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Norman Allison Calkins.

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LIBRARY



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.

Deceived If 8 . , / 9



Accessions No.



Class No.



/:



M-A.NTJA.il,

OF

OBJECT-TEACHING

WITH

ILLUSTRATIVE LESSONS IN METHODS

AND

THE SCIENCE OF EDUCATION



BY

K A. CALKINS

AUTHOR OP "PRIMARY OBJECT LESSONS" "PHONIC CHARTS"
AND "SCHOOL AND FAMILY CHARTS"



l The art of teaching is no shallow affair, but one of the deepest mysteries of Nature "

COMEXIUS



OF

UHI7ZRSIT




NEW YORK

HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE

1882



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1881, by

HARPER & BROTHERS,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



All rights reserved.



TO

THE TEACHERS R 1JEW YORK CITY,

WHOSE INTEREST IN METHODS AND PRINCIPLES OP EDUCATION MANIFESTED BY

THEIR ATTENDANCE AT MY SATURDAY LECTURES DURING SUCCESSIVE

YEARS, BY THEIR USE OF INSTRUCTION GIVEN, AND BY THEIR

WORDS OF APPRECIATIVE COMMENDATION FURNISHED

MUCH ENCOURAGEMENT FOR EFFORTS IN THEIR

BEHALF, AND IN BEHALF OF THE BETTER

EDUCATION OF CHILDREN,

THIS NEW VOLUME ON TEACHERS' WORK IS



OF

NIVERSITY




PREFACE.



KNOWING that which is needful to be learned is a great
attainment. Knowing what should be taught, and how to
teach it, is a high art. To secure this necessary attain-
ment is the first duty of every teacher. To master the
high art is like unto the first duty in its importance ; it
enhances the value of the attainment in knowledge, and
insures success in the great work of education.

It is strangely curious that the doing of the same thing
may be both easy and difficult easy when done in the
right way, difficult when done in the wrong way. Suc-
cess attends the doing in the right way ; failure is cer-
tain to follow the doing in the wrong way. This is em-
inently true of teaching. Therefore, to determine what
is the proper way becomes a question of great moment
to every earnest teacher ; for on the correctness of this
decision depends the results of the teaching and the
welfare of the pupils.

A person may compare the results of one period of
his work with those of another period, and thus note
his own growth and progress in that work ; but no per-
son can measure himself by himself, alone, and thus de-
termine his actual ability. No teacher can measure his
own work by itself, and thus determine its true quality.
To obtain accurate results of any kind of work, and ar-



6 PREFACE.

rive at just conclusions as to its character, comparisons
must be made under many conditions, and extended to
a multitude of cases. So the teacher must compare his
own methods of teaching with those that have been prov-
en to be good by a long series of practical experiments
made under a great variety of conditions, and tested by
the principles of education before he can know with
certainty that he has a standard of high value to guide
him in the work of instruction.

Those teachers whose methods agree with the princi-
ples of education, and are confirmed by intelligent ex-
perience, stand upon a plane far above that occupied by
the untrained and unskilled school-keeper, or that of one
who remains an undecided experimenter in this impor-
tant field ; and the intelligent work, approved by such
reliable authority, becomes certain in the character of its
results, and positive in its value.

To know how to teach, so as to secure the best results
of education, is the most common need in teachers. One
of the chief purposes of this work is to furnish teachers
with available means whereby they may ascertain what
is the nature of the being to be taught, the true character
of the work to be done in teaching, and how the impor-
tant results aimed at may be attained with a good degree
of certainty under all ordinary circumstances. Toward
the accomplishment of this object, a variety of methods
are described for teaching many subjects, thus endeavor-
ing to point out those fitted for the differing conditions
of the largest number of teachers.

There are many subjects concerning which teachers
must seek information almost daily information which
they cannot be expected to have always at their tongue's
end, as they do the multiplication table. To have the



PREFACE. 7

means necessary for obtaining this, easily accessible at
all times, is a great boon to the teacher. To supply this
means, in part, and to point out other sources where the
desired information may be found, are among the pur-
poses of this work. Toward the accomplishment of this,
facts upon several appropriate subjects have been gath-
ered and arranged for the special convenience of teach-
ers, thus saving much time that otherwise might be spent
on encyclopaedias, and other works of reference, even by
those who have access to such books. It is not claimed
that these collections of facts, concerning different sub-
jects, are complete in relation to each topic, yet it is be-
lieved that teachers will find them specially useful in
their work.

