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'L I B RARY

OF THE
UN IVERSITY
or ILLINOIS

M5-4I1;



Ct>\



HL. HOT, SUIiVtt



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NKW YORK - BOSTON • CHICAGO • DALLAS
ATLANTA • SAN FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN & CO., Limited

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA
MBLBOURNK

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TORONTO



TRAVELS

IN THE

AMERICAN COLONIES



EDITED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE NATIONAL

SOCIETY OF THE COLONIAL DAMES

OF AMERICA

BY

NEWTON D. MERENESS



Neto gork

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

1916

All rights reserved



Copyright, 1916,

By the macmillan company.



Printed from type. Published April, 1916.



NorfaooB ^KB8

J. 8. Gushing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co.

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.



111. s



^ 'A . U^_^J ^-cA^t;- .



^



3



CONTENTS



PAGE



CuTHBERT Potter's Journal of a Journey from Virginia to New

England, 1690 ........ 3

Journal of Diron d'Artaguiette, Inspector General of Louisi-
ana, 1722-1723 ........ 15

Journal of Colonel George Chicken's Mission from Charleston,

S. C, TO the Cherokees, 1726 ..... 95

Journal of Captain Tobias Fitch's Mission from Charleston to

the Creeks, 1726 . . . . . . . .175

A Ranger's Report of Travels with General Oglethorpe in
, Georgia and Florida, 1739— 1742 • • • • • ^^5

Journal of Antoine Bonnefoy's Captivity among the Cherokee

Indians, 1 741-1742 ....... 239

Journal of Beauchamp's Journey from Mobile to the Choc-
taws, 1746 . . . . . . . . .259

Journal of Captain Phineas Stevens' Journey from Charlestown,
j N. H., TO Canada, 1752 . . . . , .301

Diary of a Journey of Moravians from Bethlehem, Pa., to

Bethabara, N. C, 1753 • • • • • '3 25

Minutes from the Journal of Mr. Hamburgh's Travels in the

Michigan and Illinois Country, 1763 . . . •359

Journal of an Officer's [Lord Adam Gordon's] Travels in

America and the West Indies, i 764-1 765 . . . 367

Journal of Captain Harry Gordon's Journey from Pittsburg
down the Ohio and the Mississippi to New Orleans, Mo-
bile, AND PeNSACOLA, I 766 ...... 457

V



INTRODUCTION

Virginia was but slightly affected by the fall of the
Stuart regime in 1688, but in consequence of the overthrow
of the Andros government in Massachusetts, the uprising
under Leisler in New York, and "great depredations com-
mitted by the Indians " in those parts, the Council of Virginia,
on the 5th of June, 1690, resolved to send a messenger north-
ward with instructions "to ascertain the truth of matters
in New England and New York." Colonel Cuthbert Potter
was forthwith named for the mission and on the 24th of the
following month Governor Nicholson announced to the Coun-
cil that the Colonel had agreed to perform the service for £60.

Colonel Potter was practicing law in Lancaster County,
Virginia, as early as 1653, and three years later his name
appears among the justices of the Lancaster County Court.
In later years he was one of the large landholders of Middle-
sex County and was closely associated with Ralph WormeJey,
a leading member of the Council. The narrative of his
journey to New England shows that he was an advocate of
strong government. Shortly after making that journey he
removed in his own sloop, the Hopewell, to the Island of
Barbados, where, as stated in his will, dated June 20, 1691, he
was "suddenly seized and taken with bodily sickness." In
return for his ill treatment in Boston the Governor and
Council of Virginia warned the Government of Massachu-
setts that as "contrary to the Acts of Parliament divers
goods are Imported into New England not directly from
England, and that no Collector Is in New England, we have
ordered that any ships bringing European goods hither from
New England must produce their cocquets from England or
be proceeded against at law."

An official copy of this journal has been preserved in the
Public Record Office, London : Colonial Office, Class 5,
No. 1305, pp. 176-179.

3



MR. POTTER'S JOURNALL FROM VIRGINIA TO

N. ENGLAND

A Journall and Narrative of a Journey made by me
Cuthhert Potter from Middx^ County in Virginia to
Boston in New England.

July 6. In the Evening I departed from the honble
Ralph Wormley Esqre his house in a Shallop but having
very rainy, Stormey weather, It was Sunday morning follow-
ing before I could get to Casparas Harmans in Bohemia ^
and there tarried all day.

