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other, and so many times he defendeth neither the one nor
the other. It importeth besides the sayde thynges to a
Capitaine, if there growe sedicion or discorde amonge the
souldiours, to knowe with arte howe to extynguishe it : The
196



NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL

beste waie is to chastise the headdes of the faultes, but it THE
muste be doen in such wise, that thou maiest first have SIXTHE
oppressed them, before they be able to be aware : The way BOOKE
is, if they be distante from thee, not onely to call the Howe to re-
offenders, but together with theim all the other, to the formesedicion
entente that not beleevynge, that it is for any cause to '^^^ discorde.
punishe them, they become not contumelius, but geve com-
moditie to the execution of the punishemente : when thei
be present, thou oughtest to make thy selfe stronge with
those that be not in faulte, and by meane of their helpe to
punishe the other. When there hapneth discorde amonge
them, the beste waye is, to bryng them to the perill, the
feare whereof is wonte alwaies to make them agree. But The benefitte
that, which above all other thynge kepeth the armie in that the repu-
unitee, is the reputacion of the Capitaine, the whiche onely ^ '''?° ." "^^
groweth of his vertue : because neither bloud, nor authoritie causeth
gave it ever without vertue. And the chiefe thyng, whiche which is only
of a Capitain is looked for to be doen, is, to keepe his gotten by
souldiours punisshed, and paied : for that when so ever the '^^'^*"®-
paie lacketh, it is conveniente that the punisshement lacke : The chiefe
because thou canst not correcte a souldiour, that robbeth, if thyng that a
thou doest not paie him, nor the same mindynge to live, ou^ht^n^doe
cannot abstaine from robbynge : but if thou palest him and
punisshest him not, he beecometh in everie condicion When paie
insolente: For that thou becomest of small estimacion, wanteth,
where thou chaunsest not to bee able to maintaine the fs"'''fl^'"u'^*
dignitie of thy degree, and not mainetainyng it, there executed,
foloweth of necessitee tumulte, and discorde, whiche is the jy^ incon-
ruine of an armie. Olde Capitaines had a troubell, of the venience of
which the presente be almoste free, whiche was to interprete not punissh-
to their purpose the sinister auguries : because if there fell ynge.
a thunderbolte in an armie, if the sunne were darkened or
the Moone, if there came an erthequake, if the Capitaine
either in gettyng up, or in lightynge of his horse fell, it was
of the souldiours interpreted sinisterously : And it ingendred
in them so moche feare, that comynge to faight the fielde,
easely they should have lost it : and therefore the aunciente
Capitaines so sone as a lyke accidente grewe, either they

197



THE
SIXTHS
BOOKE

Cesar chauns-
ynge to fall,
made the
same to be
supposed to
signifi good
lucke.

Religion
taketh away
fantasticall
opinions.

In what cases
a Capitaine
ought not to
faight with
his enemie if
he may other-
wyse choose.

A policie of
Fulvius
wherby he got
and spoyled
his enemies
Campe.
A policie to
disorder the
enemie.



A policie to
overcome the



THE ARTE OF WARRE

shewed the cause of the same, and redused it to a naturall
cause, or they interpreted it to their purpose. Cesar fallyng
in Africa, in comyng of the sea saied, Africa I have taken
thee. Moreover manie have declared the cause of the ob-
scuryng of the Moone, and of earthquakes : which thing in
our time cannot happen, as well because our men be not so
supersticious, as also for that our religion taketh away
altogether such opinions : al be it when they should chaunse,
the orders of the antiquitie ought to be imitated. When
either famishement, or other naturall necessitie, or humaine
passion, hath broughte thy enemie to an utter desperation,
and he driven of the same, cometh to faight with thee, thou
oughtest to stande within thy campe, and as muche as lieth
in thy power, to flie the faight. So the Lacedemonians did
against the Masonians, so Cesar did against Afranio, and
Petreio. Fulvius beyng Consul, against the Cimbrians,
made his horsemen manie dales continually to assaulte the
enemies, and considered how thei issued out of their campe
for to folow them : wherfore he sette an ambusshe behinde
the Campe of the Cimbrians, and made them to be assaulted
of his horsmen, and the Cimbrians issuyng oute of their
campe for to follow them. Fulvio gotte it, and sacked it.
It hath ben of great utilitie to a Capitaine, havyng his
armie nere to the enemies armie, to sende his menne with
the enemies ansignes to robbe,and to burne his owne countrey,
whereby the enemies beleevynge those to bee menne, whiche
are come in their aide, have also runne to helpe to make
them the pray : and for this disorderyng them selves, hathe
therby given oportunitie to the adversary to overcome
them. This waie Alexander of Epirus used againste the
lUirans and Leptenus of Siracusa against the Carthaginers
and bothe to the one and to the other, the devise came to
passe most happely. Manie have overcome the enemie,
gevyng him occasion to eate and to drinke oute of measure,
fayning to have feared, and leaving their Campes full of
wyne and herdes of cattell, wherof the enemie beyng filled
above all naturall use, have then assaulted him, and with
his destruction overthrowen him. So Tamirus did against
198



NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL

Cirus, and Tiberius Graccus agaynst the Spaniardes. Some THE

have poysoned the wine, and other thynges to feede on, for SIXTHE

to be able more easely to overcome them. I saied a littel BOOKE

afore how I founde not, that the antiquetie kepte in the A policie.

night Scoutes abroade, and supposed that they did it for to

avoide the hurte, whiche might growe therby : because it is

founde, that through no other meane then throughe the

watche man, whiche was set in the dale to watche the

enemie, hath been cause of the ruin of him, that set him

there : for that manie times it hath hapned, that he beyng

taken, hath been made perforce to tell theim the token,

whereby they might call his felowes, who commyng to the

token, have been slaine or taken. It helpeth to beguile the How to

enemie sometime to varie a custome of thine, whereupon he beguile the

having grounded him self, remaineth ruinated : as a Capi- ^n^n'is-

taine did once, whome usinge to cause to be made signes

to his men for comynge of the enemies in the night with

fire, and in the daie with smoke, commaunded that withoute

anie intermission, they shoulde make smoke and fire, and

after commynge upon them the enemie, they should reste,

whome beleevyng to come without beynge seen, perceivyng

no signe to be made of beyng discovered, caused (through

goeyng disordered) more easie the victorie to his adversarie. Howe Menno-

Mennonus a Rodian mindynge to drawe from stronge places "J's trained

the enemies armie, sente one under colour of a fugitive, the "'^ e^^^mies

whiche aflirmed, howe his armie was in discorde, and that stronge places

the greater parte of them wente awaie : and for to make the to bee the

thynge to be credited, he caused to make in sporte, certaine better able

tumultes amonge the lodgynges : whereby the enemie *? o^^''*''""

thynkyng thereby to be able to discomfaighte them, as-

saultynge theim, were overthrowen.

Besides thesaied thynges, regarde ought to be had not The enemie
to brynge the enemie into extreme desperacion : whereunto ought not to
Cesar had regarde, faightvng with the Duchemen, who pe brought

inTo pxtrPTifiP

opened them the waie, seyng, howe thei beyng not able to desperacion.
flie, necessitie made them strong, and would rather take paine
to foUowe theim, when thei fled, then the perill to overcome
them, when thei defended them selves.

199



THE
SIXTHE
BOOKE

How Lucullus
constrained
certaine men
that ran awaie
from him to
his enemies,
to fayght
whether they
wold or not.



A policie
wher by
Pompey got
a towne.

How Publius
Valerius
assured him
self of a
towne.

A policie that
Alexander
Magnus used
to be assured
of all Tracia,
which Philip
kynge of
Spaine did
practise to be
asured of Eng-
land when he
wentetosainct
Quintens.

Examples for
Capitaines to
winne the
hartes of the
people.



THE ARTE OF WARRE

Lucullus seyng, how certaine Macedonian horsemenne,
whiche were with hym, went to the enemies parte, straight
waie made to sounde to battaile, and commaunded, that the
other men should folowe hym : whereby the enemies beleving,
that Lucullus would begin the faight, went to incounter the
same Macedonians, with soche violence, that thei were con-
strained to defende themselves : and so thei became against
their willes, of fugetives, faighters. It importeth also to
knowe, how to be assured of a toune, when thou doubteste
of the fidelitie thereof, so sone as thou haste wonne the
fielde, or before, the whiche certain old insamples maie
teache thee.

Pompei doubtyng of the Catinensians, praied them that
thei would bee contente, to receive certaine sicke menne,
that he had in his armie, and sendyng under the habite of
sicke persones, most lustie menne, gotte the toune. Publius
Valerius, fearyng the fidelitie of the Epidannians, caused to
come, as who saieth, a Pardon to a churche without the
toune, and when al the people wer gone for Pardon, he
shutte the gates, receivyng after none in, but those whom
he trusted. Alexander Magnus, mindyng to goe into Asia,
and to assure himself of Thracia, toke with him all the
principall of thesame Province, givyng theim provision, and
he set over the common people of Thracia, men of lowe
degree, and so he made the Princes contented with paiyng
theim, and the people quiete, havyng no heddes that should
disquiete them : But emong all the thynges, with the whiche
the Capitaines, winne the hartes of the people, be the
insamples of chastitie and justice, as was thesame of Scipio
in Spaine, when he rendered that yong woman, moste faire of
personage to her father, and to her housebande : the whiche
made him more, then with force of armes to winne Spain.