Permanent and uniform success in teaching must come
through the use of those methods which are in accordance
with the principles of education ; therefore an intelligent
understanding of those principles is necessary to the
securing of desired results. From these statements the
importance of attention to the science of education of
knowing what are the several powers of the mind, and
the means for their development and proper cultivation
become readily apparent. By a careful study of this
department of education, teachers may ascertain whether
or not the means which they are using will accomplish
the end in view in the acquisition of knowledge, and the
proper training of mental power. Indeed, it is the duty
of every teacher to know how to do his work, and also to
know why he does it in one way rather than in another.
An important purpose of this volume is to aid the teach-
er in learning the how and the why, in teaching, and thus
help him onward in the better work of instruction, while
it awakens, at the same time, a deeper interest in the



8 PREFACE.

philosophy of education, and leads to a more thorough
understanding of the important work to be accomplished.

The introduction of a series of questions for use in the
examination of teachers on matters pertaining to object-
teaching, to school management, to methods, and to gen-
eral principles of education, is believed to be an impor-
tant feature of this work ; and one that will lead teachers,
who carefully consider them, to a more intelligent under-
standing of the chief purposes of instruction, and enable
them to accomplish better results in the training of those
under their care.

It has not been one of the purposes here to present
all the topics necessary to a complete course of instruc-
tion, even for a primary school; but rather, by means of
methods illustrated with several objects, and by the prin-
ciples of education, to set forth the chief results that
should be secured through teaching; and to point out
means within the reach of every teacher by which these
desirable ends may be attained ; and also to prepare them
to devise and use equally good methods in teaching ev-
ery subject.

It is one of the purposes in this book to increase the
value of the work of instruction, arid at the same time to
lessen the amount of the teacher's labor, by showing how
to train pupils to teach themselves. All real teaching is
self -teaching. It is also an aim to render the work of
learning more attractive to the pupils, and practical in
its results, by the use of modes in harmony with natural
methods of getting knowledge, thereby saving time, and
making the work both of the learner and the teacher
more easy of accomplishment.

Twenty years ago my work entitled "Primary Object
Lessons" was published. The facts that it has now reach-



PREFACE. 9

eel its fortieth edition, and also been republished in Span-
ish, thereby enabling those engaged in the work of edu-
cation in both divisions of the Western hemisphere to
become familiar with its plans of instruction, are indica-
tions that the methods for elementary training which it
sets forth have been favorably received and widely intro-
duced.

The new volume now presented to the public embraces
the same general plan of instruction as did the former
one ; and it also extends over a broader field, including
subjects for more advanced teaching, and introduces a
greater variety of available means for developing the
powers of pupils. This volume is further intended to
supplement my first work on Object Lessons, thus pre-
senting the subject in greater completeness by means of
both books. It also specially aims to lead teachers to
consider the principles of education by which true teach-
ing is guided to valuable results.

It is earnestly hoped that this volume on the teacher's
work will be found valuable for the variety of infor-
mation which it supplies for the use of teachers for
the instruction it gives relative to methods of teaching,
and the development of the mental, moral, and physical
powers of pupils for its statements pertaining to the
science of education and the art of teaching; also that
it may become an inspiration, unfolding to teachers a
more thorough knowledge of their noble calling, and im-
buing them with an enthusiasm that shall enkindle an
ardent love of learning in all thejr pupils.

N. A. CALKINS.

New York, August, 1881.



CONTENTS.



DESIGN OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

PAGE

Stages of Object-teaching 17, 18, 19

Object Lessons and Object-teaching 21

How the Child obtains Elements of Knowledge 22

Importance of Attention to Methods of Teaching 25

Other Means than Common Studies needed fofr Training 27

Means of Developing Language 27

What is Object-teaching ? 29

The Range of Object-teaching 31

PLACE, DIRECTION, AND DISTANCE.

To DEVELOP IDEAS OF PLACE 34

To DEVELOP IDEAS OP DIRECTION 38

To DEVELOP IDEAS OF DISTANCE 42

To DEVELOP IDEAS OF BOUNDARIES AND MAPS 44

GEOGRAPHY.

FIRST LESSONS IN ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY 51

Where to begin 51

How to proceed 51-56

To DEVELOP IDEAS OF THE EARTH'S SHAPE AND SIZE 57

REPRESENTATIONS OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE ON GLOBES AND MAPS 59

How Locations of Countries may be learned 60

MAP DRAWING AS A MEANS OF TEACHING GEOGRAPHY 62

How to commence Map Drawing 63

WEIGHT.

