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Norman Allison Calkins.

Manual of object-teaching : with illustrative lessons in methods and the science of education online

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future form of the insect is hidden in the larva. When the cater-
pillar attains its full growth it stops eating, and remains quiet as if
asleep. This is called the pupa, or baby state. The pupa form of
the caterpillar is commonly called a chrysalis. In a few weeks the
pupa bursts its skin, and a butterfly conies forth.

Moths of all kinds pass through changes, from eggs to worms or
larva and the pupa states. Moths usually enclose themselves in a
cocoon during the pupa state.

Silk -worms are kinds of moth larva. See the lesson on silk,
page 160.

Objects for other Lessons. Objects suitable for other
similar lessons may be chosen from the following list, and the
teacher usually will be able to find the needed information to sup-
plement such facts as may be gathered from the pupils through
their personal observations :

Mosquito, Cricket, Ant,

Katydid, Canary, Fly,

Beetle, Dove, Horse,

Turtle, Turkey, Sheep,

Fish, Swan, Cow,

Snake, Goose, Weasel,

Frog, Honey-bee, Monkey.



SIMPLE CLASSIFICATIONS.

AN exercise for leading the pupils to observe such prominent
characteristics of animals as may be made a basis for arranging
them in groups will be interesting and profitable. The groups
of animals given on pages 200 and 201 will indicate the classes
which the pupils can form by means of their own observation
of animals, and by the aid of the pictures of them.



200



MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.



ANIMALS WITH HOOFS.



Horse,


Goat,


Buffalo,


Mule,


Cow,


Antelope,


Zebra,


Ox,


Gazelle,


Zebu,


Yak,


Chamois,


Sheep,

.


Deer,


Gnu.




ANIMALS WITH HORNS.




Cow,


Deer,


Gnu,


Ox,


Antelope,


Zebu,


Sheep,


Buffalo,


Musk-ox,


Goat,


Ibex,


Yak,


Moose,


Reindeer,


Eland.




ANIMALS WITH SOFT FEET.




Cat,


Fox, Camel,


Mouse,


Dog,


Wolf, Bear,


Rat,


Lion,


Tiger, Rabbit,


Squirrel.




ANIMALS WITH SHARP CLAWS.




Cat,


Panther,


Eagle,


Lion,


Lynx,


Hawk,


Tiger,


Leopard,


Owl.




ANIMALS WITH LONG NECKS.




Horse,


Camel,


Llama,


Deer,


Giraffe,


Gazelle.




ANIMALS WITH LONG LEGS.




Giraffe,


Horse,


Gazelle,


Camel,


Deer,


Chamois,


Crane,


Flamingo,


Heron.




ANIMALS THAT EAT GRASS.




Cow,


Horse, Deer,


Buffalo,


Sheep,


Mule, Zebu,


Antelope,


Goat,


Ox, Gnu,


Camel,


Gazelle,


Elephant, Zebra,


Giraffe.



LESSOXS ON ANIMALS. 201



ANIMALS THAT EAT FLESH.


Cat,
Dog,
Wolf,
Fox,


Lion, Weasel,
Tiger, Otter,
Leopard, Lynx,
Hyena, Jackal,


Hawk,

Eagle,
Owl,
Vulture.




ANIMALS WHOSE FLESH MAN


EATS.


Cow,
Ox,
Sheep,
Pig,


Deer, Duck,
Buffalo, Goose,
Squirrel, Hen,
Rabbit, Turkey,


Quail,
Pigeon,
Woodcock,
Partridge.




ANIMALS WITH WINGS.




Hen,
Turkey,
Duck,
Goose,


Canary, Hawk,
Robin, Owl,
Sparrow, Eagle,
Pigeon, Vulture,


Swallow,
Bat,
Wren,
Quail.




ANIMALS WITH FUR.




Beaver,
Otter,
Seal,


Mink,
Weasel,
Squirrel,


Sable,
Marten,
Chinchilla.



202 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.



LESSONS ON ANIMALS.
THIRD STAGE.

[Appropriate for children during their fourth, fifth, and sixth years in school.']

WHEN the pupils have had a year or two of such expe-
riences in observing the habits of different kinds of ani-
mals as is contemplated by the lessons of the second stage,
they will be fully prepared to compare the habits and
structure of similar animals, and thus become familiar
with their leading family characteristics.