Cesar having caused that woodde to bee paied for, whiche
he had occupied for to make the Listes, about his armie in
Fraunce, got so moche a name of justice, that he made
easier the conquest of thesame province. I cannot tell
what remaineth me, to speake more upon these accidentes,
for that concerning this matter, there is not lefte any parte,

200



NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL

that hath not been of us disputed. Onely there lacketh to THE
tell, of the maner of winnyng, and defendyng a toune : the SIXTHE
whiche I am readie to doe willingly, if you be not now wearie. BOOKE

Baptiste. Your humanitie is so moche, that it maketh us
to foUowe our desires, without beyng afraied to be reputed
presumptuous, seyng that you liberally offer thesame,
whiche we should have been ashamed, to have asked you :
Therefore, we saie unto you onely this, that to us you can-
not dooe a greater, nor a more gratefuller benefite, then to
finishe this reasonyng. But before that you passe to that
other matter, declare us a doubte, whether it bee better to
continewe the warre, as well in the Winter, as thei use now
adaies, or to make it onely in the Sommer, and to goe home
in the Winter, as the antiquitie did.

Fabritio. See, that if the prudence of the demaunder
were not, there had remained behinde a speciall part, that
deserveth consideracion. I answere you againe, that the
antiquitie did all thynges better, and with more prudence
then wee : and if wee in other things commit some erroure,
in the affaires of warre, wee commit all errour. There is Warre ought
nothing more undiscrete, or more perrillous to a Capitayne, i^"* to. ^^
then to make warre in the Winter, and muche more perrill '"?°® i°
beareth he, that maketh it, then he that abideth it : the
reason is this. All the Industrie that is used in the disci-
pline of warre, is used for to bee prepared to fighte a fielde
with thy enemie, because this is the ende, whereunto a
Capitayne oughte to goo or endevour him selfe : For that
the foughten field, geveth thee the warre wonne or loste :
then he that knoweth best how to order it, and he that hath
his army beste instructed, hath moste advauntage in this,
and maye beste hope to overcome. On the other side, Rough situa-
there is nothing more enemie to the orders, and then the ciops, colde
rough situacions, or the colde watery time : for that the t^g^^^e*
rough situacions, suffereth thee not to deffende thy bandes, enemies to
according to thee discipline : the coulde and watery times, the order of
suffereth thee not to keepe thy men together, nor thou canst warre.
not bring them in good order to the enemy : but it is con-
venient for thee to lodge them a sunder of necessitie, and

CC 201



THE ARTE OF WARRE

THE without order, being constrayned to obeye to Castells, to

SIXTHE Boroughes, and to the Villages, that maye receyve thee, in

BOOKE maner that all thy laboure of thee, used to instructe the

army is vaine. Nor marvayle you not though now a dales,

they warre in the Winter, because the armies being without

discipline, know not the hurt that it dooth them, in lodging

not together, for that it is no griefe to them not to be able

to keepe those orders, and to observe that discipline, which

they have not : yet they oughte to see ho we much harme,

the Camping in the Winter hath caused, and to remember,

An over- how the Frenchmen in the yeare of oure Lorde God, a

throwe caused thousande five hundred and three, were broken at Gariliano

y wm er. ^^ ^^^ Winter, and not of the Spaniardes : For as much as

I have saide, he that assaulteth, hath more disadvauntage

then he that defendeth : because the fowle weather hurteth

him not a Jittell, being in the dominion of others and

minding to make warre. For that he is constrayned, either

to stande together with his men, and to sustaine the in-

commoditie of water and colde, or to avoide it to devide his

power : But he that defendeth, may chuse the place as he

listeth, and tary him with his freshe men : and he in a

sodayne may set his men in araye, and goo to find a band

of the enemies men, who cannot resiste the violence of them.

So the Frenchemen were discomfited, and so they shall

alwayes be discomfited, which will assaulte in the Winter

an enemye, whoo hath in him prudence. Then he that will

that force, that orders, that discipline and vertue, in anye

condition availe him not, let him make warre in the fielde in

the winter : and because that the Romaines woulde that all

these thinges, in which they bestowed so much diligence,

should availe them, fleedde no otherwise the Winter, then

the highe Alpes, and difficulte places, and whatsoever other

thing shoulde let them, for being able to shewe their arte

and their vertue. So this sufEseth to your demaund,

wherefore we wil come to intreate of the defending

and besieging of tonnes, and of their situa-

cions and edifications.