EXERCISES TO DEVELOP IDEAS OF WEIGHT 68

The Necessity of Standard Weight 70

FACTS ABOUT WEIGHT, FOR THE TEACHER 70

Tables of Weights 70-72

WEIGHT OF OBJECTS COMPARATIVE 72

Metric Measure . . 74



12 CONTENTS.

FORM.

PAOE

ADDITIONAL METHODS FOR ELEMENTARY LESSONS 77

REVIEWING FORM LESSONS 81

ADVANCED LESSONS ON FORM 84

COLOR.

ADDITIONAL SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING COLOR 93

RESULTS OF MIXTURE OF COLORS 97

STATEMENTS ABOUT COLOR, FOR THE TEACHER 103

HARMONY IN COLORS 106

COLOR-BLINDNESS 110

Nature of Color-blindness Ill

Tests for Color-blindness 112

Colors as Signals 114

Colors as Emblems 115

Effects of Color on Complexion 116

ADVANCED LESSONS ON COLOR 117

LESSONS IN HARMONY OF COLORS 120

PROPERTIES OF OBJECTS.

LESSONS TO DEVELOP THE IDEA OF SUBSTANCES 126

SUBSTANCES MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED LESSONS ON OBJECTS 136

Suggestions for Lessons 137

NOTES OF LESSONS 157

Subjects for Lessons 166

NATURAL HISTORY.

LESSONS ON ANIMALS First Stage 177

LESSONS ON ANIMALS Second Stage 181

LESSONS ON ANIMALS Third Stage 202

NOTES FOR LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY 219

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS 229

PLANTS.

Hints for Manner of giving Lessons on Plants 250

FACTS FOR TEACHERS ABOUT PLANTS 252

Shapes of Leaves 252

Shapes of Flowers 255

Shapes of Roots , 256

FAMILIES OF PLANTS 258

Poisonous Plants .... 264



CONTENTS. 13

MINERALS.

PAGE

Prepare Pupils to observe Minerals 274

CHEMISTRY; OR, ELEMENTS OF SUBSTANCES 278

Mineral-letters 279

OCCUPATIONS AND TRADES.

Lessons on Occupations and Trades 285-288

PHYSICAL TRAINING.

PHYSICAL EXERCISES 301

Movements illustrated 301-308

TEACHING THE MOVEMENTS .' 309

Sets of Exercises 310

EXERCISE-DRILL 312

MORAL TRAINING, AND SCHOOL DISCIPLINE.
Facts to be remembered by the Teacher 320

SCIENCE OF COMMON THINGS.

Atmosphere 331

Mechanical Powers 337

SCIENCE OF EDUCATION.

DEFINITIONS OF EDUCATIONAL TERMS 343

PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION 347

DIRECTIONS FOR TEACHERS 349

How NATURE TEACHES A CHILD 355

ELEMENTS OF MENTAL ACTIVITY 359

MAN'S NATURE AND POWERS.

The Mind 364

The Senses 364

Organs of Sense 367-373

Classification of Knowledge gained by the Senses 374

DEVELOPING THE POWERS OF MIND 375

Cultivating Perceptiveness 375

POWERS OF MENTAL ACQUISITION 379

Observation . . .380



14: CONTENTS.

POWERS OF MENTAL REPRODUCTION.

PAQB
LANGUAGE 384

Culture in the Use of Language 386

MEMORY 392

Culture of Memory : 396

Three Periods of Memory 397-400

ATTENTION 402

Culture of Attention 403

IMAGINATION 408

Culture of Imagination 411

POWERS OF HUMAN REASON.

COMPARISON 416

Culture of Comparison 417

Analogy 420

Judgment 421

REASON 423

Cultivation of Reason 426

POWERS OF MORAL ACTION.

The Feelings, Sentiments, and Emotions 430

Training the Moral Powers 431

Means of Moral Culture 441

POWER OF WILLING.

THE WILL 443

Influence of Will on Character 445

Freedom of Will 446

Training the Will t 446

Will a Power in School Government 449

QUESTION FOR EXAMINATION OF TEACHERS , 455

INDEX . . 465



OF THB

UIT17BRSITT




MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.



