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Nicholas Murray Butler.

Education in the United States; a series of monographs prepared for the United States exhibit at the Paris exposition, 1900; (Volume 2) online

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES






UNIVERSITY MFORNIA



RY



EDUCATION



IN THE



UNITED STATES



A SERIES OF MONOGRAPHS

PREPARED FOR THE UNITED STATES EXHIBIT AT THE

PARIS EXPOSITION

I9OO

10001



EDITED BY

NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER

Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University
New York



PUBLISHERS

J. B. LYON COMPANY

ALBANY, N. Y.

1900



5909 1



COPYRIGHT, 1900,
BY

J. B. LYON COMPANY.



Education
Library

LA



CONTENTS



/PAGE
^ W * W ,~ ^v^**^, 465

JAMES RUSSELL PARSONS, Director of the College and High School
Departments, University of the State of New York, Albany, New
York

SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION * - 551
T. C. MENDENHALL, President of the Technological Institute,
Worcester, Massachusetts

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION ^ 593

CHARLES W. DABNEY, President of the University of Tennessee,
Knoxville, Tennessee ,

COMMERCIAL EDUCATION ^ 653

EDMUND J. JAMES, Professor of Public Administration in the
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

ART AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION ;*f 705

ISAAC EDWARDS CLARKE, Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.



EDUCATION OF DEFECTIVES - 769

EDWARD ELLIS ALLEN, Principal of the Pennsylvania Institution
for the Instruction of the Blind, Overbrook, Pennsylvania

SUMMER SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITY EXTENSION v"_ - - 821
HERBERT B. ADAMS, Professor of American and Institutional
History in the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES AND ASSOCIATIONS * - - - - 865
JAMES McKEEN CATTELL, Professor of Psychology in Columbia
University, New York

EDUCATION OF THE NEGRO ^ 893

BOOKER T. WASHINGTON, Principal of the Tuskegee Institute,
Tuskegec, Alabama

./^

EDUCATION OF THE INDIAN Y 937

WILLIAM N. HAILMANN, Superintendent of Schools, Dayton, Ohio
INDEX - - . - - - - ' 973



DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

FOR THE

UNITED STATES COMMISSION TO THE PARIS EXPOSITION OF 1900



MONOGRAPHS ON EDUCATION

IN THE

UNITKD STATKS

i

EDITED BY

NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER
Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University, New York



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION



BY



JAMES RUSSELL PARSONS JR

Director of the College and High School Departments, University of the State
of New York, Albany, New York



THIS MONOGRAPH is CONTRIBUTED TO THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT BY THE

STATE OF NEW YORK



o
o
o

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o

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1



p*,'^ 3

v~a

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

I OQ O 7-

I GENERAL

Preacademic, grammar or common school work refers to the eight years of ele-
mentary instruction; secondary or academic work, to the four years of secondary
instruction between elementary school and college; college work, to the four
years of higher instruction, following the four years of secondary. Professional
institutions are uniformly called schools.

Authorities It is impossible within the limits of this
monograph to give more than a brief outline of professional
education in the United States. For detailed information
touching laws, regulations, location of schools, and courses
of study the reader is referred to Professional education in
the United States , published by the University of the State
of New York.

Of the many authorities consulted the following have
proved most helpful : U. S. education reports ; Eliot's Edu-
cational reform ; U. S. census reports ; Briggs' Theological
education and its needs / Dyer's Theological education in
America;* Jessup's Legal education in New York; 3 Well-
man's Admission to the bar / 4 Hammond's American law
schools, past and future / 5 Reports of the American bar
association; Toner's Annals of medical progress in the
United States ; 6 Davis' Medical education and medical insti-
tutions in the United States / 7 Journal American medical
association; Shepard's Inaugural address at the World's
Columbian dental congress; Proceedings of the American
pharmaceutical association. These and other authorities
have been used freely, but limited space makes it imprac-
ticable to give in many cases more than this general
acknowledgment.

1 forum, January 1892. * Penn monthly, August 1880. * See the History of the
bench and bar of New York. * American law review, May 1881. B Southern law
review, August 1881. ' U. S. education report, 1874. T U. S. education report, 1877.



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION



[468



Assistance rendered by specialists is acknowledged in the
chapter relating to each profession.

