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78 Rumania and the War

the Pope, Sixtus IV. After each war in which
he was victorious he built a beautiful church.
These churches still exist in various parts of the
country, and have been used as places of worship
up to the present time. Thus he built 47
churches. In the inspiration of his mother he
found his highest moral stimulus. This is what
a popular legend says about this heroine :

"In this old fortress built on the side of a
mountain, the Mother of the Prince keeps watch
as a sentinel of honor. Voichitza, the young wife
of the Prince, is also there, sweet and suave, as
a white carnation, sighing for her glorious and
much-loved lord, who returns not from the com-
bat. The Princess, her mother-in-law, consoles
and cheers her. The clock has just struck mid-
night, when Voichitza hears the fanfare of the
trumpet and the knocking at the gate. She knows
it is her husband, and her heart goes out to him.
Both the princesses rise quickly, and soon the
voice of him whom they love cries from the dark-
ness: 'It is I, thy son, dear mother. I thy son!
I am wounded in battle, the struggle has been too
strong for us, and my little army is devastated.
Open the gates, for the Turks are surrounding
us, the wind is piercing, and my wounds are pain-
ful.' Voitchitza rushes to the window, but her
mother-in-law holds her back, and bidding her



Woman 's Work in Rumania 79

remain where she is, descends the stairs, orders
the castle gates to be opened, and appears before
her son, tall, majestic, severe the absolute per-
sonification of dignity and grandeur. 'What do
you say, stranger? My Stephen is far away!
His arm is sowing death and annihilation. I am
his mother and he is my son! If you are really
Stephen, I am not your mother. If heaven does
not wish to make my last days sorrowful, and if
you are really Stephen, you will not enter here,
vanquished, against my will. Fly to the battle-
field! Die for your country! Your tomb shall
be strewn with flowers!' And closing the door,
she remounts the stairs ; and calm and serene, she
consoles and wipes away the tears of the young
Princess Voichitza."

The dignified descendants of those women of
the past are also in the present times keeping high
their inheritance and their fruitful mission.
Whilst the peasant woman, as I have said, by
her daily toil provides the army and the people
with the necessary food, clothing and things of
first necessity, her sisters of the higher classes are
lending all their efforts to the army and the coun-
try. Organized in charity societies or individu-
ally, they tend the wounded in hospitals, and in
the hospital-trains leading from the firing line;
they have organized canteens in railway stations,



RUMANIA AND THE WAR



BY



NICHOLAS LUPU, M.D.

1 ^

Member of the Rumanian Parliament



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY
JEAN RADOU




BOSTON

RICHARD G. BADGER

THE GORHAM PRESS



COPYRIGHT, 1919, BY RICHARD G. BADGER



All Rights Reserved



L-3



Made in the United States of America



The Gorham Press, Boston, U. S. A.



FOREWORD

The author of the following book is a Ruma-
nian physician who was also, during and prior to
the war, a member of the Rumanian Parliament.
When his country, overrun and devastated by her
enemies, and completely cut off from her friends,
was forced to sign an unwilling and disastrous
peace with the Central Powers, he left his home
at the last moment when it was still possible to
reach the outside world, because he believed that
he could serve his country only by pleading her
cause abroad. For Rumania, which possibly suf-
fered more than any other country in the war,
was certainly the most completely isolated of all
those that had fought the common enemy. Within
a few weeks after our author's departure it was
impossible to enter or to leave the country, and
even communication by post or telegraph was
out of the question. A small band of leaders like
Dr. Lupu had escaped to represent the country
to the world, and they alone could tell iier
story.

Some part of that story is printed in this book.
3



4 Foreword

Dr. Lupu travelled in England, France, Italy, and
America, speaking and writing of Rumania. The
articles here collected represent some of the dis-
courses and essays thus delivered or published in
the allied countries. Their author was in America
when the armistice was signed, promising a
brighter future for his land as for all others. The
rest of his story can better be told in the words
of a letter of the author, which, though not written
for publication, forms an appropriate introduction
for his book to the American public.