July 14. I took horses and guide and went to New Castle,
that night, 'tis accounted 30 miles, I met with Mr. Williams
the Collector deliver'd him his Letter, and discours'd him
about the trade Betwixt the head of the Bey and that Town
for tobacco, he told me there had been formerly much tobacco
brought over to that Town, but now not so much, he had
lately seised some tobacco that had been brought, but by
others I perceived It is frequently carried over to that Town.^

July 15. I went from New Castle to Chester alias Up-
lands accounted 20 miles by water.

July 16. I went from Chester to Philadelphia by water
accounted 20 miles more. I met President Loyd ^ and Mr.
Plowman, and deliver'd their Letters also Mr. Markham,^

1 Middlesex.

^ Augustine Herrman, the founder of Bohemia Manor, at the
head of Chesapeake Bay, died in 1686 and his second son, Casparus
Herrman, took possession of the manor house in June, 1690.

' There was at this time a Maryland export duty on tobacco of
two shillings per hogshead.

^ Thomas Lloyd, president of the Provincial Council of Penn-
sylvania.

^ William Markham, secretary of the Provincial Council of
Pennsylvania.



CUTHBERT POTTER'S JOURNAL

Mr. Delaval ^ Mr. Barbery and Mr. Ducay with whom
I discourst some time, the two last forced to fly from
York.2

July 1 8. I went from thence by water 30 miles up to the
falls ^ and stopt about half an hour at Mr. Penns and lodged
that night at Mr. Wheelers.

July 19. I took horses and guid[e] for Eliza "^ Town being
72 miles, but reached no farther than Onions.^

July 20. I went from Onions to Eliza Town, there having
been very much rain, in sight of Collonel Townlies * my
horse fell with me, and by Gods mercy I escaped drowning
having been twice under water wet all my linnen and
papers.

July 21. I tarried all day with Mr. Townley, dried my
linnen and papers, and left two or three letters with him
for some New York gentlemen that were then escaped into
East Jersey which he promised to deliver with his own
hand.

July 22. I went to New York by water, 16 miles, pre-
understanding the severity they used in that Town towards
strangers by securing and searching them, with the assistance
of the watermen I put my portmanteaus on board a ship in
the harbour and went privately ashore to Mr. Thompsons,
and so soon as it was night that I could get my Portmanteaus
on shore, I deliver'd all the letters I had for the Gentlemen
in those parts.

July 23 and 24. I was brought acquainted with most of
the honest Gent : of that Town who very much deplored the
present state of affairs there,' but generally exceeding Joy-

1 John Delavall, a member of the Council of the City of New-
York. He subsequently removed to Philadelphia, became a
member of the Philadelphia Council in 1-691, and a member of
the Provincial Council in 1692.

^ New York. ' Trenton.

^ Elizabeth. ^ Mr. Onions.

^ Col. Richard Townley, who came to Virginia with Lord
Effingham in 1683, removed to Elizabeth Town in 1684, and
married the widow of Philip Carteret in 1685.

"^ The Leisler uprising.

S



TRAVELS IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES

full for the welfare of this our honorable Governor,^ every
one speaking highly in his commendacion, and earnestly
wishing for the arrival of Governor Slaughter there, which
might put a period to their present distraccions. I was
inform'd the Indians had cut of a small village,^ near Fort
Albany which caused the Inhabitants to keep a very strict
watch and guard, the alarm of the French Pyrates being then
upon the Coast, caused them to prepare a force for their
defence, and all the masters of ships then in harbour and all
the Gentlemen of the Town were by the Governor ^ sent for
to consult the present safety, who most willingly assented
for the common good to use their utmost endeavours to
oppose and resist the common enemy, by which means
Lashler ^ could find no time to send for me as was inform'd
he intended and I expected.

July 25. I took horses and guide for New England, and
that night went to Horsneck ^ being 40 miles.

July 26. I went to Fairfeilds ^ being 25 miles, and very
bad way and tarried there the next day being Sunday.

July 28. Major Gold "^ provided me horses to Guilford
being 42 miles.

July 29. I went to Sebrook * being 20 miles : It rained
very fast all day.

July 30. I went from Sebrook to New London being
20 miles where I understood Major Winthrop was gone for
Albany,^ I deliver'd his letter to his brother Major Palmes,^**

^ Francis Nicholson, who, in 1689, was made Lieutenant Gover-
nor of the Dominion of New England with residence at New
York, was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Virginia in 1690.

"^ Schenectady. ^ Jacob Leisler. * Leisler.

^ West Greenwich. ^ Fairfield.

' Major Nathan Gold, a member of the Connecticut Court of
Assistants. « Saybrook.

^ Major-General Fitz-John Winthrop was commander of the New
York-Connecticut expedition that set out in the spring of 1690
against Montreal but was soon abandoned because of desertion by
the Indians and lack of supplies and means of transportation.

