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observacion, then is requisite in an armie : therefore the
lawes for the maintenaunce of thesame, ought to be sharpe
and harde, and the executour therof moste harde. The
Romaines punished with death him that lacked in the
watch, he that forsoke the place that was given hym to
faight in, he that caried any thynge, hidde out of the

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NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL

Campe, if any manne should saie, that he had doen some THE
worthy thing in the faight, and had not doen it, if any had SIXTHE
fought without the commaundemente of the Capitaine, if BOOKE
any had for feare, caste awaie his weapons: and when it
happened, that a Cohorte, or a whole Legion, had com-
mitted like fault, bicause thei would not put to death all,
thei yet tooke al their names, and did put them in a bagge,
and then by lotte, thei dr'ue oute the tenthe parte, and so
those were put to death : the whiche punishemente, was in
soche wise made, that though every man did not feele
it, every man notwithstandyng feared it : and bicause
where be greate punishementes, there ought to be also
rewardes, mindyng to have menne at one instant, to feare Where greate
and to hope, thei had appoincted rewardes to every worthie punishe-
acte : as he that faighting, saved the life of one of his ^ere^oughte
Citezeins, to hym that firste leapte upon the walle of the likewise to
enemies Toune, to hym that entered firste into the Campe bee great
of the enemies, to hym that had in faightyng hurte, or rewardes.
slaine the enemie, he that had stroken him from his horse :
and so every vertuous act, was of the Consulles knowen and
rewarded, and openly of every manne praised : and soche as
obtained giftes, for any of these thynges, besides the glorie
and fame, whiche thei got emongest the souldiours, after
when thei returned into their countrie, with solemne pompe,
and with greate demonstracion emong their frendes and
kinsfolkes, thei shewed them. Therefore it was no marveile. It was no
though thesame people gotte so moche dominion, having marvel that
so moche observacion in punishemente, and rewarde towardes ? Komames
theim, whom either for their well doyng, or for their ill migjitie
doyng, should deserve either praise or blame : Of whiche Princes,
thynges it were convenient, to observe the greater parte.
Nor I thinke not good to kepe secrete, one maner of punish-
mente of theim observed, whiche was, that so sone as the
offendour, was before the Tribune, or Consulle convicted,
he was of the same lightely stroken with a rodde : after the
whiche strikyng, it was lawfull for the offendour to flie, and
to all the Souldiours to kill hym : so that straight waie,
every man threwe at hym either stones, or dartes, or with

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A meane to
punishe and
execute
Justice,
without rais-
ing tumultes.



Manlius
Capitolinus.



Souldiours
sworentokepe
the discipline
of warre.



Women and
idell games,
were not
suffered by
the antiquitie,
to bee in their



THE ARTE OF WARRE

other weapons, stroke hym in soche wise, that he went but
little waie a live, and moste fewe escaped, and to those that
so escaped, it was not lawfull for them to retourne home,
but with so many incommodities, and soche greate shame
and ignomie, that it should have ben moche better for him
to have died. This maner is seen to be almoste observed
of the Suizzers, who make the condempned to be put
to death openly, of thother souldiours, the whiche is well
considered, and excellently dooen : for that intendyng, that
one be not a defendour of an evill doer, the greateste
reamedie that is founde, is to make hym punisher of the-
same : bicause otherwise, with other respecte he favoureth
hym : where when he hymself is made execucioner, with
other desire, he desireth his punishemente, then when the
execucion commeth to an other. Therefore mindyng, not
to have one favored in his faulte of the people, a greate
remedie it is, to make that the people, male have hym to
judge. For the greater proofe of this, thinsample of Manlius
Capitolinus might be brought, who being accused of the
Scenate, was defended of the people, so longe as thei were
not Judge, but becommyng arbitratours in his cause, thei
condempned hym to death. This is then a waie to punishe,
without raisyng tumulteis, and to make justise to be kepte:
and for as moche as to bridell armed menne, neither the
feare of the Lawes, nor of menne suffise not, the antiquitie
joined thereunto the aucthoritie of God : and therefore with
moste greate Ceremonies, thei made their souldiours to
sweare, to kepe the discipline of warre, so that doyng con-
trariewise, thei should not onely have to feare the Lawes,
and menne, but God : and thei used all diligence, to fill
them with Religion.

Baptiste. Did the Romaines permitte, that women might
bee in their armies, or that there might be used these idell
plaies, whiche thei use now a dales.