"When I sailed for America three months ago,
I expected to stay here longer. The deeds of the
valiant American boys were so heroic that they
brought a rapid close of the war in victory.
Through their achievement the path is once more
open to Rumania, and I am in a hurry to go home
in order that I may be of service in this dark
hour of my country's history. But I shall come
back to America. One who has been here once,
and has been inspired by the spirit of America, has
to come back. It is as it used to be in Rome. Pope
Adrian IV, when receiving visitors at the Vatican,
used to ask them how long they were staying in
the Eternal City. If the reply was one week,
he would say 'adieu' at their departure, but if the
answer was three months or more he always said
'au revoir.' So it is with me.



Foreword 5

"During my three months here, I have seen
many things. When the time for writing comes
again I shall tell my countrymen about them. But
one thing I must say now.

"I have wondered how the Americans were able
to achieve such memorable deeds in peace and in
war as they have accomplished. And if I have
not probed deep into the ultimate causes of their
success, I believe that nevertheless I have sat-
isfied myself as to the proximate causes of their
remarkable progress.

"For certain purposes the many types of in-
dividuals and peoples in the world may be re-
duced to two. There is the purely idealistic type,
who dreams of regenerating the world into per-
fection, but whose dreams have too slight founda-
tion in experience and practice. The Russians of
our day are an example. Then there is the prac-
tical type, strong of will, powerful in organization,
but lacking in high spiritual ideal. The Germans
are the corresponding example. Now the Ameri-
cans exhibit both these qualities highly developed
and remarkably harmonized, and this striking
combination of traits is, I am sure, a considerable
part of the explanation of their successes. And
with these traits they are distinguished also for
what I can only call a certain freshness of soul, a



6 Foreword

naivete, characteristic of strong and young
peoples, for whom nothing is impossible."

An author who speaks in this way about our
country after a brief acquaintance with it de-
serves an interested reader when he writes about
his own land.



CONTENTS

PAGE

RUMANIA AND THE WAR 13

SOME FACTS OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY . . 43

WOMAN'S WORK IN RUMANIA 64

PEASANT CO-OPERATION IN RUMANIA ... 83

FOR THE REUNION OF ALL RUMANIANS ... 93

UKRAINIA AND BESSARABIA 103

MEMORANDUM OF THE RUMANIAN WAR AIMS. . 113



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FACING
PAGE

With the Rumanian Army A Cavalry Patrol on
the Ice Fields Frontispiece

With the Rumanian Army Maxim Section
Driving Down a Steep Embankment . . 26

With the Rumanian Army in the Field. A

Priest Blessing Regimental Colors ... 40

A Rumanian Peasant Girl in National Costume 66

Two Rumanian Peasant Beauties 72

Ecaterina Theodoroiu 80

The Crown Prince of Rumania at a Military
School 86

The White Guard 102



RUMANIA AND THE WAR



RUMANIA AND THE WAR

WO years ago, when I was in London, I saw
in a newspaper a sketch representing a news-
paper boy in 1935 crying "Rumania coming in."
That sketch depicted sarcastically the anxiety and
the puzzled state of mind of the public as to the
attitude of Rumania. From 1914 until 1916 Ru-
mania was the political sphinx of the time. Is
Rumania to come into the war? On whose side,
and when ? Why has she not yet come in ? These
questions remained unanswered. No one was able
to say anything definite. Later on, long before
1935, Rumania did enter the war on the side of
the Allies. After some ephemeral successes at
the beginning, when her sons after three centuries
of waiting since the time of Michael the Brave
entered again into Transylvania, the calvary of
her misfortunes began: the loss of Dobrudja, the
retreat in Transylvania, the loss of Wallachia,
hunger, and exanthematic typhoid. Instead of
the enthusiasm which greeted the entry of Ruma-
nia into the war, a sort of disillusionment and dis-
appointment was felt in the West, where "failure"



14 Rumania and the War

was the only word used of Rumania. The long-
awaited ally on whom so many hopes had been
built had become a burden difficult to support and
a troublesome companion in the fight. Only quite
lately, during the summer of 1917, after the
Homeric battles of Mareshti and Marasheshti,
when a good many allied officers and soldiers had
the opportunity to be eye-witnesses of the bravery
of the Rumanian soldiers, public opinion in the
West immediately altered its ideas and sentiments
toward Rumania. And now after the Russian dis-
aster, which has had a repercussion on all of us,
but a tragical one on Rumania, one may say that
everybody shows sympathy and compassion for
the Rumanian people. But neither during the
period of doubt and suspicion, nor during the time
of enthusiasm and subsequent disappointment-
one could almost say of disdain perhaps not even
during the present period of compassion, is the
real situation of Rumania known. The public at
large do not know it and, what is more important,
even those do not kflow who ought to know. For
if the real state of things in Rumania had been
known, many mistakes could have been avoided,
and the entry of Rumania into the fray could have
been decisive for the Allies instead of being fatal
for her. The aim of this essay is to throw a
stronger light on the conditions of the Rumanian
tragedy.