The first lessons should commence with animals that
the pupils can examine personally ; as the -duck, the hen,
the cat, the cow, etc. In cases where several animals of
the same kind cannot be examined personally by the pu-
pils, pictures may be used as a substitute in making the
comparisons as to their form and structure.

The outline of a few lessons is here given, to indicate
the general plan of conducting the exercises in natural
history for the third stage. Following these lessons are
the names of several other animals, with brief statements
of facts concerning them, which the teacher may use as
materials in preparing lessons. In giving these lessons,
it will be well for the teacher to direct special attention
of the pupils to one or more of the following points in
relation to each animal. That point in relation to any
one which is most familiar to the pupils will indicate
where the lesson on that animal may commence :

The habits of the animal, or what it usually does.

Where it is found; its mode of living.

How it moves ; kind of food eaten l>y it.

Its structure; whether that of a- Urd, quadruped, fish,
reptile, insect, etc.



LESSONS ON ANIMALS. 203

Its shape and size.
Its covering and color.
Its uses.

How its structure adapts it to its mode of life, to its
Tidbits, food, uses, etc.

THE DUCK.

If the duck be selected as the subject for the first lesson, let
the pupils be required, as an introductory exercise, to tell what
they know already about the shape of the duck's body, head,
neck, beak, and feet. Let them describe some of the habits of
the duck tell what it does, its uses, color, where found, etc.

Request the pupils to make further observations, that they may
ascertain and report at the next lesson how many toes ducks
have ; what is between their toes ; how they use their feet ; the
position of the legs on the body ; whether the legs are short or
long ; whether their feathers hang loosely, or lap upon each other
closely ; what is under their feathers ; about the oiling of their
feathers ; the use of their long necks ; their broad bills, with the
comb-like edges ; and what is their food.

After full observations have been made by the pupils, and re-
ported in class exercises, request them to name other birds which
have similar bodies, feet, necks, and bills. Then let the pupils
make observations to see how these characteristics resemble and
how they differ from those of the duck, and report concerning
these also to the class.

To facilitate this work of observation and comparison, the
teacher may place before the class a large picture of a duck, and
let the pupils point out each characteristic that may be seen in
the picture. Then pictures representing other swimming birds
may be shown the pupils, that they may compare the character-
istics of the birds thus represented with those of the duck.

If the exercises on this subject be properly conducted, the pu-
pils will learn that the general forms of swimming birds are
boat -shaped bodies, short legs, webbed feet, and long necks; and
that all ducks, geese, swans, gulls, and many other birds, belong
to this group.



204 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

Before leaving this group of birds, request the pupils to state
in writing their principal characteristics, habits, uses, etc., and to
give the names of all they can remember as belonging to the or-
der of swimming birds.

THE HEN.

When the hen is made the subject of a lesson, require the pu-
pils first to tell all they know about her general shape, size, struct-
ure, habits, etc. ; then place before them the large picture of a
turkey, and let them point out parts similar to those of the hen.

When they have observed that the hen and the turkey have
heavy bodies, small heads, short wings, strong but not very long
legs, toes nearly straight, with short, blunt nails three front toes
longest, hind toe short and higher than the others ; that their
beaks are short and stout tails large; that the hen finds her
food by scratching the ground; that both spend most of the
time on the ground ; that their food consists of grain, seeds, and
insects ; that they usually select some elevated position as a
branch of a tree for a roosting-place at night ; that their young
are hatched from eggs; when the pupils have given attention
to these characteristics, other pictures of this group of birds
(scratching birds) may be placed before them, that they may
observe similar forms and characteristics in the birds represented
by the pictures. The teacher may now tell the pupils a few
facts about each of the birds in this group : why they are called
scratchers; their general habits ; where found; uses, etc.

When the exercises on this group of birds are finished, the
pupils will know that all hens, turkeys, peacocks, Guinea-fowls,
pheasants, prairie-chickens, quails, partridges, and grouse belong
to the group of scratchers ; and that pigeons, doves, etc., resemble
those of this group in many respects.

THE QUAIL.

Did you ever hear a bird say, with a whistling voice, " Bob White
Bob White ?" or " More wet more wet !" several times in succes-
sion ? Some persons think he says, " Buckwheat buckwheat I"



LESSONS ON ANIMALS. 205

Did you ever see this brownish bird, with head and feet of the
shape of those of a hen, and body about the size of a chicken when
its feathers begin to grow out ? This bird has several names ; it is
called Bob White, or a quail, in the New England and Middle States,
and Virginia partridge in the Southern States. It belongs to the
gallinaceous, or scratching birds, and the grouse family.

