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Norman Allison Calkins.

Manual of object-teaching : with illustrative lessons in methods and the science of education online

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common egg, as a Rose leaf.

HEART-SHAPED. [ Cordate.} When an egg-shaped leaf has a notch
at the base, or when the leaf has the shape in which a heart is usual-
ly represented, it is called heart-shaped, as the leaf of the Morning-
glory and the Lilac.

KIDNEY-SHAPED. [Reniform.} A kidney-shaped leaf is broader
than it is long ; it is a short, rounded leaf, having a base somewhat
like the heart-shaped leaf, but with the base lobes more distant from
the stem than in the latter, as the Wild Ginger leaf.

HAND-SHAPED. [Palmate} A leaf that is divided into five lobes,
or parts, without these parts being separated to the base or stem, as
the Sweet-gum leaf and some Maple leaves.

Leaves that are divided into separate parts, or fingers, are called
Digitate or Fingered leaves, as the Virginia Creeper, the Buckeye.



254: MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

WEDGE-SHAPED. [ Cuneate.] A leaf that is broad at the top, and
tapers with nearly straight edges to the stem, like a wedge, as the
leaf of the Cockspur-thorn.

OBLONG LEAP. A leaf that is at least two and a half or three
times as long as it is broad, and of nearly the same breadth through-
out its length ; it is narrowly elliptical in shape, as the Rose-lay,
Primrose.

OVAL LEAF. A leaf that is broadly elliptical in form; usually the
ends are more sharply rounded than in the oblong leaf, with the
breadth not quite half as great as the length. When the breadth
is twice the length, or a little more, with the outline of an ellipse,
the shape is called elliptical. The oval leaf is represented in the
Beaver-tree, or small Magnolia.

ORBICULAR LEAF. [ Circular, RotundJ] A leaf that has a resem-
blance to a circular shape, with the stern attached nearer the base
than in the peltate leaf, as Round-leaved Sundew, Marsh-marigold.

FEATHER-SHAPED. [Pinnate.] A compound leaf in which the
leaflets are arranged on the sides of a main leaf-stalk, as the Locust,
Ash. Sometimes the leaflets are themselves divided and arranged
on the sides of branches of the main leaf- stalk, as in the Honey-
locust. Such leaves are said to be feathered, or doubly -pinnate, or
twice-pinnate, or bi-pinnate.

ROUND-LOBED, SHARp-LOBED. [Zo&ofe.] When the sides of a
leaf are cut into an equal number of parts, with the incisions extend-
ing from one-fourth to one-half of the distance from the edge to the
mid-vein, it is said to be lobed. If these parts or lobes are rounded,
the leaf is said to be round-lobed, as in the White Oak. If the lobes
are sharp or pointed, the leaf is said to be sharp-ldbed, as in the Red
Oak.

PERFORATED LEAF. [Perfoliate.] When the stem grows through
the leaf near one end, it is called a perfoliate leaf, or perforated leaf,
as the Bellwort and the Honeysuckle.

LYRE-SHAPED. [Li/rate.] A leaf with the lower part lobed and
the upper part somewhat circular, or broad and rounded, as the
Radish leaf, Turnip leaf.

DEEPLY-CUT, or GASHED LEAF. [Laciniate.] A leaf that appears
as if torn, or cut in deep and irregular gashes, having the parts long
and narrow, as MonTc's-head.

FOOT-SHAPED. [Pedate.~] A leaf with several deep clefts sepa-
rating it into long, narrow parts, resembling the toes of a bird's foot,
as the Passion-jlower, Christmas-rose.



PLANTS. 255

WHORLED LEAVES. [ Verticillate.] Three or more leaves growing
around the stem of a plant, in a circle, as in the Red-lily, Trumpet-



BUNDLED, or CLUSTERED LEAVES. [Fascicled.'} A bunch of many
short, needle-shaped leaves growing in a cluster, on a short, bud-like
branch, as the leaves of the Larch, Tamarack.



SHAPES OF FLOWERS.

