Norman Allison Calkins.

Manual of object-teaching : with illustrative lessons in methods and the science of education online

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The clove was originally produced chiefly on the island of Am-
boyna. The French introduced the clove-tree into the islands of
Mauritius and Bourbon, east of Madagascar. Who can show us
where these islands are ?

The clove-tree was afterward taken to French Guiana, in South
America, and from thence to the W T est India Islands. Who will
point out these places ?

The clove-tree somewhat resembles a cherry-tree. It grows
from fifteen to twenty feet in height, and lives from seventy-five
to one hundred years. It commences to produce cloves when
eight or nine years old. The trunk of this tree is slender, bark
smooth, and the leaves remain on the tree during the greater part
of the year.

The blossoms grow in clusters from nine to eighteen in a
bunch and bear a slight resemblance to those of the honey-
suckle. Their color changes from yellow to red. A single tree
will produce several hundred thousand flowers in a year, and yield
from five to ten pounds of cloves. The culture of the clove is


easy, as the trees require no more attention than cherry-trees.
The harvest takes place from October to December.

Cloves are the unexpanded flower -buds, gathered before the
flowers open, and then dried. The calyx tube forms the long
part of the clove ; the corolla, enclosing the stamens, forms the
ball in the centre, around which are four pointed leaflets. The
bunches of flower-buds are gathered by hand, or by means of a
crooked stick, and dried by a hot sun.

Oil of cloves is obtained from the juice of the flower-stalks.

Cloves are used for domestic and medicinal purposes, because
they are pungent and aromatic.

Now write on your slates answers to the following questions :
What kind of a substance is a clove ? What are cloves ? Where
are they obtained ? What are their qualities ? What are their uses ?


Its Country. The pepper-plant is a native of the East Indies.
It is a climbing vine, with stems from eight to twelve feet in
length. The leaves are dark green, thick and leathery ; broad at
the base, and pointed at the apex, and resemble the ivy. The
flowers, which grow in close spikes, are green and insignificant.
These are succeeded by a compact cluster of round green berries,
which change to a bright red. The berries are gathered as soon
as they redden. If allowed to ripen on the vine, they lose their
pungency, and fall off.

The plant is propagated by cuttings, and is supported by poles,
or by trees planted for the purpose, upon which it is trained. The
vine begins to bear fruit when three or four years old. The best
crops are produced when the plant is from five to eight years old.
The vine becomes useless after twenty years.

The berries are gathered twice a year, and placed on mats to
dry in the sun, when they become wrinkled and black.

White Pepper is produced by soaking the dried berries of
the black pepper in water until the wrinkled skin becomes soft,
and then rubbing it off. This process destroys some of fl^e pun-


Uses. Pepper is used as a condiment for food, and as a pow-
erful stimulant and tonic in medicine. Its value depends upon its
pungent quality.

Cayenne Pepper. Cayenne pepper is cultivated in large
quantities in Guiana, South America, and shipped from the port
of Cayenne. This plant is commonly cultivated in the United
States, picked while green, and used for pickling. When allowed
to remain on the stalk until ripe, it becomes bright red. After
the ripe pods of the Cayenne pepper are picked and dried, they
are ground, and thus form the red, or Cayenne pepper, used on
our tables.

Take your slates and write all you can remember about pepper
where it grows ; how it grows ; how it is gathered ; where the
plants are raised ; the kinds of pepper ; its qualities ; its uses, etc.

Let the several pupils read what they have written. Call atten-
tion to faulty statements, and make such suggestions as will tend
to improve the arrangement of the facts, the manner of presenting
them, and aid the pupils in the use of good language.


"Where it Growa The pimento-tree, which produces the ber-
ries commonly known as " allspice," grows abundantly in Jamaica
and other West India Islands. It attains the height of about thir-
ty feet. The trunk is gray and shining, and contains numerous
branches, covered with dark green leaves ; and when bruised they
emit a fine aromatic odor. The blossoms are white and numer-
ous. A grove of pimento-trees in blossom presents a most beau-
tiful appearance ; and during the months of July and August it
perfumes the air with a most fragrant odor.

When the tree has attained its seventh year the harvesting of
its berries is commenced. In a favorable season a single tree
sometimes yields a hundred pounds of dried berries.