202



THE SEVENTH BOOKE

OF THE ARTE OF WARRE OF

NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL, CITEZEINE

AND SECRETARIE OF FLORENCE,

UNTO

LAURENCE PHILIP STROZZE.



THE ARTE OF WARRE



THE SEVENTH BOOKE




OU oughte to knowe, how that tounes
and fortresses, maie bee strong either by
nature, or by industrie ; by nature, those
bee strong, whiche bee compassed aboute
with rivers, or with Fennes, as Mantua is
and Ferrara, or whiche bee build ed upon
a Rocke, or upon a stepe hille, as Monaco,
and Sanleo : For that those that stande
upon hilles, that be not moche difficulct to goe up, be now a
daies, consideryng the artillerie and the Caves, moste weake.
And therfore moste often times in building, thei seke now a
daies a plain, for to make it stronge with industrie. The
firste industrie is, to make the walles crooked, and full of
tournynges, and of receiptes : the whiche thyng maketh,
that thenemie cannot come nere to it, bicause he maie be
hurte, not onely on the front, but by flancke. If the walles
be made high, thei bee to moche subjecte to the blowes of
the artillerie : if thei be made lowe, thei bee moste easie to
scale. If thou makeste the diches on the out side thereof,
for to give difficultie to the Ladders, if it happen that the
enemie fill them up (whiche a great armie maie easely dooe)
the wall remaineth taken of thenemie. Therefore pur-
posyng to provide to the one and thother foresaid incon-
veniences, I beleve (savyng alwaies better judgement) that
the walle ought to be made highe, and the Diche within,
and not without. This is the moste strongeste waie of

805



Tounes and
Fortresses
maiebe strong
twoo waies.



The place that
now a daies is
moste sought
to fortifie in.
How a Toune
walle ought
to bee made.



The walle of a
toune ought
to bee high,
and the diche
within, and
not without.



THE ARTE OF WARRE

THE edificacion, that is made, for that it defendeth thee from
SEVENTH the artillerie, and from Ladders, and it giveth not facilitie
BOOKE to the enemie, to fill up the diche : Then the walle ought to
Thethickenes be high, of that heighth as shall bee thought beste, and no
that a Toune ^eggg thick, then two yardes and a quarter, for to make it
b^eo^fTndthe ""'"'^ difficult to ruinate. Moreover it ought to have the
distaunces be- toures placed, with distances of CI. yardes betwen thone
twene everie and thother : the diche within, ought to be at leaste twoo
flaacker, and and twentie yardes and a halfe broad, and nine depe, and
b dth d ^^ ^^^ yearth that is digged out, for to make the diche,
deapth the muste be throwen towardes the Citee, and kepte up of a
dich ought walle, that muste be raised from the bottome of the diche,
to bee. and goe so high over the toune, that a man male bee covered

behinde thesame, the whiche thing shal make the depth of
the diche the greater. In the bottome of the diche, within
every hundred and 1. yardes, there would be a slaughter
house, which with the ordinaunce, male hurte whom so
How the ever should goe doune into thesame : the greate artillerie

ordinaunce is that defende the citee, are planted behinde the walle, that
fb^'d^f ' ^""^ f shutteth the diche, bicause for to defende the utter walle,
a toune being high, there cannot bee occupied commodiously, other

then smalle or meane peeses. If the enemie come to scale,
the heigth of the firste walle moste easely defendeth thee :
if he come with ordinaunce, it is convenient for hym to
batter the utter walle : but it beyng battered, for that the
The nature of nature of the batterie is, to make the walle to fall, towardes
the batterie. the parte battered, the ruine of the walle commeth, finding
no diche that receiveth and hideth it, to redouble the pro-
funditie of thesame diche : after soche sorte, that to passe
any further, it is not possible, findyng a ruine that with
holdeth thee, a diche that letteth thee, and the enemies
ordinaunce, that from the walle of the diche, moste safely
killeth thee. Onely there is this remedie, to fill the diche : the
whiche is moste difficulte to dooe, as well bicause the capacitie
thereof is greate, as also for the difficultie, that is in com-
myng nere it, the walle beeyng strong and concaved, betwene
the whiche, by the reasons aforesaied, with difficultie maie
be entered, havyng after to goe up a breache through a
806



NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL

ruin, whiche giveth thee moste greate difficultie, so that I THE

suppose a citee thus builded, to be altogether invinsible. SEVENTH
Baptiste. When there should bee made besides the diche BOOKB

within, a diche also without, should it not bee stronger ?
Fabkicio. It should be without doubt, but mindyng to

make one diche onely, myne opinion is, that it standeth

better within then without.