The body, from the tip of the beak to the end of the tail, is about
nine inches ; wings, extended, from fourteen to fifteen inches ; beak
short and blunt ; head small ; legs bare ; the front toes rest on the
ground ; hind one short and slender. It lives in fields and mead-
ows ; feeds on grain, seeds, and insects ; makes its nest on the
ground; lays from eight to ten white eggs. The young quails
look like young chickens. The flesh of the quail is much prized
for food.

Did you ever read the story of a man who caught two young
quails and tamed them ? Did the old quail find them after they
became tame ? Can you tell that story ?

THE PRAIRIE-HEN.

This bird also belongs to the order of scratchers to the grouse
family and is known as the pinnated grouse; also as the prairie-
hen. It may be easily tamed.

It is found in flocks on the Western prairies ; length of body,
from tip of beak to end of tail, sixteen to eighteen inches ; wings,
when extended, are twenty-four to twenty-eight inches; legs cov-
ered with feathers; the hind toe higher up on the leg than the
front toes. It feeds on grains, seeds, and insects. The flesh is highly
prized for food. It may be seen for sale in markets during autumn
and winter.

The prairie-hen can produce sounds, which may be heard half a
mile or more, by inflating the air sacs under the tuft of feathers at
the sides of its neck. Did you ever see a prairie-hen ?

Now request the pupils to write out the chief characteristics as
to structure, habits, uses, etc., of this group of birds, and to give
a list of those that belong to it.



THE CAT.

After the children have stated all the facts which they have
discovered by personally observing the cat, place before them a
large picture of this animal, and request different pupils to point



206 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

out each characteristic part which has been noticed in their ex-
amination of the cat.

When they have thus shown that their attention has been
given to the following particularities of this animal as, round
head; short ears; great changes in eyes in light and in dark-
ness ; sharp teeth ; rough tongue ; feelers ; soft feet ; sharp, hid-
den nails ; difference in number of toes on front and hind feet
the teacher may tell the pupils the use of each of these peculiar-
ities of structure, and add other interesting facts about the cat's
habits, etc.

At a subsequent exercise place other pictures of the cat family
before the class, that they may compare each picture with that
of the cat, and notice prominent resemblances and differences.
Facts about each member of the cat family thus shown to the
pupils may be stated to them. Suitable information on this sub-
ject will be found in Prang's Natural History Series for Chil-
dren (Cat Family), and in other books of natural history.

Before the lessons on this family are finished, the pupils should
become familiar with the leading characteristics of the cat, and
of other members of the family as, the Manx cat, Angora cat,
wild-cat, lynx, panther, cheetah, jaguar, tiger, leopard, lion, etc.
and able to recognize them all as flesh-eating animals with many
similar habits.

Facts about the cat of interest to children may be found in
Lessons on Animals for Second Stage. [See page 181.] Request
pupils to write descriptions of members of the cat family.

THE LION.

After the preceding lesson on the cat family, it would be ap-
propriate to give a lesson about the lion in a different manner
from the preceding ones the teacher giving most of the infor-
mation, somewhat as follows :

A few days ago you had a lesson on the cat family, in which it
was shown that the lion sometimes called "king of beasts" be-
longed to that family. You may call him the great-uncle of the cat.
I will tell you something about this wonderful animal. His na-
tive place is in Africa ; also in some parts of Asia. He likes to



LESSONS ON ANIMALS. 207

roam over stony plains, clotted here and there with thickets of
bushes, in which he can hide and watch for his prey to come near.
The home of the lion is far from the home of man. People seldom
visit the places where lions live, except as they go there to hunt
wild animals.

Lions live in pairs. They are usually from six to eight feet long,
and from three and a half to four feet high. The weight of one
is from four to five hundred pounds. Their color is usually a
tawny yellow. A mane of long hair covers the neck of the male
lion. The lion has thirty teeth, which are sharp and pointed like
those of the cat.

The feet and claws are also like those of the cat in form, but very
much larger and stronger ; and, like the cat, the lion can walk al-
most noiselessly. Like the cat, the lion has a rough tongue ; but the
rough points are much longer and harder than those of the cat.
These points slant backward, or toward the mouth, and are so strong
that flesh may be scraped from bones by this rough tongue.