DESIGN OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

THE term object-teaching has been so frequently applied
to modes of giving lessons widely differing in matter,
manner, and aim, that its real import is often misappre-
hended. It seems to be necessary, therefore, to explain
what constitutes object-teaching, that the reader may be
prepared to understand the design of the succeeding
lessons.

Object-teaching has for its purpose a thorough develop-
ment of all the child's faculties, and their proper employ-
ment in the acquisition of knowledge. It is not a plan
of fixed, unchangeable methods, but a system of training
based upon and controlled by the fact that the beginning
of real knowledge must come through the appropriate
exercise of the senses. Its purpose is not the attainment
of facts, nor the cultivation of language as an end, but the
development, to vigorous and healthy action, of the child's
powers of getting and using knowledge by the means
both of obtaining and of using it. It furnishes exercises
to produce the ability to learn, and methods to aid in
learning. It does not signify the things about which
something is taught, nor that which is taught about them,
so much as it means the principles by which the teaching
is performed, and the purpose and manner of the teaching.



16 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

It deals with things, and it considers subjects also. It at-
tends to realities and their relations, rather than to ideals
and their representations. It furnishes a means of attain-
ing clear ideas of distant objects and events through those
that are near and known.

Object-teaching prepares the learner's mind, by devel-
opment begun through sense-perceptions, and continued
by observation and reflection, to clearly understand the
important facts concerning things arid acts, and their re-
lations to spoken and written language. It does not pro-
pose that the child shall gain all its knowledge from the
process by which the human race was led through the
wilderness of personal experiences to the attainment of
the present sciences, but it does propose to lead the in-
experienced learner into the midst of objects and influ-
ences that will awaken the several senses to activity, and
thus increase his progress in knowledge. It proposes to
guide the young learner till his enlarged experiences pre-
pare him to extend his acquisitions through others' expe-
riences as furnished by books, and also to confirm the
facts thus gained by his own observations.

Once more, object-teaching implies,

First. The use of systematic exercises with objects, for
the development of the power of gaining knowledge ;

Second. A training in habits of getting knowledge from
objects, models, pictures, and diagrams by careful obser-
vation both of these ends being reached through the
guided personal experiences of the learner ;

Third. The teaching of pupils to avail themselves of
facts discovered by others and recorded in books, and
training them to verify those facts, so far as practicable,
by personal examination.

For further explanation of the design of object-teach-
ing I will describe the stages into which the work may
be divided, and the purposes of each.



STAGES OF OBJECT-TEACHING. 17

First Stage of Object-teaching. The first stage of
object-teaching has for its chief aim the development of
the child's perceptive powers through proper exercise of
the several senses. At this period it does not propose
the teaching of objects nor of subjects, but rather a sys-
tematic plan of using objects as a means for developing
the senses to that facility of activity which will enable
the child to form habits of gaining knowledge by careful
observation.

This stage of object-teaching should be commenced by
the mother before the child is old enough to enter school;
and during the first year or two the chief efforts should
be directed to the supplying of suitable materials to in-
duce the exercise of each of the senses, and, when neces-
sary, stimulating the child to use these materials in such
a way as to become familiar with their easily perceived
properties and qualities as colors, shapes, hardness, soft-
ness, sweetness, sourness, heaviness, lightness, etc. devot-
ing less attention to teaching the names of these proper-
ties than to training the pupils to receive them readily.

The want of knowledge which the child expresses by
those familiar and oft-repeated questions, " What is it ?"
" What is it for 3" " Why does it do so ?" should be care-
fully heeded, and the child led to find answers to his own
questions, as far as possible, through his personal experi-
ences. The exercise of his powers which the child gains
by that which he sees and does with the objects teaches
him the most useful lessons during this stage lessons
which are more valuable than the words which he learns
to say about them. It is through such lessons that the
young learner develops his perceptive powers by the con-
tact of his senses with the objects about him, and gains a
real knowledge of them.

Kindergarten training belongs to this stage of object-
teaching. And where children enter school without hav-



18 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

ing received any systematic training for the development
of their senses, either through home training or by kin-
dergarten instruction, this introductory stage of object-
teaching should be employed during the first term of
school attendance in the lowest primary class, as a means
for preparing the young pupils for subsequent instruc-
tion.

The efforts toward teaching language during this stage
should be limited chiefly to the names of objects and
acts, and to the obvious properties which the pupils dis-
tinguish.