Soon after the flowers disappear the berries are ready for pick-
ing, for they must be gathered before they ripen, or the berry
becomes valueless. The berry is nearly twice the size of the


common black pepper, and contains two small seeds, closely pack-
ed in a shell.

The harvest commences in September, when the green berries
are gathered by hand. One person on the tree gathers the small
branches, while children pick up the berries that fall on the ground.
These berries are spread on floors made for the purpose, and ex-
posed to the sun for about a week. During this time they are
frequently turned and winnowed. Daring this drying process
they change from a green to a brown color. They are then put
into bags, ready for market.

This spice is sometimes called by the name of the tree that pro-
duces it pimento ; and sometimes designated by the name of the
island that produces it in the greatest abundance, and from which
it is chiefly sent to other countries Jamaica ; but more common-
ly it is called allspice, because it has been said to combine the fla-
vor of all the other spices. AVhat are its chief qualities? Is it
pungent ? Is it aromatic ?

It is used chiefly for flavoring food. Oil of pimento is obtained
from the leaves.

Why would you call allspice a vegetable substance ?

Now write all the facts you can remember about allspice what
it is ; where it grows ; how it is gathered ; what are its qualities ;
what are its uses, etc.


Its Country. The nutmeg-tree is a native of the Banda Isl-
ands, in the Indian Archipelago, but is now extensively cultivated
throughout the East Indies. This tree grows from twenty to
twenty-five feet in height, and resembles a pear-tree. The flow-
ers are pale yellow, and grow in small bunches.

The fruit is of a cream color, and resembles a peach. When
ripe, the fleshy part splits into two halves, showing the kernel, or
nutmeg, surrounded by a stringy covering of a scarlet color, which
becomes yellow by drying. This net-work sheath has an agree-
able smell and an aromatic taste, and when dried forms the arti-
cle known as mace.


Under the mace part of the nut there is a hard, thin shell of a
dark brown color, and within this shell is the kernel of the nut,
which is the real nutmeg used in food. The fleshy part of the
nutmeg fruit is sometimes used as a preserve.

There are three nutmeg harvests in a year April, July, and
November. The fruit is gathered by means of a hook on a long
stick. The fleshy part and the mace are removed ; then the nut-
megs, in their shells, are dried over a slow fire for about two
months. The nuts will then rattle in the shell, and the shells are
broken with mallets, and the kernels, or real nutmegs, taken out.

Nutmegs which have a white, chalky appearance, have been dip-
ped in lime-water to preserve them from insects. Nutmegs sent
from the island of Penang, where immense quantities are culti-
vated, are seldom soaked in lime-water.

A good tree will yield from ten to fourteen pounds of nutmegs
and mace. The trees commence bearing when about nine years
old, and sometimes live to the age of seventy-five years. What
are the chief qualities of nutmegs ?

Mace is dried in the sun, then sprinkled with sea-water, after
which it is ready for the market. What are the principal quali-
ties of mace ?

Is mace a vegetable substance ?

Write on your slates all you have learned about nutmegs and
mace. Tell me where they grow ; how prepared for market ; their
qualities, uses, etc.


"Where it Grows. The ginger -plant, though a native of the
East Indies, is now cultivated in the West Indies, and in some of
the warm portions of America. It is a kind of reed, growing in
a moist soil, from two to three feet high. It has a fleshy stem,
which grows under ground, like that of the iris, or sweet-flag.

These fleshy root-stocks are dug up annually after the stems
wither. The digging usually takes place in January and Febru-
ary. They are cleaned, then gradually scalded in hot water ; then
they are exposed to the sun until thoroughly dried. Afterward


they are put into bags which hold about one hundred pounds
each, and sent to market. For making preserved ginger the
plants need to be only about four months old ; but for the dried
ginger they must be a year old.

"White Ginger is prepared by washing and scraping each root,
and drying it in the air without scalding.

Preserved Ginger is made from the young root-stocks, after
they have been washed and scalded till tender ; then they are
put into jars and covered with a thin sirup, which is poured off
after a few days, and a thicker sirup added. This last sirup is
also p^oured off, and a still thicker one put on. Sometimes this
process is repeated four times. These discarded sirups are di-
luted with water, and used as a cooling drink.

Ginger is pungent, aromatic, and fibrous.