*° Major Edward Palmes was a brother-in-law of Major Fitz-
John Winthrop.



CUTHBERT POTTER'S JOURNAL

and took his receipt, was told that the French Pyrates had
come to an anchor before the town, but finding too great an
appearance to oppose them, they departed without doing any
dammage, the Inhabitants there seeming no way in dread of
the French Indians, In respect Major Winthrop with a
convenient force was then gone for Albany.

July 31. I went from thence to Bulls in the Narragansit
Government being 45 miles.

August I. I hired a shallop, and went for Newport in
Rode Island being 10 miles, where I met Mr. Brinley,^ Mr.
Newbery and Mr. Clark, and deliver'd them their Letters
and left Mr. Smith's letter with Mr. Brinley.

August 2. I went for New Bristoll being 16 miles, the
next day being Sunday I tarried at Mr. Lavins.

August 4. I took horses and guide and went for Boston
being 50 miles, about midnight I got to the Townsend — there
lay, in the morning I went into the Town to Md Usher and
Mr. Jeffreys, and deliver'd them their letters.

August 6. I waited on the Governor Bradstreet,^ and
deliver'd him the Letter for that Government, who did not
then open it, I told him it came from the Present Governor
of Virginia, and requested an answer to which he replyed he
was going to the Councill and then I should be sent for and
have an answer. I rested there two or three dayes and in the
mean time deliver'd what Letters I had for other Gentlemen
in the Town, I went to Salem and waited on Major Brown,
and deliver'd the Letters I had for that place then return'd
to Boston, and waited on Bradstreet the Governor who told
me he would write back to our Governor and shortly after
I received his Letter, there I caused 700 copies of his Majes-
ties Letter to the Bishop of London to be printed and dis-
perst them all along according to order : In which time they
were very busy in setting forth their Fleet for Canada, which
consisted of 32 ships and vessels of all sorts, and 2200 men
which set sail about the 9th.

^ Francis Brinley was the leader of a Rhode Island faction
favoring strong government.

^ Simon Bradstreet was governor of Massachusetts in 1689-92.

7



TRAVELS IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES

August 9. The people [are] generally much dissatis-
fied with their present Government, and blame it very
much for all their sufferings, which have happen'd onely
through their ill management of affairs and sending away Sir
Edmond Andrews,^ that caused all those great losses to the
Eastward. I went over to Cambridge and Charles Town,
where I deliver'd all the Letters I had for those places, and
having spent some time in discoursing severall Gentlemen
and others, I generally observ'd that many who had been
for, were now inveterate enemies to the present Govern-
ment.

August 13. I prepared to return for Virginia, but hearing
a rumour or whispering that the Governor had order'd
officers to seize, and search me for Letters and papers I went
and informed CoUonel Shrimpton and Collonel Dongan what
I had heard, who said they did not think that they would be
so unworthy, yet they stopt Mr. Peacock and severall others.
I went to Governor Broadstreet, and acquainted him what
I had heard touching my self, he replyed he had heard noth-
ing of it, he was going to the Councill and if any such thing
was intended he would acquaint me with it, and in the time
the Governor was at the Councill, Officers were sent out to
seize, search me and my papers.

August 14. The officers found my Portmanteaus at Mr.
Seawards where I intended to take horse, and brought them
away, but as it happened by chance I met them in the street,
and demanded by what power they seised my goods, they
shewed an order of Councill, but would not let me read it.
We went into Monks at the Anchor, I there demanded a copey
of their order, but they refused and two of them took me
into a private room, search'd my pockets and breeches,
found severall letters and papers which they took, but gave
me leave to lock them up in my portmanteau, they then
sent to the Councill, who order'd me to be brought in the
afternoon so I was dismist for the Present, and went home

^ Sir Edmund Andros, governor of the Dominion of New Eng-
land from April 1688 until his deposition by the people of Massa-
chusetts in April 1689.

