husbands sailed
in the same ship. One of them, in New York, fell
from the fore-yard, and, while falling, thought of his
predecessor's fate. He was caught in a sail, but was
disabled for life. Two days after, the other man fell
from the main-yard and was killed. The two women
were again widows. There was a saying among the
men, "Beware of a Cunard widow."



The Ocean Broadzvay. jy

Saturday, 24th. — Inspected the machinery. Ad-
mired the exact regularity with which every piston and
wheel worked, though the ship was rolling. Noticed
the contrivance for shutting off the steam from the
screw when lifted by the waves out of the water ; also
the multiplying wheel for conveying motion to the
spindle of the screw. There are twenty-four furnaces,
twelve on each side. Wonderful that such a body of
fire can be maintained in the midst of the water, and
yet not consume the ship ! The daily consumption of
coal is 84 tons. The stokers, thirty in number, are
divided into three bands, each working four hours, and
resting eight.

After breakfast a mock trial was got up in the
saloon. We had three judges on board. One of
these was arrayed in a flowing wig made of rope-yarn
by the sailors. The sheriff used a broom-handle for
his staff of office. An English and an American
barrister pleaded against each other in the cause
" Mud-lark v. Sea-horse," damages being sought for
defamation of character in charging the plaintiff with
stealing eggs. Very clever and very funny were some
of the objections of counsel, and the rulings of the
court. The oath administered concluded with " So



The Ocean Broadway.



help me Andrew Johnson." The plaintiff introduced
a novelty by calling on a witness for a song, which re-
vived attention, and was thought to conciliate the jury.
The defendant counteracted the influence by treating
them to champagne !

The young man next us at table, already alluded to,
never flagged in his interest in the ceremony of dinner.
Poor steward ! " George " this, " George " that, was
unceasing. " George ! cut me a piece of beef — near
the bone ! Ah ! he's cutting it near the bone, just
where I told him ; isn't it nice ? " " George ! some
white-meated fowl ! " " White-meated fowl gone, sir."
" Tut-tut-tut ! sausages, then, George." " Sausages go
with the turkey." "Turkey, then, and sausages,
George." " Turkey, gone, sir." " Tut-tut-tut ; we've
had nothing — can get no dinner ! " Tables all the
while covered with endless variety of joints and
entrees.

In the afternoon we visited the seamen in the fore-
castle, during the " dog-watch." As this only lasts
two hours, it is not long enough for sleeping, and is
spent in getting tea, reading, &c. And as at six o'clock
the watch is changed, by going at about 5.30 we saw
all the men within the hour. We found a sailor danc-



The Ocean Broadway. ig

Ing a Highland fling to the notes of two fiddles. Was
this a difficulty in the way of our intended religious
visit ? By no means. We praised both the fiddlers
and the athlete. Then my friend told a thrilling tale
of shipwreck, with here and there an important lesson.
The men dropped their papers, or ceased their card-
playing, or hastily finished their tea and clustered round
their visitors. Other tales followed ; then we sang a
hymn, and asked them to join in chorus. They begged
us to repeat our visit. The next day we chatted with
them familiarly, and again told them tales ; my friend
also gave them a poetical recitation, and when we ended
with prayer, manly tears were in the eyes of many of
these rough sailors. They quite looked for us during
the dog-watch, and it was to us not the least pleasant
hour of the day. All men are accessible if you ap-
proach them aright, and the wondrous story of God's
love always strikes a chord in the human heart. It


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