Thus it may be seen that the structure of the lion indicates an an-
imal of great strength and power in overcoming other animals. It
is said that the lion can carry a young ox or a sheep in his mouth
with as much ease as a cat can carry a rat. He cannot ran as fast
as a deer or a zebra, and could not get a good living by chasing his
game. In the country where the lions live there are not many springs
or streams of water ; often the animals must go a long distance to
quench their thirst. The lion finds those places where the animals
which he likes for food go to get drink. Near these places he lies
concealed in a thicket, watching for his prey to come along, just as
the cat watches for the mouse to come from its hiding-place. Cat-
like, the lion springs with a bound, and seizes its prey with his mouth
and fore -paws. Sometimes it will spring twenty feet at a single
bound.

When the lion seizes his prey he usually utters a terrible roar,
which almost paralyzes the victim with fear; but his loudest roar-
ing is made during the night ; and in those secluded regions it
must produce great fear among other animals. His roar consists
of a deep-toned, moaning sound, repeated five or six times in quick
succession, each time increasing in loudness; ending with an audi-
ble sigh. Sometimes several lions may be heard roaring at the same
time. What a concert exercise !

Like the cat, the lion can see well at night ; and during this time
he goes about, while during the day he sleeps most of the time in
his lair, which is usually in a thicket, or by the side of a rock. He
is commonly seen moving about at sunset, or just before sunrise.



208 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

The lion has a long tail, with a tuft of hair at the end, like a tas-
sel. When angry, he lashes his sides with his tail, just as a cat does
when it is displeased. It possesses sufficient strength in its tail to
knock a man down at a single blow.

Let the pupils write what they can remember concerning the lion.

THE DOG.

When the pupils have told what they know about dogs their
habits, food, structure, uses, and the different kinds place large
pictures of dogs before the class, and let the pupils point out and
name the different kinds, their parts, etc.

Direct attention to the attachment of dogs to their masters
to their swiftness in running; their keen scent; pointed nose;
smooth tongue; flesh -tearing teeth; fore feet five - toed ; hind
ones four-toed ; thin legs ; tails curved upward ; and to the fact
that they are found in all parts of the world.

Compare their nails, feet, and eyes with those of a cat. Dogs
chase prey ; cats wait for it to come near, then suddenly spring
upon it. Dogs hunt by day ; cats hunt at night. All the senses
of the dog are well developed, especially those of smell and hear-
ing.* Dog not strictly a carnivorous animal ; when domesti-
cated, will eat all kinds of food.

Tell stories about dogs. Let the children read stories about
them and write about them.

THE WOLF.

The wolf is a kind of cousin to the dog. He belongs to the
flesh-eating quadrupeds, and to the dog family. In general ap-
pearance he is much like the dog, and his hair is longer, but he
lets his tail hang, instead of curving it upward like the dog.

The wolf growls and howls, but does not bark like a dog. Al-
though he is cunning and ferocious, he has not the dog's noble
courage. He lives in forests, hunts at night, and usually in packs.
Wolves are very destructive to sheep.

Tell a story about wolves, and request the pupils to read about
them tit home ; also to write about them.

* See Lesson on the Dog for Second Stage, p. 185.



LESSONS ON ANIMALS. 209

Foxes, like wolves, belong to the dog family. They have heads,
teeth, and ears much like some dogs. Foxes hunt at night, but
singly.

THE COW.

By requiring the pupils to state what they have observed in re-
lation to the cow's food, her peculiar manner of eating, her feet,
horns, teeth, and the several uses of the cow ; by stimulating
them to make further and more careful observations of cows,
sheep, goats, deer, etc. ; by the use of pictures, and by awakening a
desire to read books of natural history seek to make the pupils
acquainted with the chief peculiarities of the cud-chewing animals.

Direct their attention to the following facts concerning the
group embracing the cow, ox, bison, sheep, goat, yak, zebu, ante-
lope, etc. that these have hollow horns; feed on grass, etc.;
that they chew their food twice ; that they are generally timid
animals, and seek safety in flight ; that they have parted, or cloven
hoofs. [The teacher should sketch the hoof on the blackboard.]





OLOVEN-UOOF. SKULL OF A COW.

The pupils may also be led to notice from a sketch on the black-
board also from observing the mouth of a goat, sheep, or cow
that they have no front teeth on the upper jaw ; and also
to notice that they get up on their hind feet first; that these
animals are of great service to man ; that they supply us with
numerous articles for food, clothing, and other purposes, which
contribute much to our comfort.

Lead the pupils to write all the facts they know about the cow
and the ox at the close of the lesson.



210 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.



THE SHEEP.