FUNNEL-SHAPED. [Infundibuliform.] A tubular flower which
gradually enlarges from its base, and rapidly spreads out at the up-
per part into a wide, circular border. So called from its resem-
blance to a common funnel. Examples : Morning-glory, Stramonium,
Tobacco,

TRUMPET-SHAPED, or TUBULAR. A flower having a long, narrow
tube, widening -at the end, and resembling a trumpet, or horn. Ex-
amples : Trumpet-honeysuckle, Fuchsias.

BELL-SHAPED. [ Campanulate.~\ A flower having a shape like a
common bell. Examples : Harebell, Bell-jlower, Canterbury-bell.

SALVER-SHAPED. [Hypocrateriform.~\ A tubular flower, the upper
end of which spreads out abruptly into a flat border, like an ancient
tray, or salver. Examples : Phlox, Heliotrope, Lilac.

LDP-SHAPED. [Labiate.] A flower with a tubular base, having
the upper part open so as to resemble lips, or a mouth. Examples :
Sage, Hyssop, Skull-cap.

CROSS-SHAPED. [ Cruciform.] A flower with four spreading pet-
als standing at right angles, so as to resemble a Maltese cross. Ex-
amples : Mustard, Wallflower, Water-cress.

WHEEL-SHAPED. [Rotate.] Sometimes called Star -shaped. A
flower without a tube, or with a very short one, which seems to
spread out into five distinct divisions, somewhat like a wheel with
five spokes. Examples : Potato-blossom, Tomato, Mullein, Bitter-sweet.

BUTTERFLY-SHAPED. [Papilionaceous.] A flower consisting of
five dissimilar petals, so arranged as to resemble a butterfly. The
large petal at the top is called the " banner ;" the two side petals
are called " wings ;" and the two central, lower petals, which appear
to be joined, are called the " keel," from the resemblance to the
prow of an ancient boat. Examples: Sweet -pea, Locust, Wistaria,
Bean, Clover.



256 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

HELMET-SHAPED. \,Galeated.~] A flower having its upper part in
the form of a hood, or helmet. Example : Monk's-hood.

STRAP-SHAPED. [Ligidate.] This form is seen in plants with
compound flowers, as China -aster, Daisy, Coreopsis, Sunflower, etc.
Each strap-shaped flower, which appears so much like a single flat
petal of an ordinary flower, is a distinct flower. Its edges are rolled
together at the base, so as to form a short, tubular portion. Great
numbers of these single flowers grow together, forming what is com-
monly called compound flowers.

PINK-SHAPED. [Caryophillaceous.] A flower with five broad pet-
als, each with a long claw extending down into a tubular cup, or
calyx. Examples : Pink, Bouncing-bet.

LILY-SHAPED. [Liliaceous.} A flower, somewhat bell-shaped, with
six petals of uniform size and color, and six stamens. The petals
turn back at the mouth of the flower, so as to separate widely at
their outer ends. Examples : Tiger-lily, White-lily, Japan-lily.



SHAPES OF ROOTS.

CONICAL ROOT. A solid root which tapers regularly from the
upper end to its lower extremity, as the Carrot, Parsnip, and some
Beets.

SPINDLE-SHAPED ROOT. [Fusiform.} A solid root which increases
in size from the top toward the centre, and tapers regularly from
the centre to the lower extremity. It tapers from near the middle
toward each end, as the Radish, Ginseng, and some Beets.

TURNIP-SHAPED. [Napiform.] A short, solid root which abrupt-
ly swells out at its upper part, and abruptly diminishes in size, so
that the diameter of its body is equal to or greater than its length ;
and it has a small tapering root extending from its bottom, as the
common Turnip and some Radishes.

TUBEROUS ROOTS. Several fleshy roots growing in a bunch, each
usually having a few fibres, as the roots of the Dahlia, Orchis, Peony,
Sweet-potato.

TUBERS. In some plants the ends of the root-like branches of the
stems which grow underground become greatly enlarged and thick-
ened into fleshy knobs, each of which contains several buds, or eyes;
these knobs are called tubers, as in the common Potato and Articholce.



PLANTS. 257

BULB. A fleshy bud growing in the ground, usually of the shape
of a flattened spheroid, having fibrous roots attached at the bottom.
Bulbs are usually formed of thick, fleshy scales, or layers, as the
Onion, Lily.