8



CUTHBERT POTTER'S JOURNAL

to dinner, then took out those letters and papers I had saved
about my breast and back, in the afternoon I attended at
the coffee house till near four of the clock then I was sent for
by an Officer, when I came the Governor told me, there
were a great many seditious people, about the Town, dis-
persing scandalous papers tending to the subversion of the
present Government, and that they had reason to fear some
of them kept correspondence with the enemy. They were
at great charge in fitting out their fleet, which would cost
them near 50 or 60,000 pounds so it behooved them to be
carefull, they had made an order to stop and examine all
Strangers, and see what papers and pamphlets they had
against the Government. I desired to see the order, and
have a copey of it that I might give an account to those that
send me, they replyed I was before them which was sufficient,
and bid me open my Portmanteau. I refused and began to
argue the affront offered to our honorable Governor, whose
pass I shewed, was chid and called sawcy, and a smith was
sent for to break my locks, which done the Officers turn'd
out all my papers, and linnen, the papers lying all before
them on the table, they then bid me to with draw with the
rest of my things. I replyed I could not carry them my self,
they ordered an officer to carry them to the coffee house
where I waited untill they broke open and perused what
they pleased, then sent for me and told me they found cause
to stop some letters, they sent for Mr. Jeffreys and ordered
him to give security to answer next Court, turned the publick
Notary out of Office, kept about five or six letters directed to
the Right Honble Governor of this Colony, besides other
papers, examined my being at Cambrige and Charles
Town, shewed me Bradstreet's letter broke open, and told
me they would write next day to the Governor, bid me take
the remainder of my papers, and so dismist me.

August 15. I waited on the Governor Bradstreet, and
importuned him for his pass, that I might be no more mo-
lested, which having received from him with a Letter to
this honorable Governor, I took my leave and came to Mr.
Billings at night.

9



TRAVELS IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES

August i6. I came to New Bristoll where I staid with
Mr. Jno Smith, Captain Andrews and some others.

August 17. I came to Newport where I stayed wind bound
till 23d.

August 23. I took a sloop for Long Island, and was seven
dayes in getting within three miles of Flushing.

August 30. I took horses and guide for New York, I
tarried there all day and received answers of those letters
I had deliver'd, but was advised that Milburn ^ the present
deputy Governor would seize all my papers as I was ready to
depart, I forthwith got a boat and hands and came in haste
away.

Sept. I. In the morning I got to Collonel Townlies in
Eliza Town, with whom I tarried two dayes expecting some
Friend from York, with letters but they came not.

Sept. 3. I came from Collonel Townlys to Mr. Onions. !

Sept. 4. I came to the falls and thence to Burlington. I

Sept. 5. I came to Philadelphia was with Mr. Loyd, ;
Mr. Markham, Mr. Delaval, and Mr. Test.

Sept. 6. I came to Chester thence to Newcastle, and there |
tarried the next day.

Sept. 8. I came to Casparas Harmans at Bohemia where !
I tarried three dayes before I could hire a boat. 1

Sept. 12. I hired a boat and came from Casparas Har- j
mans, down the Bey ^ but by contrary wind and weather, I I
could not attain into Rappa ^ River till the 24th day of the I
moneth,

Sept. 24. On which I by the blessing of God safely arrived, '
at the house of the honorable Ralph Wormley Esqre. i

Memorandum : •

When I was in Boston I understood there was great plenty [
of Canary wine, and discoursing with several Gentlemen 1
there they told me they had four ships with Canary wine, j
two of which belonged to Bristoll. I was asked twenty four i



' Jacob Milborne.
^ Chesapeake Bay.



Rappahannock.
10



CUTHBERT POTTER'S JOURNAL

pounds a pipe but told by others I might have my choice of
good wine for Eighteen, and In the time I was at Salem, wait-
ing on Major Brown I met with a master of a small vessel!,
that was lately arrived from Spain, belonging to Salem, who
treated me with a Glass of good wine, and anchovies, and
told me he had made twenty pounds a hogshead of that
little tobacco he had with him and that he came directly from
Cales.

[Endorsed]

i6go
Mr. Potter's Journall from
Virginia to New England.

Received 29 January 1690/ 1.



II



JOURNAL OF DIRON D'ARTAGUIETTE, 1 722-1 723



INTRODUCTION

Louisiana, comprising the French possessions in the
Mississippi Valley, was granted in 1717 by the Regent, the
Duke of Orleans, to the Western Company, the grant being
a part of John Law's project for replenishing the exchequer
of France when the wars of Louis XIV's reign had brought
that country to the verge of bankruptcy. The charter made
the Company proprietors of the territory for twenty-five
years, promised it full ownership of all mines that should be
opened during that period, and full title to all lands that
should be peopled. The Company was to enjoy the exclu-
sive right of trade within its territory and to have a monop-
oly of the beaver trade with Canada. The Crown was to
pay a bounty on vessels constructed in Louisiana for carry-
ing goods to France, and for ten years the import duty on
goods from Louisiana was to be but one half of that levied
on goods from other French colonies. The Company was
authorized to provide armed vessels for the protection of its
trade, to construct forts within its territory, to make treaties
with the Indians, to appoint officers, and to enact necessary
statutes. The colonists were promised the same liberties
and immunities as they enjoyed in France and exemption
from taxation by the Crown.