Growth At the time of the declaration of independence
there were only two professional schools in this country, the
Medical college of Philadelphia (1765), now the medical
department of the University of Pennsylvania, and the medi-
cal department of King's college (1768).*

The following statistics, summarized from Professional
education in the United States, show unprecedented growth : a





Schools
1899


Instructors
1899


Students
1898


Graduates
1898


Students
1899




165


I O7O


8 317


I 603


8 003


Law


86


Q7O


II 783


3 nd


II 883


Medicine


IS6


y/u
e 7-je


8 24 O43


*5 7 2 5


'24 119


Dentistry


56


I 513


7 221


I Q2I


7 633


Pharmacy . .


4 52


*4Q2


*a 2*


4 I 122


*1 561


Veterinary medicine... .


17


249


368


123


378


Total


C-J2


10 029


ee 2 s ;?


11 6Q4.


55 660















In 1898, 286 of the 532 schools reported total property
amounting to nearly $50,000,000 (New York 33 per cent),



1 King's college is now Columbia university.

1 The 1898 U. S. education report gives the following:





Schools


Instructors


Students


Graduates














*


846




















06 1




x 848
































Total


408



















1 Excluding graduate schools, but including 3 medical preparatory schools.

4 Including Department of pharmacy, University of Washington, which has sus-
pended temporarily.

'In these totals training schools for nurses are not included. The Philadelphia
lying-in, charity and nurse school was opened in 1828, but it is said that syste-
matic training in schools for nurses was not given till 1873. The 1898 U. S. edu-
cation report gives 377 of these schools with 8805 students. The course of study
is usually two years in length though nearly 1-4 of the schools now require three
years. Most of these schools are connected with hospitals where medical, surgi-
cal and obstetric cases are treated. The course of study embraces anatomy, phys-
iology and hygiene, and obstetrics.



\



469]



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION



262 reported receipts exceeding $5,000,000 (New York 31
per cent), 270 expenditures exceeding $4,500,000 (New
York 28 per cent). Degrees are granted by 73 theological
schools, 82 law schools, 152 medical schools, 56 dental
schools, 45 schools of pharmacy and 16 veterinary medical
schools.

Distribution of professional schools and students in iSgo 1
38 political divisions of the United States report profes-
sional schools and students as follows :



Division


Theology


Law


Medicine


Dentistry


Pharmacy


Veteri-
nary


Total


Sc. =school;
St. =student.


Sc.
18
i?

1

3
8
6

8
3
3
5
5
5

8

4

2

4

i

T

5
3

2

3
3

i

3

2
O

2

3
o



o



o
o




St.

I 2IO

1039

813
448

432
514

561

226

102
401

105

204

2

161

277

194

98

160
16
23
459
152
33
59
61

9
81
78



S3
46
o

o



o



o




Sc.
9
7
3

6
o




St.
i 308

2 202
526
3 66
75

974
277

211

918
96

892
365

3*3
456
446
236
75
259
176
72



194

93
117
27
166
86
3



65
5
26
o
"5
o

45
o




Sc.
16
ii
6
16
*3

8
9
6
7

5

1
4
3
3
3

2

2
2
O

I

4
3
3
3
3

2
I
2
I
I
I

O
O

o
o


St.

3065
2415
2475
2345
I 392
I 066
I 331
I 876

877

I Oil

460
631
576

305

618
449
198
290
388



109
53
179
*39
172
167
171
ai5
182
97
108

131
o
o



o
o


Sc.
5
3
5
4
5

2

3

4

o




St.

I 282
503

I 503

485
589

302

497
301
346
179
*35
135
395
258
no
36
258
35
o





50
58
4
o
o



o
o
o
o



o
34



o
o


Sc.

2
4
3

2

5

i
i


St.
284
536
619
177
418
178
1 06

75
129
60
46

2IO
83

T
62

22

31

61
40
Ii

26
o
o
o

41

45
25
3
o



27
o
o
o

33
o

18
10


Sc.

2

3

i
i
i
i



o

2
O

*
I
I
I
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
I
o
o
o


St.
8a
82

52
25
14
27



o

26

o

27
27

7
7
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o




o
o
o
o
o
o



o



o

2

o



o


Sc.
52

45
35
32
43
18
20
3
17
14

22

18

21
I?
14
14
12
10

6

6
5

10

9

10

6
10
6

i
6
6

2
I
I

5

i
i
i


St.
7231
6 777

3846
355
3 061
2 772
2689
2398

i 747
1665
1572
i 462
1 357
i 323
i 106
911
813
52*

S 2*
485

455
429.