CORM. A solid bulb, or fleshy stem, growing underground, having
a shape somewhat like a flattened spheroid, as the solid bulbs, or
conns, of the Crocus, Gladiolus, Indian-turnip.

BRANCHING ROOTS. Woody roots with numerous branches, re-
sembling the branches of a tree, as the roots of trees, and also of
shrubs.

FIBROUS ROOTS. A cluster of slender, thread-like roots, nearly
uniform in size, growing directly from the base of the plant stem, as
Grass Roots, Grain Roots, and the roots of many of the annual plants.

BUNDLED ROOTS. [Fascicled.'] Roots that grow in a cluster,
somewhat like fibrous roots, but which are much larger and more
fleshy, as Crowfoot, Buttercup.

RUNNER, or CREEPER. A prostrate stem that creeps along the
surface of the ground, and sends roots downward at each joint, and
puts forth steins and leaves above them, thus forming new plants,
as the Strawberry-plant.

ROOT STOCK. [Rhizoma.] A fleshy, horizontal stem, or branch,
growing underground, with joints and branches, as Sweet-flag, Ginger,
Solomons-seal., Blood-root.

NOTE. For further information relative to names that may be applied to
modified forms of the shapes of leaves, flowers, and roots described in the pre-
ceding pages, see a good text-book on Botany. For colored illustrations
of these, see Prang's Natural History Series, representing the three groups
here described.



258 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.



FAMILIES OF PLANTS.

THE examination and comparison of plants belonging to the
same family, and possessing many similar characteristics, furnish
excellent means for training children to acquire habits of careful
observation and discrimination, and the ability to distinguish
those peculiarities which indicate relationship in the vegetable
world. To accomplish this important attainment the pupils must
themselves handle, examine, and compare the plants and flowers
until they become familiar with the leading characteristics of the
family. Suitable pictures will aid the pupils in this work, but
the plants and their flowers must become familiar by actual ex-
amination before a real knowledge of them can be gained.

The following descriptions are given here to assist the teacher
in directing the attention of pupils to those characteristics of
plants by which family relations may be determined. To give
a complete list of the members of the following families has not
been attempted here. Such members of each family have been
selected as best represent leading traits of the family. For a de-
scription of other members of these and of different families, the
reader is referred to good text-books on botany.

The teacher will please bear in mind that these descriptions
are not to be taught the pupils as lessons to be recited, yet they
may be used to assist in discovering the family traits.



The Lily Family. [Liliacem.] It is generally known by its
regular, symmetrical, and richly colored flowers, with six petals, sim-
ilarly colored, and six stamens and one pistil. The flower is never
enclosed in a sheath, except in the onion group. The stamens are
usually inserted in or near the base of the petals.

The seed-vessel, or ovary, is three-celled, with the seeds packed
one upon another. The roots of lilies, which are usually bulbous
(sometimes tuberous, or fibrous), live from year to year. The leaves
are parallel-veined, and generally narrow.



PLANTS. 259

The members of this family are chiefly natives of temperate cli-
mates. Some of them are used for food, as the onion, garlic, and as-
paragus, and others for medicine. A medicinal substance obtained
from the bulb of a lily found in the south of Europe is known as
squills. There are 1200 species of lilies.

SUPEKB LILY, or TURK'S CAP. [Lilium superbumJ] Grows in the
Middle and Western States, in prairies and meadows, also cultivated
in gardens. Flowers of a bright orange color, with purple spots.

WHITE LILY. [Lilium candidum.] Native of Persia ; cultivated
here in gardens. Has a thick stem, four feet high, supporting a clus-
ter of large, snow-white, bell-shaped flowers.

YELLOW LILY. [Lilium Canadense.] Native of Canada and
United States. Stem from two to four feet high, often containing
seven or more nodding flowers of a yellow or orange color, spotted
with purple inside.

TIGER LILY. [Lilium tigrinum.] Native of China ; cultivated in
gardens. Stern four or five feet high, containing several orange-red
flowers, thickly spotted with black.