Fabritio. Thei prohibited the one and thother, and this
prohibicion was not moche difficulte : For that there were
so many exercises, in the whiche thei kept every dale the
souldiours, some whiles particularely, somewhiles generally

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NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL

occupied, that thei had no time to thinke, either on Venus, THE
or on plaies, nor on any other thyng, whiche sedicious and SIXTHB
unpromtable souldiours doe. BOOKE

Baptiste. I am herein satisfied, but tell me, when the
armie had to remove, what order kepte thei ?

Fabricio. The chief Trumpet sounded three tymes, at the Ordre in the
firste sound, thei toke up the Tentes, and made the paekes, removing the
at the seconde, thei laded the carriage, at the thirde, thei goundes^of a
removed in thesame maner aforsaied, with the impedi- Trumpet,
mentes after every parte of armed men, placyng the Legions
in the middeste: and therefore you ought to cause after
thesame sorte, an extraordinarie maine battaile to remove :
and after that, the particulare impedimentes therof, and
with those, the fowerth part of the' publike impedimentes,
which should bee all those, that were lodged in one of those
partes, whiche a little afore we declared : and therfore it
is conveniente, to have every one of them, appointed to a
maine battaile, to the entente that the armie removyng,
every one might knowe his place in marchyng: and thus
every maine battaile ought to goe awaie, with their owne
impedimentes, and with the fowerth parte of the publike
impedimentes, foUowyng after in soche maner, as wee shewed
that the Romaines marched.

Baptiste. In pitchyng the Campe, had thei other re-
spectes, then those you have tolde ?

Fabricio. I tell you again, that the Romaines when thei
encamped, would be able to kepe the accustomed fashion of
their maner, the whiche to observe, thei had no other
respecte ; but concemyng for other consideracions, thei had
twoo principall, the one, to incampe theim selves in a whole- Respectes to
some place, the other, to place themselves, where thenemie be had for in-
could not besiege theim, nor take from them the waie to the campyng.
water, or victualles. Then for to avoide infirmitie, thei did
flie from places Fennie, or subjecte to hurtfull windes :
whiche thei knewe not so well, by the qualitie of the situa-
cion, as by the face of the inhabi tours : for when thei sawe How to choose
theim evill coloured, or swollen, or full of other infeccion, f place to
thei would not lodge there : concemyng thother respecte 'i^a^pe-

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Howtoavoide
diseases from
the armie.



The wonder-
full com-
moditie of
exercise.



The provision
of victualles
that ought
alwaies to bee
inareadinesse
in an armie.



THE ARTE OF WARRE

to provide not to be besieged, it is requisite to consider the
nature of the place, where the friendes lye, and where
thenemies, and of this to make a conjecture, if thou maiest
be besieged or no : and therefore it is meete, that the
Capitaine be moste experte, in the knowlege of situacions
of countries, and have aboute him divers men, that have
the verie same expertenes. Thei avoide also diseases, and
famishment, with causyng the armie to kepe no misrule, for
that to purpose to maintain it in health, it is nedefull to
provide, that the souldiours male slepe under tentes, that
thei male lodge where bee Trees, that make shadowe, where
woodde is for to dresse their meate, that thei go not in the
heate, and therefore thei muste bee drawen out of the
campe, before dale in Summer, and in Winter, to take hede,
that thei marche not in the Snowe, and in the Froste,
without havyng comoditie to make fire, and not to lack
necessarie aparel, nor to drink naughtie water : those that
fall sicke by chaunce, make them to bee cured of Phisicions :
bicause a capitain hath no reamedie, when he hath to faight
with sicknesse, and with an enemie : but nothing is so
profitable, to maintaine the armie in health, as is the exer-
cise : and therfore the antiquitie every daie, made them to
exercise : wherby is seen how muche exercise availeth : for
that in the Campe, it kepeth thee in health, and in the
faight victorious. Concernyng famishemente, it is neces-
sarie to see, that the enemie hinder thee not of thy victualles,
but to provide where thou maieste have it, and to see that
thesame whiche thou haste, bee not loste : and therefore it is
requisite, that thou have alwaies in provision with the armie,
sufficiente victuall for a monethe, and then removyng into
some strong place, thou muste take order with thy nexte
frendes, that daily thei male provide for thee, and above al
thinges bestowe the victual with diligence, givyng every
daie to every manne, a reasonable measure, and observe
after soche sorte this poincte, that it disorder thee not:
bicause all other thyng in the warre, male with tyme be
overcome, this onely with tyme overcometh thee : nor there
shall never any enemie of thyne, who maie overcome thee
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NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL

with famishemente, that will seeke to overcome thee with THE

iron. For that though the victory be not so honourable, SIXTHE

yet it is more sure and more certaine : Then, thesame armie BOOKE

cannot avoide famishemente, that is not an observer of

justice, whiche licenciously consumeth what it liste : bicause

the one disorder, maketh that the victualls commeth not

unto you, the other, that soche victuall as commeth, is un-

profitably consumed : therefore thantiquitie ordained, that

thei should spende thesame, whiche thei gave, and in thesame

tyme when thei appoincted : for that no souldiour did eate,

but when the Capitaine did eate : The whiche how moche it

is observed of the armies nowe adaies, every manne knoweth,

and worthely thei can not bee called menne of good order

and sober, as the antiquitie, but lasivious and drunkardes.

Baptists. You saied in the beginnyng of orderynge the
Campe, that you woulde not stande onely uppon twoo maine
battailes, but woulde take fower, for to shewe how a juste
armie incamped: therfore I would you shoulde tell me
twoo thynges, the one, when I shoulde have more or lesse
men, howe I ought to incampe them, the other, what
numbre of souldiours should suffice you to faight against
what so ever enemie that were.

Fabeitio. To the first question I answer you, that if the Howeto lodge

armie be more or lesse, then fower or sixe thousande soul- in the Campe

diours, the orders of lodeynges, may bee taken awaie or '"'"'® o"" 1®^^^
■ • J m i? J -ii; J.I.- menne, then

jomed, so many as suthseth : and with this way a man may ^j^g ordinarie.

goe in more, and in lesse, into infinite : Notwithstandynge

the Romaines, when thei joigned together twoo consuU

armies, thei made twoo campes, and thei tourned the partes

of the unarmed, thone against thother. Concernyng the

second question, I say unto you, that the Romaines ordinary

armie, was about xxiiii. M. souldiours : but when thei were

driven to faight against the greatest power that might be,

the moste that thei put together, wer 1. M. With this

number, thei did set against two hundred thousand Frenche-

men, whome assaulted them after the first warre, that thei

had with the Carthageners. With this verie same numbre,

thei fought againste Anniball. And you muste note, that

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The nombre
of men that
an army
ought to be
made of, to
bee able to
faighte with
the puisantest
enemiethatis.

Pirrus.



Howe to cause
men to do
soche a thing
as shold bee
profitable for
thee, and
hurtfull to
them selves.



THE ARTE OF WARRE

the Romaines, and the Grekes, have made warre with fewe,
fortefiyng themselves thorough order, and thorough arte :
the west, and the easte, have made it with multitude : But
the one of these nacions, doeth serve with naturall furie : as
doe the men of the west partes, the other through the great
obedience whiche those men have to their kyng. But in
Grece, and in Italy, beyng no naturall furie, nor the naturall
reverence towardes their king, it hath been necessary for
them to learne the discipline of warre, the whiche is of so
muche force, that it hath made that a fewe, hath been able
to overcome the furie, and the naturall obstinatenesse of
manie. Therefore I sale, that mindyng to imitate the
Romaines, and the Grekes, the number of 1. M. souldiers,
ought not to bee passed, but rather to take lesse : because
manie make confucion, nor suffer not the discipline to be
observed, and the orders learned, and Pirrus used to saie,
that with XV. thousande men he woulde assaile the worlde :
but let us pas to an other parte. We have made this our
armie to winne a field and shewed the travailes, that in the
same fight may happen : we have made it to marche, and
declared of what impedimentes in marchyng it may be dis-
turbed : and finally we have lodged it : where not only it
ought to take a littell reste of the labours passed, but also
to thinke howe the warre ought to be ended : for that in
the lodgynges, is handeled many thynges, inespecially thy
enemies as yet remainyng in the fielde, and in suspected
townes, of whome it is good to be assured, and those that
be enemies to overcome them : therfore it is necessarie to
come to this demonstracion, and to passe this difficultie with
the same glorie, as hitherto we have warred. Therfore
comynge to particular matters, I saie that if it shoulde
happen, that thou wouldest have manie men, or many
people to dooe a thyng, whiche were to thee profittable, and
to theim greate hurte, as should be to breake downe the
wall of their citie, or to sende into exile many of them, it is
necessarie for thee, either to beguile them in such wise that
everie one beleeve not that it toucheth him : so that succour-
yng not the one the other, thei may finde them selves al to
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NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL

be oppressed without remedie, or els unto all to commaunde THE
the same, whiche they ought to dooe in one selfe daie, to the SIXTHE
intente that every man belevyng to be alone, to whome the BOOKE
commaundement is made, male thinke to obey and not to re-
medie it : and so withoute tumulte thy commaundement to be
of everie man executed. If thou shouldest suspecte thefidelitie
of anie people, and woulde assure thee, and overcome them at Howe to over-
una wares, for to colour thy intente more easelie, thou canst come menne
not doe better, then to counsel with them of some purpose "* unbares.
of thine, desiryng their aide, and to seeme to intende to
make an other enterprise, and to have thy minde farre from
thinkyng on them : the whiche will make, that thei shall
not think on their owne defence, beleevyng not that thou
purposest to hurte them, and thei shal geve thee commoditie,
to be able easely to satisfie thy desire. When thou shouldest How to
perceive, that there were in thine armie some, that used to tournetocom-
advertise thy enemie of thy devises, thou canst not doe ™oditiethe
better, myndynge to take commoditie by their traiterous goche as use
mindes, then to commen with them of those thynges, that to advertise
thou wilte not doe, and those that thou wilt doe, to kepe thy enemie of
secret, and to say to doubte of thynges, that thou doubtest ^^^ procead-
not, and those of whiche thou doubtest, to hide : the which ^^S^^'
shall make thenemie to take some enterprise in hand,
beleving to know thy devises, where by easly thou maiest
beguile and opresse hym. if thou shouldest intende (as How to order
Claudius Nero did) to deminishe thy armie, sendynge helpe the campe,
to some freende, and that the enemie shoulde not bee aware ''"^t the
therof, it is necessarie not to deminishe the lodgynges, but m,^ perceive
to maintayne the signes, and the orders whole, makyng the whether the
verie same fires, and the verye same wardes throughout all same bee
the campe, as wer wont to be afore. Lykewise if with thy deminished,
armie there should joigne new men, and wouldest that the
enemie shoulde not know that thou werte ingrosed, it is
necessarie not to increase the lodgynges : Because keepyng
secrete doynges and devises, hath alwaies been moste pro-
fitable. Wherfore Metellus beyng with an armie in
Hispayne, to one, who asked him what he would doe the
nexte daie, answered, that if his sherte knew therof, he
BB 193



THE
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BOOKE

A saiyng of
Metellus.

Marcus
Crassus.

How to under-
stand the
secretes of thy
enemie.



A policie of
Marius, to
understande
howehe might
truste the
Frenchmen.



What some
Capitaines
have doen
when their
countrie have
been invaded
of enemies.



To make the
enemie necli-
gente in his
doynges.



THE ARTE OF WARRE

would bourne it. Marcus Craussus, unto one, whome asked
him, when the armie shoulde remove, saied beleevest thou
to be alone not to here the trumpet.? If thou shouldest
desire to understande the secretes of thy enemie, and to
know his orders, some have used to sende embassadours, and
with theim in servauntes aparel, moste expertest men in
warre : whom havynge taken occasion to se the enemies
armie, and to consider his strengthe and weakenesse, it hath
geven them oportunitie to overcome him. Some have sente
into exile one of their familiars, and by meanes of the same,
hath knowen the devises of his adversarie. Also like
secrettes are understoode of the enemies when for this efFecte
there were taken any prisoners. Marius whiche in the warre
that he made with the Cimbrie, for to know the faieth of
those Frenchmen, who then inhabited Lombardie, and were
in leage with the Romaine people, sent them letters open,
and sealed : and in the open he wrote, that they shoulde
not open the sealed, but at a certaine time, and before the
same time demaundyng them againe, and finding them
opened, knew thereby that their faithe was not to be trusted.
Some Capitaines, being invaded, have not desired to goe to
meete the enemie, but have gone to assaulte his countrey,
and constrained him to retorne to defende his owne home:
The whiche manie times hath come wel to passe, for that
those soldiours beginnyng to fil them selves with booties,
and confidence to overcome, shall sone make the enemies
souldiours to wexe afraide, when they supposynge theira
selves conquerours, shal understand to become losers : So that
to him that hath made this diversion, manie times it hath
proved well. But onely it may be doen by him, whiche
hath his countrey stronger then that of the enemies, because
when it were otherwise, he should goe to leese. It hath
been often a profitable thyng to a capitaine, that hath been
besieged in his lodgynges by the enemie, to move an intreatie
of agreemente, and to make truse with him for certaine
dales : the which is wonte to make the enemies more necli-
gente in all doynges : so that avaylynge thee of their necli-
gence, thou maiest easely have occacion to get thee cute of
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NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL

their handes. By this way Silla delivered him selfe twise THE
from the enemies: and with this verie same deceipte, SIXTHE
Asdruball in Hispayne got oute of the force of Claudious BOOKE
Nero, whome had besieged him. It helpeth also to deliver Silla.
a man out of the daunger of the enemie, to do some thyng Asdruball.
beside the forsaied, that may keepe him at a baye : this is
dooen in two maners, either to assaulte him with parte of
thy power, so that he beyng attentive to the same faight,
may geve commoditie to the reste of thy men to bee able to
save theim selves, or to cause to rise some newe accidente,
which for the strayngenesse of the thynge, maie make him
to marvell, and for this occasion to stande doubtefuU, and The policie
still : as you knowe howe Anniball dyd, who beynge inclosed o^ Aniball,
of Fabius Maximus, tied in the nighte small Bavens kindeled ^^^^^^7 he
beetweene the homes of manie Oxen, so that Fabius of the danger
astonied at the strangenesse of the same sight, thought not of Fabius
to lette him at all the passage. A Capitayne oughte Maximus.
amonge all other of his aflFaires, with al subtiltie to devise A Capitayne
to devide the force of the enemie, either with makyng him ™uste devise
to suspecte his owne menne, in whome he trusteth, or to +1°^/° devide
give him occasion, that he maye seperate his menne, and ijjs enemies,
therby to be come more weake. The fyrste way is dooen
with keepyng saulfe the thynges of some of those whiche he How to cause
hath aboute him, as to save in the warre their menne and the enemie
their possessions, renderynge theim their children, or other „" „gg+ v-
their necessaries withoute raunsome. You know that Anni- most trusty
ball havynge burned all the fieldes aboute Rome, he made men.
onely to bee reserved saulfe those of Fabius Maximus. You Aniball.
know how Coriolanus comyng with an armie to Rome, Coriolanus.
preserved the possessions of the nobilitie, and those of the
comminaltie he bourned, and sacked. Metellus havinge an Metellus
armie againste Jugurte, all the oratours, whiche of Jugurte against
were sente him, were required of him, that they woulde geve "^"'' ^'
him Jugurte prisoner, and after to the verie same men
writyng letters of the verie same matter, wrought in suche
wise, that in shorte tyme Jugurte havyng in suspecte all his
counsellours, in diverse maners put them to death. Anni-
ball beynge fled to Antiochus, the Romaine oratours prac-

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A pi-actis of
the Romayne
oratours, to
bryng Aniball
out of Credit
with Antio-
chus.

Howe to

cause the
enemie to
devide his
power.

Howe Titus
Didius staied
his enemies
that wer going
to incounter a
legion of men
that were
commyng in
his ayde.

Howe some
have caused
the enemie
to devide his
force.

A policie to
winne the
enemies
countrie
before he be
aware.



THE ARTE OF WARRE

tised with him so familiarly, that Antiochus beyng in
suspecte of him, trusted not anie more after to his counselles.
Concernyng to devide the enemies men, there is no more
certainer waie, then to cause their countrie to be assaulted,
to the intents that being constrained to goe to defende the
same, they maie forsake the warre. This way Fabius used
havynge agaynst his armie the power of the Frenchemen, of
the Tuscans, Umbries and Sannites. Titus Didius havyng
a few men in respecte to those of the enemies, and lookynge
for a legion from Rome, and the enemies purposinge to goe
to incounter it, to the intente that they should not goe,
caused to bee noised through all his armie, that he intended
the nexte daie to faighte the field with the enemies : after
he used means, that certaine of the prisoners, that he had
taken afore, had occasion to runne awaie. Who declaryng
the order that the Consull had taken to faighte the nexte
daie, by reason wherof the enemies be)Tig afraide to demin-
ishe their owne strength, went not to incounter the same
legion, and by this way thei wer conducted safe. The
which means serveth not to devide the force of the enemies,
but to augments a mans owne. Some have used to devide
the enemies force, by lettyng him to enter into their
countrie, and in profe have let him take manie townes, to
the intente that puttynge in the same garrisons, he might
thereby deminishe his power, and by this waie havynge
made him weake, have assaulted and overcomen him. Some
other mindyng to goe into one province, have made as
though they woulde have invaded an other, and used so
much diligence, that sodenly entryng into the same, where
it was not doubted that they woulde enter, they have first
wonne it, before the ennemie coulde have time to succour it :
for that thy enemie beynge not sure, whether thou pur-
posest to tourne backe, to the place fyrste of thee threatned,
is -constrained not to forsake the one place, to succour the



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