Rumania and the War 15

First of all, was it absolutely necessary for Ru-
mania speaking from the point of view of strictly
Rumanian interests to take part in the world
war? Yes. While other peoples of Europe had
long ago fulfilled the national ideal of having in
one state all their co-nationals, the Rumanians,
after a long series of historical vicissitudes, were
at the beginning of the twentieth century in the
following geographical and ethnographical situ-
ation: There were 7,000,000 Rumanians living
in the Kingdom of Rumania; 4,500,000 in Tran-
sylvania, Banat, Bukovina, and parts of Mara-
muresh and Crishana in Austria-Hungary; 2,000,-
ooo in Bessarabia; 1,000,000 over the Dniester in
the governments of Kherson and Podolia in Rus-
sia; 500,000 in Macedonia; and 200,000 in
Serbia on the Timok Valley. More than half of
the Rumanians are living beyond the boundaries
of the Kingdom, but in its immediate neighbor-
hood and in unbroken continuity, except those in
Macedonia.

The Rumanian in Transylvania and Hungary
is beyond the protection of the law. The Hun-
garians, who vaunt themselves on having a con-
stitution as old as the British, and on being the
most liberal people in Europe, are suffering from
a great delusion. They dream of making a great
nation of 20,000,000 Hungarians, although they
number only 8,000,000. For this reason, they try



1 6 Rumania and the War

to magyarize the 14,000,000 Rumanians and Serb-
ians by imposing upon them the most Draconian
regime ; and in the matter of inventing Draconian
devices they are unsurpassed by anybody. In
the first place, the Rumanians are deprived of par-
liamentary representation. Instead of the eighty
deputies to which the proportion established in
Hungary for election purposes would entitle them
they have only four. The vote is not secret, and
at each election there are dead and wounded
among those who vote for the Rumanian candi-
date. Liberty of the press is non-existent; for
as soon as one writes of Rumania, fines and im-
prisonment are his portion. During the last
twenty years about one hundred years of prison
and many hundred thousand crowns in fines have
been imposed upon Rumanian journalists in Hun-
gary. Justice is administered in the Magyar lan-
guage, which the great majority of the Rumanians
do not understand, because it is a language apart,
which has no kindred with any of the European
languages. The instruction is also given in that
language. The schools which the Rumanians have
established at great sacrifice out of their own pri-
vate funds have been closed by the liberal Hun-
garian Count Apponyi. Three hundred peasants
were done to death in the interval from 1902 to
1912 for wearing the Rumanian national tricolor.



Rumania and the War 17

Not one Rumanian paper or book from Rumania
is allowed to enter Hungary, although there is no
prohibition in Rumania for the importation of
any publication from either Hungary or elsewhere.
All the public offices, large or small, are occupied
by Hungarians; all economic advantages, like
banking, credit, help in misfortune, colonization,
etc., are only for Hungarian use. The name they
give to the Rumanian, "Olah," is a name of insult.

This state of slavery, of vassalage to the Hun-
garians, under different forms has lasted for cen-
turies. Several times the Rumanians have re-
volted. Since the revolutionary movements of
1784 and 1848 hundreds of thousands of Ruma-
nians have emigrated partly to Rumania to tell
their misfortunes to their brethren, and partly to
America. The latter are forming at present a
few divisions which will be sent to France, in the
Rumanian uniform, to fight side by side with the
British and French soldiers. Thus the Rumanians
will still be represented in the mighty army of the
Allies, although a cruel fate prevents the main
body of the Rumanian army from continuing the
holy struggle.