JAPAN LILY. [Lilium Japonicum.~] From Japan ; cultivated here.
Stem two feet high, usually bearing a single, large, white, nodding
flower. The petals are compressed into a narrow tube at the base,
but widely separated at the outer ends.

PHILADELPHIA LILY. [Lilium PhiladelpJiicumJ] Common in the
Northern States. Flowers bell-shaped ; petals narrow, and separated
down to the base, of reddish orange color, and spotted inside with
dark purple.

TULIP. [Tulipa Gesneriana.] Native of Persia; cultivated here.
Stem about one foot high ; flower erect, and bell-shaped, with short
stamens. Colors variegated. There are several hundred varieties.

CROWN IMPERIAL. [Fritillaria imperialist Native of Persia ;
cultivated. Stem thick, about three feet high, bearing at the top a
cluster of large red, or yellow, nodding flowers, beneath a crown of
narrow, green leaves.

LILY-OF-THE-V ALLEY. [Convallaria majalis.] Native of Europe;
also of mountains from Virginia to Georgia. Usually has two leaves
enclosing a stem about six inches long, from the upper side of which
hang little white bells, six parted on the edge. These flowers are
very fragrant.



260 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

HYACINTH. \Hyacinihu8 oricntalis.] Native of Asia Minor; com-
mon, as early house plants. Flower stems are twice as long as the
leaves, and bear a dense cluster of small flowers, fragrant, and of
various colors.

STAR OP BETHLEHEM. [ Omithogalum umbellatum.] From Europe ;
also growing wild in the United States. Leaves grass-shaped ; flow-
er-stalk about one foot high, and branching. Flowers in a group,
white within, and marked with a stripe of green on the outside of
the petals.

"Water -lily Family. WATER-LILY. [NympMa, odorata.]
It will be readily observed that this flower has not the form of a
true lily. Indeed, it does not even belong to the family, but to the
Water-lily Family, or Nymphceacece. It is a water-plant, growing in
lakes and ponds, with the leaves and flowers floating on the surface
of the water.

The flowers of the water-lily are commonly white, sometimes pink-
ish, or yellowish. The petals are numerous, and grow in regular
rows. The stems, which are very long, grow from a root-stock in-
stead of a bulb. This and the following species were placed in this
group to show the pupils that the common pond-lily, though called
a " lily," differs widely from the true lilies ; and to impress upon
them the fact that it belongs to a widely different family.

VICTORIA REGIA. This great water-lily of South America belongs
to the same family as our pond-lily. Its leaves grow from four to
six feet in diameter. The flowers are sometimes one foot in diameter.

The Nile Lotus also belongs to the same family.*

The Pink Family. The pink plant has narrow, bluish-green
leaves, attached to the stem opposite to each other. The stem is
slender and branching, and has swollen joints. The flower-cup, or
calyx, is cylindrical, and divided into five parts at the top, and has
two or more pairs of opposite bracts, or short, pointed leaves at the
base. The flower has five broad petals with notched edges. Each
petal has a long, slender claw extending down into the calyx.

The pink has usually ten stamens and two pistils, which are
curved outward.

* For a complete list of the members of the Lily Family, and of other
families, also for descriptions of them, see Gray's School and Field Book of
Botany, or Wood's Class-book of Botany.



PLANTS. 261

The seed-vessel is one-celled, containing many seeds.
The Pink Family [Caryophyllacece] has many beautiful members,
but none of them are useful either as food or medicine.

CHINA PINK. [Dianthus Chinensis.] The flower has large petals,
toothed, and of various colors. Native of China ; common here . in
gardens.

SWEET-WILLIAM, or BUNCH PINK. [Dianthus barbatus.] The
flowers grow in a flat-topped cluster. They are red, or whitish, and
sometimes variegated.

CARNATION, or CLOVE-PINK. [Dianthus caryophyllus.] This spe-
cies is supposed to be the parent of all the beautiful varieties of car-
nation pinks. Their flowers are white, red, crimson, scarlet, purple,
yellow, and variegated. Flowers are solitary.