The charter required that the stock of the company be
divided into shares of 500 livres each, payable in exchequer
bills, and that every holder of fifty shares be entitled to
a vote in the board of directors and to one additional vote
for each additional fifty shares. Law was made director-
general and 200,000 shares were issued. Subsequently the
Western Company was merged with another of Law's in-
stitutions, the Royal Bank, and with the East India Com-
pany. For a brief period shares were fifty per cent or more

IS



TRAVELS IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES

above par, but security for the stock was almost wholly lack-
ing, the Royal Bank failed in 1720, and fear for his life drove
Law from France.

The Company, however, did much for the growth of the
colony. Bienville, who for years had been its leading spirit,
was appointed governor ; the white population increased
from a few hundred in 171 7 to more than five thousand in
1721 ; and settlements were established on concessions of
the Company at Baton Rouge, Natchez, Natchitoches,
Pointe Coupee, Cannes Brulees, Tunicas, Bayagoulas, on
the Yazoo River, on Pascagoulas Bay, and at other places.
In 172 1 the Duke of Orleans intrusted the direction of the
affairs of the Company to three commissioners, and they
appointed Diron d'Artaguiette inspector-general. Arta-
guiette, as royal commissary in the colony, defended Bien-
ville against malicious attacks in 1707. He was one of the
board of directors of the Western Company, and was the
founder of Baton Rouge. His journal was a report to the
Commissioners on conditions in the colony in 1 722-1 723 as
observed by Artaguiette at New Orleans and while on a
tour of inspection up the Mississippi to the Illinois Country.

There is a transcript of the journal in the Library of Con-
gress which was made from a copy in the Archives Nationales,
Paris: C 13 C 2, If. 18-269. The translation is by Miss
Georgia Sanderlin.



16



JOURNAL OF DIRON D'ARTAGUIETTE

Journal from the ist of September to the nth of the same month

Sept. I. New Orleans. There died here Monsieur Macee,
chaplain of the ship L'Avanturier.

Sept. 2. We have been informed that six men — habit-
ants or traders — had deserted from this post and that a
detachment, commanded by Sr. De St. Esteve, had gone
out in search of them.

Sept. 3. We have learned that Sr. de St. Esteve ai rived
at Fort Louis ^ three days after his departure and that he
had brought back the six deserters, who made no resistance.
They were only put in chains for a short time.

Sept. 4. An officer, accompanied by four fuzileers, set
out to carry a large packet of letters, which he delivered in
the bayou ^ to the master of a canoe. The latter imme-
diately departed for Fort Louis du Biloxcy.^

Sept. 5. A man named Traverse, living in New Orleans,
was today let out of prison. The cause for which he was
imprisoned was this. This man had built a house in New
Orleans. This house was not set in accord with the align-
ment of the streets, as he had built it before the plan had
been proposed. M. Peauger ^ had it torn down. Traverse
being not well pleased about this, presented a petition to the
council, asking them to recompense him for his house in
order that he might have the means to build another. M.

^ Fort Louis was on the site of the present Biloxi, Mississippi.

* Bayou Saint John, on the south side of Lake Pontchartrain.

' The capital of Louisiana was at this time removing from Biloxi
to New Orleans.

* M. de Pauger, engineer, assistant to M. de Latour, the chief
engineer.

17



TRAVELS IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES

Peauger had him sent for, and, after having regaled him with
a volley of blows with his stick, had him thrown into prison,
with irons about his feet, and today this man has come out
of prison almost blind.

Sept. 6. We have been informed that twelve soldiers and
three sailors — the soldiers from the Company ot St. George
— had deserted. These people had made an agreement with
the skipper, who was steering a canoe in which were Mes-
sieurs Dharcourt and Nolan, the former the treasurer, and
the latter an officer, who were going from Mobile to Fort
Louis. The skipper running very close in shore, these gentle-
men asked him where he was going and why he was not carry-
ing them on their journey, upon which the skipper replied
that the currents were carrying them ashore. Having
arrived at the Pointe des Chutaux, twelve soldiers came to
them with bayonets at the end of their guns, and asked them
civilly to lend them their canoe, they having a long journey
to make, and to give them a present of some flasks of brandy.
These gentlemen, seeing themselves the weaker party,
responded, also civilly, that they (the soldiers) were the mas-
ters. The soldiers took the canoe and some flasks of brandy
and set sail, leaving these gentlemen and their efi"ects behind.

Sept. 7. Today the ship L'Avanturier was preparing to
sail for France, but M. Bienville ^ detained her to see what



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