4'3
410
39
359
293
215
200

95
134
131
125
69
45
18
10


New York






Ohio


Massachusetts








District Columbia..












Wisconsin
Texas






Connecticut . ;








North Carolina....


Vermont


South Carolina
Arkansas
New Hampshire
West Virginia..

Washington....


Oklahoma
South Dakota..


165


8093


86


II 883


156


24 119


56


7633


52


3563


'7


378


532


55669



The following report no professional schools : Alaska,
Arizona, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Indian territory,
Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Puerto
Rico, Rhode Island, Utah, Wyoming.

1 Not including students at the University of Havana: law 124, medicine 98,
pharmacy 98 (1899), or at the University of Santo Tomas, Manila: theology 6,
law 558, medicine 404, pharmacy 51 (1897). Grand total, including also 1916 gradu-
ate medical students, 58,924.



6 PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION [470

Illinois leads for the first time in professional students, a
fact due to a lack of proper control of the power to grant
degrees and licenses. Including students in graduate medi-
cal schools, New York and Illinois report about the same
number of professional students in 1 899.

Varying standards There is no national authority in the
United States that can prescribe standards for degrees or
for license to practise the professions. Each state makes its
own professional laws. As a result there are almost as many
standards as there are political divisions. The desirability
of uniform standards throughout the country for admission
to professional practice is recognized generally, but varying
conditions as to density of population, educational advant-
ages and general development make it impracticable to hope
for the attainment of this end for some time to come. 1

30 years ago the public had little protection from incom-
petency in professional practice. The bar is said to have
been at its lowest ebb. Medical laws were crude and largely
inoperative. In several states only were there any acts
designed to control the practice of pharmacy and dentistry.
There was no law whatever restricting the practice of vet-
erinary medicine.

There has been extraordinary progress, specially in the
last decade, in restrictive professional legislation, and in
the admission and graduation requirements of professional
schools throughout the United States. In view of these
facts the growth in professional students is remarkable.
From 1888 to 1899 the increase was as follows: theology
24 per cent, law 2 24 per cent, medicine 84 per cent, dentistry
380 per cent, pharmacy 31 per cent, veterinary medicine 17
per cent.

In 1890, when the last U. S. census was taken, the ratio to
population for each given profession was : clergymen i to
710, lawyers i to 699, physicians i to 598, dentists i to
3579. The corresponding ratios for 1870 were: clergymen
i to 879, lawyers i to 946, physicians i to 617, dentists i to

1 See section on Influence of medical societies.



Growth in professional students



00

f
to



00

03
CD



oo



Medicitte



Theology
Law



Pharmacy

Dentistry

Veterinary



2





25000

Z4-

23

3.2.

21

20

18
17
(6
15

13
IZ
I f
10

9

8

1

6

4
3

Z

1000




470



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION



4919. In each profession there has been a growth which is
greater proportionately than the growth in population. 1

Preliminary general^ education for licenses In New York
state a preliminary general education equivalent to gradua-
tion from a four years' high school course after a completed
eight years' elementary course is prescribed by statute as
the minimum standard for license to practise medicine. This
standard approximates that required in continental Europe.
New Hampshire has similar requirements, but they are not
as rigidly enforced. The statutes of Delaware, Maryland,
New Jersey and Pennsylvania prescribe a "common school
education." Louisiana demands "a fair primary education."
The rules in Vermont prescribe a high school course ; in
Illinois and Iowa less than one year of high school work ; in
Virginia, " evidence of a preliminary education." In remain-
ing political divisions laws and rules are either silent in this
respect or so indefinite (Arkansas and other political divis-
ions) as to be of little value.

In New York and Illinois (after Jan. i, 1900) a prelim-
inary general education equivalent to a three years' high
school course is required for admission to the bar. Connec-
ticut demands a high school education or an indefinite pre-
liminary examination. The minimum requirement in Mich-
igan (in case of examination) is less than two years of high

1 These returns were first given in 1860 when the ratio to population (31,443, 321)
was : clergymen (37,529) i to 837, lawyers (33,193) I to 947, physicians (54,543) i to
576, dentists (5606) i to 5608. Following are the figures for 1870, 1880 and 1890 :





Population


Clergymen


Lawyers


Physicians


Dentists


1870




A1 8?A




62 448




1880.




6j. 608








1800 . .