MULLEIN PINK. [Lychnis coronaria.~\ Native of Europe; culti-
vated here. The plant is covered with a cottony substance, which
the ancients used for lamp-wicks. It has ten stamens and five pis-
tils. Flowers crimson, or purple. It has some resemblance to Corn-
cockle, a plant found in wheat-fields.

RAGGED ROBIN. [Lychnis Flos - cuculi.] Sometimes called the
" Cuckoo-lychnis." The flowers are of a light pink color ; the petals
are cleft into long, sharp teeth ; calyx brown.

SCARLET LYCHNIS. [Lychnis Chalcedonica.] Common flower in
country gardens. It grows in a flat-topped cluster; flowers small
and bright scarlet. Petals are indented. Native of Russia.

VIRGINIA CATCHFLY. [Silene Virginica.] The name of " Catch-
fly " was given from the sticky, downy substance which covers it,
and by which small insects are often caught. This species has long,
slender petals, cleft at the ends, and of a crimson color. Found in
the open woods of the West and South.

GARDEN CATCHFLY. [Silene Armeria.] A garden flower, some-
times called " Sweet-william." Stem about one foot high, branch-
ing, and bearing bunches of bright pink, or purplish flowers. Pet-
als notched.

ROYAL CATCHFLY. [Selene regiaJ] A large flower, of beautiful
scarlet color, when cultivated. Found on prairies from Ohio south.
Grows three feet high.

BOUNCING BET. [Saponaria officinalis.] Sometimes called " Soap-
wort," from the fact that the juice of its root and stem will form a
soap-like lather. Flower of pale pink color, usually double ; petals
notched. Often found wild by the roadside.



262 MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

CHICKWEED. [Stellaria media.] Sometimes called " Starwort."
The well-known garden weed which is given to Canary birds. It
has a small, white flower. Leaves egg-shaped.

SPURREY. [Spergula arvensis.] Leaves grass-like, growing in a
circle around the stem. Has an open cluster of small, white flowers.
Found in grain-fields. Sometimes cultivated in Europe for feeding
sheep.

The Rose Family [Rosacecs] contains our most beautiful
flower, the Rose, of which there are several hundred varieties ; also,
our most delicious fruits, as the apple, pear, quince, peach, plum, cher-
ry, apricot, nectarine, strawberry, blackberry, raspberry, almond. The
plants belonging to this order embrace trees, shrubs, and herbs.

The Rose Family contains three great divisions or groups, viz.,
The Rose Group, The Plum Group, The Pear Group.

The Rose Group comprises shrubby, prickly bushes, with leaves
of the feathered or pinnate form, each composed of from three to nine
egg-shaped or ovate leaflets. Its blossoms, in a wild state, have five
petals, many stamens, and several pistils. "When cultivated, the num-
ber of petals becomes numerous, the flowers beautiful, and of various
tints, from white to a rich crimson.

The raspberry, blackberry, and strawberry belong to the Rose
group. It will be seen that the form of their flowers, their parts,
etc., resemble the corresponding parts of the Wild Rose.

DAMASK-ROSE. [Rosa Damascena.] This beautiful rose is a native
of the countries about the Mediterranean Sea. It has many petals,
with colors varying from a delicate roseate hue to a rich rose-red.
It is very fragrant, and its petals are used for making " attar of
roses." The bush grows from three to five feet high. It is culti-
vated in our gardens. The low monthly rose is a variety of this
kind.

WILD ROSE. [Rosa lucida.] This rose is sometimes called the
" Dwarf Wild Rose." It grows on a bush from one to three feet
high, in fields and in woods. The flowers are small, of a pale, red
color, and grow in clusters of two or three. The leaves have a shin-
ing appearance, and grow with five to nine on a stem.

SWEETBRIER. [Rosa ruMginosa.] This is sometimes called " Eg-
lantine." The sweetbrier is a stout, prickly shrub, from four to six
feet high, growing in fields and by roadsides. The flowers are usu-
ally solitary, with five rounded petals, of a light rose-color, and fra-



PLANTS. 263

grant. The leaves are small, and usually have sacs or glands on the
under side, containing an aromatic fragrance, which gives a delight-
ful perfume when the leaves are rubbed.