Baptiste. Would you, that water should bee in the diches,

or would you have them drie ?

Fabeicio. The opinion of men herein bee divers, bicause
the diches full of water, saveth thee from mines under
grounde, the Diches without water, maketh more difficulte
the fillyng of them : but I havyng considered aU, would A drie diche
make them without water, for that thei bee more sure : For is moste
diches with water, have been seen in the Winter to bee s"'^^*^'
frosen, and to make easie the winnyng of a citee, as it hap-
pened to Mirandola, when Pope Julie besieged it : and for
to save me from mines, I would make it so deepe, that he
that would digge lower, should finde water.

The Fortresses also, I would builde concernyng the diches
and the walles in like maner, to the intent thei should
have the like difficultie to be wonne. One thyng I will An advertise-
earnestly advise hym, that defend eth a Citee : and that is, mente for the
that he make no Bulwarkes without distaunte from the ^if^J^^^^^f
walle of thesame : and an other to hym that buildeth the ^ Toune or
Fortresse, and this is, that he make not any refuge place in Fortresse.
them, in whiche he that is within, the firste walle beyng
loste, male retire : That whiche maketh me to give the firste
counsaile is, that no manne ought to make any thyng, by
meane wherof, he male be driven without remedie to lese
his iirste reputacion, the whiche losyng, causeth to be
estemed lesse his other doinges, and maketh afraied them,
whom have taken upon theim his defence, and alwaies it
shall chaunce him this, whiche I sale, when there are made
Bulwarkes out of the Toune, that is to bee defended. Small for-
bicause alwaies he shall leese theim, little thynges now a tresses cannot
dales, beyng not able to bee defended, when thei be subject ^^® defended,
to the furie of ordinance, in soche wise that lesyng them,

207



THE ARTE OF WARRE

THE thei be beginning and cause of his ruine. When Genua
SEVENTH rebelled againste king Leus of Fraunce, it made certaine
BOOKE Bulwarkes alofte on those hilles, whiche bee about it, the
whiche so sone as thei were loste, whiche was sodainly,
A toune of made also the citee to be loste. Concernyng the second
war or For- counsaile, I affirme nothyng to be to a Fortresse more
tresse, ought pej-jjous, then to be in thesame refuge places, to be able to
them°anv^^e-" retire : Bicause the hope that menne have thereby, maketh
tiring places, that thei leese the utter warde, when it is assaulted : and
that loste, maketh to bee loste after, all the Fortresse. For
insample there is freshe in remembraunce, the losse of the
Fortresse of Furly, when Catherin the Countesse defended
Cesar Borgia, it againste Cesar Borgia, sonne to Pope Alexander the vi.
who had conducted thether the armie of the king of
Fraunee : thesame Fortresse, was al full of places, to retire
out of one into an other : for that there was firste the kepe,
from the same to the Fortresse, was a diche after soche
sorte, that thei passed over it by a draw bridge : the for-
tresse was devided into three partes, and every parte was
devided from the other with diches, and with water, and by
Bridges, thei passed from the one place to the other : where-
fore the Duke battered with his artillerie, one of the partes
of the fortresse, and opened part of the walle : For whiche
cause Maister Jhon Casale, whiche was appoincted to that
Warde, thought not good to defende that breache, but
abandoned it for to retire hymself into the other places : so
that the Dukes men having entered into that parte with-
out incounter, in a sodaine thei gotte it all : For that the
Dukes menne became lordes of the bridges, whiche went
Tiie causes of from one place to an other. Thei loste then this Fortresse,
the losse of whiche was thought invinsible, through two defaultes, the
f F 7'"^ th \ ""^ ^^^ havyng so many retiryng places, the other, bicause
was thought every retiryng place, was not Lorde of the bridge thereof,
invincible. Therefore, the naughtie builded Fortresse, and the little
wisedome of them that defended it, caused shame to the
noble enterprise of the countesse, whoe had thought to have
abidden an armie, whiche neither the kyng of Naples, nor
the Duke of Milaine would have abidden : and although
208



NICHOLAS MACHIAVELL

his inforcementes had no good ende, yet notwithstandyng THE

he gotte that honoure, whiche his valiauntnesse had de- SEVENTH

served: The whiche was testified of many Epigrammes, BOOKE

made in those daies in his praise. Therefore, if I should

have to builde a Fortresse, I would make the walles strong,

and the diches in the maner as we have reasoned, nor I

would not make therein other, then houses to inhabite, and Howe the

those I would make weake and lowe, after soche sorte that houses that

thei should not let him that should stande in the middest of IfJ^j.^^^^'^^



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