But the emigrants left behind millions of their
brethren in continual suffering. And these millions
of Rumanians of Transylvania are the best ele-
ment of the race. From them came the first ele-



1 8 Rumania and the War

ments of culture ; they promoted the awakening of
national sentiment which was slumbering under
the Turkish domination; they have produced the
best of our writers and poets, two of whom, Goga
and Coshbuc, belong to our own generation. From
the beginning of the world war they looked east-
ward over the Carpathians to Rumania with dawn-
ing hope, and but one thought, their liberation.
And with equal longing the great mass of the
people in Rumania shared their hope and ardently
desired its rapid fulfilment.

When, in recompense for the help given to them
by the Rumanians in their war against the Turks
in 1877, and contrary to the formal engagements
taken to respect the integrity of the territory of
Rumania, the ungrateful Russians for the second
time took Bessarabia away from her, the official
policy of Rumania, under the leadership of the
late King Carol, was, of dire necessity, adherence
to the Triple Alliance. ,But the people, the great
mass of the nation on both sides of the Car-
pathians, never understood that they must sacrifice
to this Alliance the more than just claims of the
Rumanian race.

But besides the cry of our brothers over the
mountains, we could also hear the plaint of our
brothers over the Pruth in Bessarabia. All the
gallant history of four centuries of the struggle
for freedom in Moldavia is full of names of Bes-



Rumania and the War 19

sarabian heroes and Bessarabian places. Broken
by treason from the body of Moldavia in 1812,
and incorporated with Russia by the Tsar Alexan-
der I, Bessarabia was enduring a cruel fate. Here
every national movement was punished not by
fines, but by exile to Siberia and death. No Ru-
manian schools, either private or belonging to the
Government, existed. In the Church, only Rus-
sian was permitted, and so also in the administra-
tion and the courts of justice. As for national rep-
resentatives, even the Russians had none. And
above all this there was the continuous enmity
which Russia of the Tsars has shown to the Ru-
manian countries, always regarded as a prey. In
the nineteenth century the Rumanian countries
were six times overrun and plundered by the Mos-
covite armies; and the last act of the rape of Bes-
sarabia was in 1914, too fresh in everybody's
mind. If one adds to this the well-known desire
of Russia for the Dardanelles and Constanti-
nople, that is to say, the outlet by which the whole
of the exportation of Rumania is directed, and
that Russia and Rumania, both producing the
same articles, oil and cereals, were continually
meeting as competitors in the Western markets,
one can easily see that the sincere supporters of
an intervention against Russia, were not lacking
in plausible arguments.

I say with intention sincere supporters, because



2O Rumania and the War

much was written and said about corruption in
Rumania practised by Germans and Russians in
order to influence public opinion. It is certain
that corruption existed; but the enemy bought
those who were for sale. I remember that the
Germans paid 40,000 to a journalist who had
been implicated in many shady affairs. When
asked why they were lavishing money on such in-
dividuals, they answered: "We have to buy the dis-
honest ones; the honest ones do not take money."
But though a few degenerates may have been paid
for their work, there was a small but sincere cur-
rent of opinion in Rumania opposed to the popu-
lar desire. It is no wonder that the Germans
exploited the situation; it was obviously in their
interest to do so. The strife between these two
currents lasted two years. This was the painful
period of uncertainty. "Nothing is more diffi-
cult than to make a decision," said Napoleon, who
was a man of action. How much more difficult
was it for Rumania, a little, isolated state, with
the puzzling Russian menace at her back, with
the fate of Belgium and Serbia fresh in her mem-
ory, to decide to make the supreme choice on
which the very existence of the state and of the
nation were at stake!

The struggle was severe. The supporters of
action on the side of the Germans had strong ar-



Rumania and the War 21

guments. We must not place our confidence in the
Russians, who have always deceived and betrayed
us. No matter what is the general result of the
war, on the Eastern front the Russians are bound
to be beaten; and if we are with them, we shall
have to share their fate. It is true that our
brothers of Transylvania are suffering; but the
same can be said of our brothers in Bessarabia.
If the Russians are victorious and take the Dar-
danelles, we shall be their economic slaves, and
then also their political slaves. Technically speak-
ing, we cannot make war against Austria, because
we have no munitions, and no possibility of bring-
ing in munitions, our Western allies being too dis-
tant and the way through the White Sea too long;
while if we are on the side of Germany, we can
bring in quickly plenty of munitions.