Now write on your slates all the facts you can remember about
ginger what it is ; where it grows ; how gathered ; how prepared
for market ; its qualities, uses, etc.



"Where it Grows. The cinnamon-tree is a native of the island
of Ceylon, but grows in other parts of the East Indies. While it
will grow to the height of twenty or thirty feet, it is allowed to
reach only about ten feet under cultivation. Numerous shoots
spring from the same root ; these are cut, when from a half to
three-quarters of an inch in thickness, into lengths of about three
feet each, to be convenient for peeling. The time for cutting the
shoots is between May and October. The sticks are taken to a
shed prepared for the purpose, and the bark is cut open length-
wise two or three times, according to its size. Next day the bark
is easily removed in strips. Then it is soaked, and the outer skin
or bark is removed ; after which, it is first placed in the shade,
and lastly in the sun, where it dries and rolls up into quills, as we
find it in the stores.

Around the places where the peeling of the bark is carried on
a most exquisite aroma is diffused. The best cinnamon is that


peeled from the middle of the shoots it is quite thin ; that which
comes from the top of the branch is next in quality ; and the thick
bark from the base is the poorest.

The tree blossoms in January. The flowers grow in clusters
much like those of the lilac. The berries are no larger than
small pease, and when boiled they yield an oil which becomes
hard like wax when cold. This cinnamon wax is sometimes made
into candles for the use of the court.

From the roots a species of camphor may be obtained by dis-
tillation ; from the leaves and the broken pieces of bark cinnamon
oil is distilled.

The bark of cinnamon is pungent and aromatic. It is chiefly
used for domestic purposes.

Write on your slates the names of all the pungent substances
about which you have had lessons. Name those that are aromatic
also. Name those that are fragrant. Name other substances that
are pungent ; that are aromatic ; that are fragrant.

Tell what cinnamon is where and how obtained ; its uses, etc.


Did you ever see any sago? What is done with it? How
many of you have eaten sago pudding ?

What is Sago ? I will show you a sample of pearl sago, such
as is commonly used in this country. It is a kind of starch made
from the pith of the sago palm, which grows most abundantly in
the East Indies. This tree grows to the height of twenty or thir-
ty feet, and from five to six feet in circumference. It is usually
cut for obtaining the sago when about fourteen years old.

How Sago is Obtained. The trunk of the sago palm consists
of great numbers of thread-like fibres passing up through its en-
tire length, and between these fibres is a soft substance which
readily crumbles into a kind of meal when dried. From this
meal-like substance the sago is prepared.

The tree is cut down just before the flower-buds open, and the
trunk is cut into pieces of about six feet in length ; the outer


coating or bark is removed ; each piece is put into a bag made
of plantain-leaf (these bundles weigh about thirty pounds each),
and these sago bundles are sent to Singapore and China, where
pearl sago is principally manufactured.

These sago bags are washed, pounded, and scraped, to remove
all the meal from the woody fibres. This meal or flour is soaked,
washed, strained, drained, dried, passed through a sieve, and again
dried over a fire. A single palm will produce from three hundred
to five hundred pounds of meal.

Common sago-meal is made into cakes and baked. Sometimes
it is boiled until it forms a thick glutinous mass, and is then eaten
by the natives of the Malayan Archipelago. These sago cakes
will keep for a long time.

Now take your slates and write answers to the following ques-
tions : What is sago ? Where does the sago palm grow ? How
is sago manufactured ? Write any other facts about it 4hat you
remember. Tell what kind of substance it is.


Did you ever eat tapioca pudding ? Would you like to know
what tapioca is ?

Tapioca is made from the root of a poisonous plant called man
dioca. This plant holds an important place in the materials for
the food of Brazil. Its root is remarkable for being highly nu-
tritious, and also containing a deadly poison. This plant is ex-
tensively cultivated in Brazil. Its root is very large, sometimes
weighing twenty or thirty pounds ; in shape it is somewhat like
the parsnip, and of a fibrous texture.

How Tapioca is Prepared. In the process of preparation for
food, the roots are first boiled and the skin removed ; then the
root is pulverized by means of a grater. The pulpy material is
then placed in sacks, put under a press, and the poisonous juice
squeezed .out. The pulp is removed from the sack, broken in
pieces, and heated until it is dry. In this state it constitutes the
iiiandioca or cassava meal, which is white, but coarse. It is made



into thin cakes similar to pancakes, and baked. When dry and
crisp they are cooled, then packed away for future use. This
meal is used in many forms of food for the Brazilian tables.