89 630



















Students at these periods were reported as follows in 1897 by the American bar
association :





Theology


Law


Medicine


Dentistry


Pharmacy


1870






6 iq8






1880
















A. qi8


16 660


2 696


2 871















8 PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION [472

school work, in Colorado it is one year of high school work,
in Minnesota (in case of examination) it is less than one
year, in Ohio it is a common school education. If anything
is demanded in other political divisions the requirement is
not sufficiently established (excepting a few local cases) to
find a place either in statutes or court rules.

The New York law exacts a full high school course as
one of the requirements for license to practise dentistry. 1
New Jersey demands by statute " a preliminary education
equal to that furnished by the common schools," Pennsyl-
vania "a competent common school education," Virginia a
" fair academic education." In other political divisions there
is no such requirement.* Louisiana, Michigan, South
Dakota, Wisconsin, and, in case of examination, California
and Texas are the only political divisions which mention in
their rules preliminary general education as a requirement
for license to practise pharmacy. An elementary educa-
tion only is prescribed. The completion of a full high
school course or its equivalent is one of the statutory require-
ments for license to practise veterinary medicine in New
York. 8 Pennsylvania demands " a competent common school
education." There is no such requirement in any other
state.

Preliminary general education for degrees In New York,
high standards in preliminary general education are demanded
both for degrees and for licenses, 4 and in each case the ques-
tion of attainments is determined by a central authority, the
University of the State of New York. As a rule in other
states the professional schools conduct their own entrance
examinations, and the tests are often mere matters of form,
even though the standards may appear satisfactory on paper.

1 For matriculates before Jan. I, 1901, 3 years in a high school are accepted.
1 See section on Dental societies. * For matriculates before Jan. I, 1901, 2 years
in a high school are accepted. 4 Excepting licenses to preach and licenses to
practise pharmacy.



473] PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION 9

Entrance requirements

In 4 theological schools there are no entrance requirements ;
in 24 schools they are indefinite. 19 demand a grammar
school education. i, 6 and 19 require respectively one,
two and three years of high school work. 18, 3 and 71
demand respectively one, three and four years of college
work.

In 1 6 law schools there are apparently no entrance require-
ments whatever ; in 8 schools they are so indefinite as to be
practically worthless. 26 schools demand a grammar school
education. 8, n, 12 and 3 require respectively one, two,
three and four years of high school work. Harvard demands
an education equivalent to that required for admission to
the senior class. The Columbia law school will be main-
tained as a graduate department after 1903.

In 2 medical schools the requirements are indefinite ; 29
demand a grammar school education; 97, 12, 3 and 12
require respectively one, two, three and four years of high
school work. Johns Hopkins requires a college course,
Harvard also after Sep. 1901.

In 3 dental schools the requirements are indefinite; 18
demand a grammar school education; 18, n and 6 require
respectively one, two and three years of high school work.

In 6 schools of pharmacy there are no entrance require-
ments ; in 4 schools they are indefinite. 24 demand a gram-
mar school education ; n, 6 and i require respectively one,
two and three years of high school work.

In i veterinary medical school the requirements are indef-
inite ; 9 demand a grammar school education; i, 5 and i
require respectively one, two and three years of high school
work.

Professional students with college degrees The 1894 U. S.
education report states that probably nearly one half of
the theological students held either B.A. or B.S. degrees
(46 1-2 per cent), as compared with only about 20 per cent
of law students. The corresponding returns from medical
schools were so imperfect that they were not tabulated.
Tables in the 1897 U. S. education report indicate that of



10



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION



[474



schools reporting graduate students 49 per cent of the stu-
dents in theology, 24 per cent of those in law and 14 per
cent of those in medicine held either B.A. or B.S. degrees.
The corresponding returns for 1898 were 53 per cent in
theology, 29 per cent in law, and 21 per cent in medicine.

Following is a classification of schools i) that report grad-
uate students, 2) that report no graduate students, 3) that do
not report this item :





Schools


Students


Hold B. A. or
B. S. degrees


Per cent




1897


1898


1897


1898


1897


1898


1897


1898


Theology i


93


85


5 217


5 086


2 566


2 696


49


53


2


26


28


635


850


O


O


O





3


37


42


2 321


2435


1


1


i


i


Law i


56


41


7997


6 289


I 932


I 825


24


29


a


2


2


29


20


O


O





O


3


25


40


2423


5 306


1


1


1


1


Medicine i


7 6


6 4


10 709


9969


1498


2094


14


21


2


5


3


1 60


146








O


O


3


69


9i


13 508


14339


1


1


1


1



Courses in theology, law and medicine are naturally grad-
uate courses and will eventually be maintained as such by
leading universities. It is believed, however, that it would
not be advisable or even desirable for the state to make
graduation from college the minimum requirement in gen-
eral education for degrees even in these faculties. High
school graduation is sufficient for the minimum state require-
ment. Anything farther than this should be left to indi-
vidual initiative. 2