In conclusion they quoted the authentic opinion
of the German Military Attache, von Hammer-
stein, given to a Rumanian statesman. "Your
army is excellent; the soldiers are perfect. You
lack munitions. The command is not so good. If
you join us, we shall complete your command and
give you sufficient munitions. In two months'
time you will be masters of Bessarabia and the Ru-
manian portions of Kherson and Podolia up to the
River Bug, including Odessa. If you go against
us, the command will be weaker still, because you



22 Rumania and the War

will fight together with the Russians, who have
proved to be badly commanded. You will have
no munitions because the Russians are themselves
lacking, and your other allies are too far away.
In three months' time your whole country will be
occupied by German armies."

I must add that at the time Rumania was en-
tirely lacking in heavy and mountain artillery,
airplanes, machine guns, gas masks, and all the
equipment which has been found to be absolutely
necessary during the last two years of modern
warfare. In addition to this, we must not lose
sight of the most important fact that Rumania,
having been allied to the Central Powers, had
made all her strategical works, fortifications, etc.,
solely for defense against Russia. We must also
remember that the front on the line of the Pruth
against Russia was only two hundred and fifty
miles, while the Carpathians and the Danube ag-
gregate a front of over one thousand miles, and
that the salient of Wallachia was exposed from
the very beginning to an attack on two fronts,
which we were unable to meet adequately owing
to numerical inferiority and to the lack of strategi-
cal railways for quick communication on interior
lines. The arguments were so forcible and the
facts so irrefutable that reply was difficult.

But, in spite of all these arguments, the instinct



Rumania and the War 23

of the masses led them to different views. The
Rumanian people had always been the oppressed,
never the oppressor. They could see that in this
war Germany was the aggressor, and that justice
was distinctly on the side of England and France.
Imbued with democratic tendencies, the Ruma-
nians saw that, setting aside national particular-
istic sentiments, this war represented the fight be-
tween two systems : the system of the divine right
of autocracy on one side, and the system of the
rights of the people and of democracy on the
other. On this side was fighting England, mother
of all constitutions, and France, descendant of the
revolution, France who has helped us to accom-
plish our national unity and whose culture we
have all eagerly absorbed. Even if we for our
part were to be partially destroyed, the democ-
racies would emerge triumphant in the long run,
and our cause would be won. England had al-
ways kept her word; she would not leave her
wounded ally forever in the clutch of her enemies.
Technically, the war against Germany was almost
impossible. Morally, it was all the more impos-
sible to fight against England, France, and Italy,
even though they were allied with the unfriendly
Tsarist Russia. This, in brief, is the tragedy of
two years of uncertainty.

I leave you to judge whether a people has ever



24 Rumania and the War

been put face to face with a more difficult prob-
lem: just national claims on both sides, technical
impossibility of fighting against one side, moral
impossibility of fighting against the other. And
yet it was imperative to make a decision. Ru-
mania could not remain inactive in this war, the
end of which would see the settlement of all
nations, without incurring the penalty of being
excluded from the roll of honor of the nations and
of renouncing forever all her ideals as unworthy
of fulfilling them.

The honest and sincere patriots saw all these
difficulties, They knew that the Western nations
were conscious of them; and they believed, natur-
ally enough, that the Allies would so arrange af-
fairs as to yield the maximum of benefit from the
intervention of Rumania. They thought and hoped
that the Allies could find a means of useful co-
operation on the part of Rumania with them. The
reinforced armies of Russia, the new successful
offensive of Brusilof on one side, the army of Sar-
rail on the other, were the two supports to which
Rumania looked. Her flanks being effectively
sustained, a useful offensive on her part was pos-
sible. In the midst of these anxieties, of pitiful
uncertainties, and expectations, on the 2yth of
August, 1916, the Rumanian Government de-
clared war on Austria. Alea jacta! The enthu-



Rumania and the War 25

siasm was great in the hearts of all Rumanians.
For the first time after many centuries they had
made the first step toward the fulfilment of the
holy ideal of national unity. But being conscious
of the immensity of their task and the number of
the difficulties in the way, they showed an emotion
not expansive in accordance with their accustomed
character, but grave, dignified, and restrained.

Three days after the declaration of war, all
the passes of the Carpathians towards Transyl-
vania were occupied, and after a few weeks one-
third of Transylvania was in the hands of the Ru-
manian army. I myself witnessed the great enthu-
siasm of the liberated Rumanian population of
Transylvania. Women, old men, and children


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