Second Stage of Object-teaching. This stage prop-
erly belongs to the first years of the child's school-life,
and its chief aim is to prepare the young pupils for re-
ceiving instruction in the elementary steps of those sub-
jects which are included in the course for the first two
years at school. Objects may now be employed both as a
means of development and as subjects of instruction ; but
the development and the instruction must be based upon
the pupil 's personal experiences.

The first duty of the teacher, in the second stage of
object-teaching, is to supply materials suitable for the ex-
ercise of the child's powers, and then to stimulate and
guide in the proper exercise of those powers. The ma-
terials first provided for instruction at this time should
consist of objects chiefly. Pictures may be used profita-
bly during later exercises. The teacher must co-operate
with and direct the pupil's own activity in the use of
the materials for the child's development, but should do
nothing to supersede the personal activity of the pupil.
The child's education comes from that which he does
himself. The teacher should endeavor to secure disci-
pline of the pupil's mind through the formation of
habits of ready and accurate observation.



STAGES OF OBJECT-TEACHING. 19

When an object is the subject of a lesson, the pupils
should be led to observe those obvious qualities and prop-
erties in which it resembles similar objects ; also those by
which it is chiefly distinguished from other objects, or
which add most to its usefulness. The teacher should
cause the instruction about the object to be intimately
associated with the facts already learned* by the pupils
through their own observations.

When a subject or topic is the matter of the lesson, the
pupils should be prepared for the instruction by first di-
recting their attention to kindred facts already known,
and their knowledge of these used to teach the unknown
of the new subject.

During this stage attention should be given to teach-
ing the children the use of simple language that will en-
able them to express the knowledge which they acquire
concerning the objects or the subject-matters that consti-
tute the lessons.

Third Stage of Object -teaching. The acquisition
of knowledge by means of objects, and the use of facts
previously learned to aid in gaining knowledge of new
subjects, become prominent aims of this system of in-
struction during the third stage of object-teaching. The
number and kinds of objects, and the range of appropri-
ate subjects, are now greatly increased. The principles
which give shape to the plans of teaching during the first
two stages now may be extended to a greater variety of
subjects; and objects, pictures, diagrams, etc., be used to
aid the pupils in obtaining clear and correct ideas per-
taining to these different subjects.

In lessons upon objects, the pupils should be led to
distinguish those qualities and properties which give spe-
cial value to the object, and which chiefly render it suita-
ble to those uses for which it is commonly employed.



20 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

If the lessons be on animals, the children may be led to
observe the prominent peculiarities of some familiar ani-
mal as a cat ; such as the shape of its head, teeth, claws,
feet, ears, eyes, nose ; then these and its habits may be
compared with others of the same family as the lion,
tiger, leopard, lynx, and panther in a menagerie, or by
means of pictures, and the pupils thus taught their obvi-
ous family likenesses and characteristics.

If the subject be geography, the teacher may com-
mence with the school-room its shape, boundary, its lo-
cation, and direction from familiar places in the vicinity ;
then direct attention to streams, ponds, islands, hills, val-
leys, and occupations that are known to the children, and
from their knowledge of these teach them to understand
lessons about similar objects and occupations in countries
which they have not seen.

If the subject be arithmetic, counting, adding, and oth-
er operations with objects may be employed to give cor-
rect ideas before processes, definitions, or rules are taught.
Thus the plan of instruction in this stage also places the
knowledge of things before words in the order of teach-
ing, and in the order of importance. It illustrates by
objects, pictures, drawings, and examples, before present-
ing descriptions, definitions, or rules. It trains children
in the manner best suited to the gaining of ideas from
objects or from subjects, and gives them the proper lan-
guage for expressing those ideas. It leads also to a clas-
sification and association of kindred ideas and facts. And
during succeeding lessons special care is taken to associ-
ate the new facts with the knowledge previously learned
concerning the same subject ; also to extend and attach
all knowledge, as far as practicable, to the affairs of
daily life; and thus cause the school -lessons to become
instruction on real things.



STAGES OF OBJECT-TEACHING. 21

Object Lessons and Object-teaching. Those proc-
esses of instruction which embrace the aims already de-
scribed, and conform to the principles herein presented,
and secure the results thus contemplated, may be called
object -teaching. This system of using objects, and of
treating subjects by its methods of teaching, develops the
mental powers through a proper exercise of the appropri-
ate senses, and leads to correct habits of gaining knowl-



Online LibraryNorman Allison CalkinsManual of object-teaching : with illustrative lessons in methods and the science of education → online text (page 1 of 35)