When the poisonous juice is squeezed out, fine particles of the
meal, or starch, pass out with it. This starch is allowed to settle,
the juice is poured off, then the starch is washed several times,
and afterward dried over a slow fire, which drives out all the
poisonous properties, and forms that semi-transparent substance
which we know as tapioca, from which such excellent puddings
are made.

Here is some of the tapioca as it appears when sent to market.

Now write on your slates answers to the following questions:
Where is tapioca obtained? What is it made from? How is
it prepared? What effect does heat have on it? For what is it
used ? What kind of a substance is it ?


Introduction. The lesson may be introduced by a conversa-
tion in which the answers of the pupils suggest succeeding ques-
tions, somewhat as follows :

If you had some candy, what would you do with it? Why do
you eat candy ? What makes candy sweet ? Where do we get
sugar? Does sugar grow, or is it made? What is sugar made
from ?

Is sugar an animal or a vegetable substance ? Why do you call
it a vegetable substance ? From what vegetables is sugar made ?
What part of the sugar-cane is used to make sugar ? What part
of the maple-tree is used to make sugar ? What is done with the
sap, or juice, to make sugar? Did you ever see any one make
sugar ?

About Making Sugar. Most of the sugars, molasses, and
sirups used in this country are made from the juice of the sugar-
cane, which grows abundantly in some of the Southern States,
in the West Indies, and in the Sandwich Islands, or made from
the juice of the sugar-maple, a forest tree common in the North-
ern States and in Canada.


The juice of the sugar-cane, also the sap of the maple, are
boiled, to evaporate the water, then strained, skimmed, and clari-
fied, to make it pure ; and then boiled again until it becomes a
thick, sweet sirup for molasses; or if sugar is to be produced,
the sirup is boiled longer, until it will granulate or crystallize as
it cools.

About Raising Sugar-cane. Sugar-cane is raised chiefly from
cuttings. For the purpose of planting, the top joints of the cane
are used. The cane is cultivated in rows from four to six feet
apart, with the plants about two feet apart in the rows. The
roots of the cane live for several years, but deteriorate after a few
years ; therefore fresh cuttings are usually planted each year in a
part of the plantation. The planting is done in the fall. The
time required for the cane to ripen differs, with the variety of the
plant, from ten to fifteen months.

Each root usually sends up several stalks, somewhat resembling
broom-corn, which grow from six to fifteen feet in height. It
arrives at maturity in a little more than a year. When the cane
is ripe which is generally from February to April it is cut near
to the ground, the leaves are stripped off, and the stalks are cut
into convenient lengths to be taken to the crushing-mill, where
they are squeezed between iron rollers. The strained juice flows
into a large vessel, ready to be manufactured into sugar.

About Obtaining Sap from Sugar-maple. When warm days
of spring cause the sap of the sugar-maple to begin ascending to
supply the buds with nourishment, a hole of about an inch in di-
ameter is bored into the tree, from one to two inches deep ; and
just below the hole, or in it, a small spout is fixed to convey the
sap into a tub or trough. When the nights are cold, and the days
sunny and warm, a pail of sap may be obtained from each tree
daily. The sap is gathered in buckets, carried to the sugar-camp,
which is generally placed near the centre of the maple grove, and
there it is boiled into sirup. About 40,000,000 pounds of maple
sugar are made in the United States and Canadas each year.

Large quantities of sugar are consumed annually. Probably
200,000 tons are used in the United States ; and in all the coun-


tries of the world together, about two and a half millions of tons
of sugar are made and consumed each year. About ten-twelfths
of this amount is made from some kind of sugar-cane.

Beet Sugar. In France, Belgium, and Germany sugar is man-
ufactured from the sugar-beet ; and it is estimated that at least
350,000,000 pounds of beet sugar are manufactured annually in

Now take your slates and write the necessary facts about sugar
to complete the following statements, and also add other facts
concerning it :

Sugar is made from , and of . The sap of the

maple is obtained in , by . It is made into mo-
lasses and sugar by .

The juice of the sugar-cane is obtained by . It is made

into sugar by . In some countries sugar is also made

from .

Each year about pounds of sugar are consumed .