The sheep is so familiar to children that they will be able to
state many facts which can be used by the teacher as the basis
of lessons about this animal. They can tell something about their
uses their wool for clothing, their flesh for food, their skins for
leather, their tallow, etc. They may also know the names and
distinguishing characteristics of the Merino, with its large horns,
small body, and very fine, soft wool ; or of the Southdowns, with
their dark faces, long necks, coarse wool, large bodies without
horns and the excellent mutton from their flesh; or of the
Leicester, without horns, with straight, round bodies, broad backs,
and very long wool.

Direct attention of the pupils to their cloven hoofs ; cud-chew-
ing ; feeding upon grass, grain, and vegetables ; no front teeth on
upper jaw ; long, slender head ; horns much curved, and rough,
like ridges.

Call attention to the fact that, sheep follow a leader, and that,
like some children, they do as their leader does, without thinking
for themselves. Did you ever hear any children say what the
others do, without thinking whether it is right? The common
sheep is called a stupid animal, because if one of the flock should
jump into a deep ditch, the others would follow, apparently with-
out looking to see where they are going.

The sheep belongs to the branch vertebrates; class, mammalia ;
order, ruminants; family, ox, sheep, etc. ; genus, ovis. They get
up on their hind feet first ; live in flocks ; their young are very
playful. Did you ever see lambs play ?

THE CAMEL.

Introduction by the Teacher. Far away, across the wide ocean,
in the countries called Africa and Asia, there are many large deserts
of sand. In these deserts there are no trees, no soft, green grasses, no
rains, no rivers, no roads, no houses, and no people living there. The
sand is so fine and dry that the winds carry it about in great clouds.
It is so soft that even a child would sink into it over its shoes when
walking. Horses cannot travel there, because their feet would sink
so deeply into the sand ; besides, they would die of thirst and him-



LESSONS ON ANIMALS. 211

ger before they could reach a place where food and water might be
obtained. Yet the people who live near these pathless deserts often
want to cross them, and to carry goods on these dreary journeys.

God has created an animal which is fitted to live in just such a
country. It is so formed that it can travel in soft sand, and live a
long time without food or water. Now I will show you a picture
of that wonderful animal, and we will talk about its structure and
habits. [Showing a picture of a camel.] Here is the picture. Can
you tell the name of this animal ?

Its Feet. Now look at its feet. Are they like the feet of a
horse ? The feet of the camel are long and broad, and soft and
tough. They are broad and soft, and become so much spread out
under the weight of the animal that they sink but little in the sand;
they are so tough that the sand does not hurt them. The small,
hard foot of a horse would sink so far in the sand that the horse
would soon become exhausted; the cushion-shaped feet of the camel
prevent its sinking, and thus enable it to travel a long distance with-
out fatigue. Its feet would become sore on stony roads, and they are
not fitted for travelling in wet places. The camel was made for a
dry and sandy country.

Its Legs. Do you see the logs of the camel ? What can you say
of them ? They are long and slender, and fit the camel for rapid
travelling.

Its Neck. What sort of a neck has the camel ? It has a very
long, curved, and slender neck. This is to allow its head to reach
the ground easily for food and water.

Its Head and Ears. Can you see its ears ? Has it a large, round
head? No; its head is long and slender, and its ears are quite
small.

Its Nostrils. The nostrils of the camel are so formed that it can
close them at will. This enables it to keep out the drifting sand,
and prevents a great deal of pain and injury to the animal. Its
sense of smell is very acute; it can smell water at a great distance,
and by this means it sometimes saves the life of its master.

Its Size and Shape. The body of the camel is about the size
of a horse, but its back resembles an arch instead of being nearly
straight, like that of the cow or horse. It is generally taller than
a horse, being from five to seven feet high.

Its Hump. Is the back of the camel like the back of a horse or
a cow? No; it has a hump on its back. This hump is a mass of
fat. When the camel is fat, the hump is very large ; but when the



212 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

animal is lean, the hurap is small. When the camel, on its long
journey across the desert, is obliged to subsist on a very small al-
lowance of food, or even to go without food, the fat of the hump
supplies nutriment. Its substance is absorbed and taken into the
general circulation, and thus supports the animal to the end of its
journey, or until it sinks under privations which no other animal
coulfl have borne for half the time.

Its Food. What did I say about the deserts across which the
camel travels ? They contain no trees, and no green grass. In some
places, however, there may be found prickly shrubs and a dry, coarse
grass, but only in small spots. No horse or donkey would eat such



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