FRENCH ROSE. [Mosa Gallica.] This is the common red-rose of
gardens, from which have originated some three hundred varieties :
among these are the " Carmine," " Carnation," " Velvet," " Nosegay,"
"York and Lancaster," etc. The numerous inner petals of the rose
are developed from the stamens by cultivation. The dried petals
of this rose are sometimes used in medicine. The pure tincture of
rose, used for flavors in cooking, is made from the petals of this rose.

BLACK RASPBERRY. [Riibus occidentalis.} This is sometimes
called " Thimbleberry." The black raspberry bush grows along the
borders of fields, and consists of a group of curved, slender stems,
from four to six feet high. The leaves are egg-shaped, growing in
clusters of three. Flowers white, with five petals. Fruit purplish
black, of hemispherical shape, and when picked has a deep, hollow
place where it was attached to the fruit stem.

BLACKBERRY. [Rubus mllosus.] This well-known bush grows
from one to six feet high, consisting of slender stems, covered with
strong prickles. Leaves egg-shaped, from three to five in a group.
Flowers, with live white petals, often growing in a cluster. Fruit
black, globular, or slightly conical.

STRAWBERRY. [Fragaria vesca.] This well-known plant has
white flowers, with five petals. The seeds grow on the surface of
the fruit.

Pear Group. The Pear group includes the pear, apple, quince,
chokeberry, mountain-ash. The blossoms have five roundish petals,
of a white or pink color, and grow in clusters.

PEAR. [Pyrus communis.] This delicious fruit is a native of Eu-
rope ; but in its wild state the fruit is small and unpalatable. Flow-
ers scentless, five white petals, with purple anthers. Fruit tapers
toward the stem.

APPLE. [Pyrus mains.] The common apple was originally
brought from Europe. The tree grows from twenty to thirty feet
high. Leaves long, egg-shaped. Flower -buds pinkish; the five
wide-spread petals are partly white, with tints of pink and light
purple, and fragrant. There are also several native, wild species of
apple in this country.

QUINCE. [ Cydonia vulgaris.] This is a small tree, so named from
a city of Crete, from whence it was obtained. The oval leaves have




264: MANUAL OF OBJECT-TEACHING.

a cottony surface beneath. The fruit has a similar surface. It is
hard, pear-shaped, of a yellowish color, and is used for preserves.
The flowers have five petals, yellowish white, or very pale rose-color.
The quince is supposed to be the " Golden Apple," celebrated in
ancient fable.

Plum Group. The Plum group includes the plum, peach, nectar-
ine, apricot, cherry, and almond. The blossoms are white, or rose-
colored, and consist of five petals, and from fifteen to thirty stamens.
The fruit is fleshy, and contains a stone, or nut. The kernel of
some of this group, as the peach and almond, contains prussic acid,
a deadly poison.

PLUM. [Primus domesticaJ] Said to be a native of Italy. Tree
about fifteen feet high. Leaves dark green. Flowers solitary, with
five whitish petals, twenty to thirty stamens, with yellowish anthers.
Fruit has a smooth skin of various colors, a fleshy pulp covering
a small, flattened stone, with sharp edges. Prunes, as used on the
table, are large plums dried.

PEACH. [Persica vulgaris.'] This well-known tree was named
from its native country, Persia. Its leaves are lance-shaped. The
flowers appear before the leaves, with five spreading, rose-colored
petals. The skin of the fruit has a woolly coating. The fruit con-
tains a rough " stone," or nut, which encloses the seed. There are
many varieties.

CHERRY. [Prunus cerasus.] This is named from Cerasus, an an-
cient town in Turkey, from whence the garden-cherry is supposed
to have originated. Flowers large, with five petals, white, tinged'
faintly with purple. The leaves and flowers appear about the same
time. Fruit round and reddish, has a fleshy pulp covering a round
stone, or " pit."



POISONOUS PLANTS.

Crowfoot Family. [Ranunculacec&.~\ This family contains many
dangerous plants. All the members possess an acrid or bitter juice,
which is watery or colorless, and more or less narcotic ; while some



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