What is coffee? What is this kind of drink made from?
Where does the coffee-bean grow? How many would like to
learn more about coffee ?

Coffee-tree. The coffee-tree is a native of Arabia, and the use
of its berries, it is supposed, was discovered by the Arabs. This
tree is now cultivated extensively in the East and West Indies,
and in South America. It flourishes best in elevated regions of
warm countries.

The trees are usually raised from seed sown in nursery-grounds.
The young plants are set in rows on the coffee plantation, from
five to ten feet apart. The trees are also raised from slips. The
tree attains the height of six or twelve feet, according to the con~
dition of the soil and climate. It begins to bear when two or
three years old, and continues bearing twenty or thirty years.
The leaves are evergreen, and somewhat like those of the laurel.
The blossoms are white, and resemble the flowers of the jasmine.


Fruit and Seeds. The fruit of the coffee-tree is a red berry
which resembles a cherry. The pulp encloses two oval seeds, each
with a convex and a flat side, which grow with the flat faces to-
gether. When ripe, the berries are picked by hand on some plan-
tations ; on others, cloths are spread beneath the trees, and the
ripe fruit shaken off. Some planters remove the pulp by a pulp-
mill as soon as the berries are gathered, then wash and dry the
seeds. Some planters allow the berries to dry for a few weeks ;
after which the husk and dry pulp is separated from the seeds
by a mill.

After the pulp has been removed, and the seeds are dry, they
are passed through a mill to remove the' membranous skin that
surrounds the kernel. The beans, as these seeds are commonly
called, are afterward packed in bags ready for the market.

Here are a few coffee-beans for you to examine. What differ-
ences do you observe in them ?

The yellowish and the greenish beans are just as they came
from the coffee plantations ; the brown beans have been roasted,
and are ready to be ground, and now the beverage known as
coffee may be prepared from it.

Kinds of Coffee. The bean of the Mocha coffee is small, and
dark yellow. It comes from Eastern Turkey and Arabia. The
bean of the Java coffee is larger, and a pale yellow. This comes
from Java, and other islands of the East Indies. The bean of the
Rio coffee, also that of the West India coffee, has a greenish-gray
tint. The flavor of the Mocha coffee is considered superior to
that of the other kinds.

It is estimated that 600,000,000 pounds of coffee are raised in
the world annually.

To which class of substances does coffee belong ?

Now take your slates and state where coffee was first found ;
where it is now raised ; how it grows ; how it is prepared for
market; how the beans are prepared for making the coffee we
drink ; the names of different kinds of coffee ; and how much is
raised annually.



Kinds of Salt. In giving a lesson on salt, samples of different
kinds of salt should be shown the pupils, as table-salt, bay-salt, or
Turk's Island salt, rock-salt. Let the pupils examine each kind
by feeling, by observing the differences in the forms of the crys-
tals, and by taste. The natural shape of a salt-crystal is a cube,
but these combine into forms somewhat like a hollow pyramid,
or hopper-shaped. When the water is evaporated rapidly by fire,
the crystals are small ; the slow evaporation by the sun produces
large crystals.

Its Solubility. Let the pupils see that salt is soluble in cold
water as readily as in hot water ; that it is not soluble in alcohol ;
that it will crystallize by evaporation. Require them to tell its
common uses.

Tell the pupils that salt is necessary to both animals and vege-
tables ; that vegetables absorb it from the soil ; that food would
not digest without salt; that it is always present in the blood.
It is composed of two substances: one, sodium, a metal which has
such affinity for oxygen that it will take fire and burn by throw-
ing it upon warm water ; the other, chlorine, a gas which would
suffocate us if we should breathe it clear. These two substances,
when combined, are called chloride of sodium, which *is the chemi-
cal name for common salt.

How Obtained. Salt is obtained by evaporating salt-water,
and by digging it from salt-mines, in which form it is called rock-
salt. Most of the salt used in this country is obtained from salt-
water. It is known as table-salt, or common salt. Bay-salt and
Turk's Island salt are manufactured by evaporating sea-water by
the heat of the sun. Each gallon of sea-water contains about four
ounces of salt.

Where Pound. The most extensive salt-springs from which

Online LibraryNorman Allison CalkinsManual of object-teaching : with illustrative lessons in methods and the science of education → online text (page 11 of 35)