1 Not reported.

'There are few graduate students in dentistry, pharmacy or veterinary medicine.
In library science, however, which under New York's leadership will develop rap-
idly throughout the United States, a thorough college training will soon be the
usual requirement of all strong schools for admission to the professional course.
In 1900 for example all but two of the entering class of 31 at the New York
state library school are graduates of colleges or universities registered as main-
taining proper standards. In public accounting which was raised by New York
to the dignity of a profession in 1896 the New York requirement of a full four
years' high school course will doubtless be accepted generally as the standard in
preliminary general education. Additional requirements in New York for full C.
P. A. (certified public accountant) certificates are three years' satisfactory experi-
ence in the practice of accounting (one of which has been in the office of an



475]



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION



II



Length of professional courses The following table shows
as a rule great progress, specially since 1885, in the adoption
of higher standards for graduation.





Four
years


Three
years


Two
years


One
year


Not
stated




26


77


9


O


II


" 1885..


26


08


6


O


22


" 1807..


22


116


7


I


n


" 1808..


'20


117


8


o


IO




*4I


116


7


I


o














Law schools 1875


o


I


3O


IO


2


" 1885...


o


K


38


6


o


" 1807...


o


21


4.7


7


2


1898


o


08


36


A


1


" 1800. ..


o


AA


37




I














Medical schools 1875


o


3 3


*72




o


" 1885 .


o


e


IO3


o


o


" 1807..


OQ


AQ


o


2


o


" 1808..


IO1


4.2


o


o


*6


14 1800..


141


JO


2


2


i














Dental schools 1875


o


o


12


o


o


" i88<;..


o


e


I*


o


o


" 1807.


I


j.7


O


o


o


" l8q8...


I


AQ


o


o


o


" l8qq..


I


ee


o


o


o














Schools of pharmacy 1875


o


o


IO


J


I


" 1885..


o


o


21


o


o


" 1807...


o


e


34


2


2


" 1808. ....


I


e


ac


4


o


" 1800..


8 I


6


38


7


o














Veterinary medical schools 1897


o


10


2


o


o


" 1808..


o


12


2


o


o


" 1899..


o


14.


a


o


o















expert public accountant) and examinations in the theory of accounts, practical
accounting, auditing and commercial law. Pennsylvania has a C. P. A. law, and
attempts have been made to secure similar legislation in Illinois, Maryland, New
Jersey and Minnesota.

1 Including 41 schools that report courses of five years.

* Including 17 schools that report courses of more than four years.

8 Distinction between medical schools with two and three-year courses not
certain.

4 Including 3 medical preparatory schools.

6 Department of pharmacy, University of Washington, which has suspended
temporarily.



12



PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION



[476



Professional schools now remain in session for a much
greater part of the year than formerly :

Length of courses in months, 1899





Unknown or
less than 6


6-7


7-8


H


9-10


More than

IO


Total




o


7


17


C7


64


14


l6l


Law


I


2


6


12


21




86




IO


74


46


21


6


o


1=6


Dentistry


12


24.


ii


4


I


o


eft


Pharmacy


I


16


ii


IO


e




C2


Veterinary medicine .....


e


c


2


4.


I


o


17


















Total


31


124.


112


148


Q2


21


e-22



















Evening sessions occur less frequently :





Day
sessions


Evening
sessions


Both


Unknown


Total


Law


40


24


7


6


86


Medicine


IQC






7


1S6


Dentistry .


47




o


I


56


Pharmacy


16






^


C2




7


O


I


7


17














Total


274


42


21


28


^67















University supervision As long as the public had prac-
tically no protection from incompetency in professional
practice independent proprietary schools flourished. With
proper restrictive legislation such institutions will either die
or fall under university supervision.

Many professional schools not under university super-
vision show a self-sacrificing zeal for high standards and an
absence of the commercial spirit that might well be emu-
lated by all institutions connected with colleges or universi-



Online LibraryNicholas Murray ButlerEducation in the United States; a series of monographs prepared for the United States exhibit at the Paris exposition, 1900; (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 42)