Norman Harold Hepple.

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Songs of Experience. The extreme simplicity and deep suggestiveness of The
Fly are typical of this painter-poet, and remind us of a similar combination in
Tennyson's well-known lines, Flower in the crannied wall.

No. 49. Donuil Dhu = Donald the Black, Lord of the Hebrides. Scott
says the song refers to the invasion of Lochaber (1431) and the defeat of the
Earls of Mar and Caithness at Inverlochy.

Notice the sense of almost breathless hurry conveyed by the metre.
Targes = small, circular shields.

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NOTES

No. 51. This fine requiem-song may well be compared with Collins' Ode
(No. 131).

Nos. 52, 53 illustrate the healthy, open-air character of the Ettrick
Shepherd's work. I have omitted one stanza from Billy and Me, but this
does not at all affect the continuity of the song.

Cumberless = light and free, without encumbrance.

Nos. 54-57. Wordsworth is gradually winning among critics and lovers of
poetry that recognition as a lyrist which he so richly deserves. The seventeen
of his poems which appear in this volume are inadequate to represent all the
phases of his genius, and time devoted to the reading of his poetry in a
selection like that made by Matthew Arnold, for example, is time well spent.
Collect passages to illustrate :

(1) his close and loving observation and enjoyment of Nature's externals,
"the outward shows of sky and earth," and especially of the humbler
creations (54, 55) ;

(2) the manner in which he stores up the memories of such sights and
sounds for his refreshment in times and places when and where they are
otherwise inaccessible (55) ;

(3) his belief in an all-pervading, spiritual Presence, immanent in all the
forms of Nature and in Man ;

(4) his belief in the endowment, by this Spirit, of every natural form, each
flower and tree, the sea and the sky, with an independent, fully conscious
life (56) ;

(5) his love and preference for hum-'n beings of the humble self-contained
type, dwelling near to and seeming to foi part of unspoiled Nature (57, 158).

Why are his lyrics unsuitable for singing, and intended to be read only ?

No. 58. Notice the emphasis secured by the sudden change of the refrain
in the last verse.

Nos. 60, 61. The memory of past days is a fruitful source of song.
Collect other examples. The Last Rose of Summer is a perfect song in every
way in sentiment, form, and words. Examine it with special care as a model
song. It is interesting to note that musicians concur in judging the tune also
perfect.

Nos. 62, 63. Note the fresh, breezy character of these songs of the sea.
Theirs is a fit theme for a British song-writer. Cunningham was a Scotch
mason a fact which makes his love and evident knowledge of the sea the
more extraordinary.

Sheet technically, the rope attached to the corner of a sail to hold it in
position.

Nos. 65-69. There is probably no poet whom it is more difficult to
represent by selections than Shelley. His works, like those of Wordsworth,
will well repay a more extensive perusal than can be provided for here. Note
the following characteristic points :

(i^ His love of the fleeting, indefinite, evanescent.

(i) The wealth, beauty, and aptness of his imagery.

(3) The generally melancholy sentiment of his poetry.

(4) The metrical and verbal melody of his verse.

The late Prof. J. A. Symonds writes, "I once asked an eminent
musician... why Shelley's lyrics were ill-adapted to music. She made me read
aloud to her The Hymn of Pan and To the Night. Then she pointed out how
the verbal melody was intended to be self-sufficing in these lyrics... how packed

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NOTES

with consonants the words are, how the tone of the emotion alters, and how
no one melodic phrase could be found to fit the daedal woof of the poetic
emotion." Essays Speculative and Suggestive.

No. 70. This is perhaps the most wonderful onomatopoetic poem in the
English tongue. It is comparable with, but I think much superior to Southey's
How the water comes down at Lodore. Examine the verbal and metrical
composition of the poem from this point of view.

No. 71. Some of our very sweetest poems embody home thoughts from
abroad. Compare this poem of Clough's with Browning's (No. 75). In
reading the latter notice the happy "inevitableness" of the three lines beginning
"That's the wise thrush."

No. 73. Note carefully the effect of the artistic repetition and the onomato-
poetic language in this sad little song.

No. 76. Castle Brancepeth is in County Durham.

No. 77. Pippa is an Italian factory-girl out for a day's holiday and,
singing this blithe song, she "passes" certain other characters in the play at
critical junctures of their lives and her song, unconsciously to her, influences
their actions. It is a sad fact that there are fewer songs of faith and hope like
this in English than there are of despair and melancholy.

Nos. 78-80. In Tennyson words are wrought to their highest possibilities :
his songs contain within themselves all the music which they can artistically
carry. It would be extremely difficult to " set" them satisfactorily to any external
music.

No. 82. From " Sunday up the River " in Mr. Bertram Dobell's edition of
The Poetical Works of fames Thomson (" B.V.").

No. 83. Mark this, as a song of a special type the sacred song or hymn.

No. 85. From the Poetical Works of Bret Harte (Chatto and Windus).
The poem is a well-managed example of personification.

No. 86 also contains peculiarly good examples of personification. The
similarity of subject and arrangement existing between this and No. 87 makes
them a fitting pair for comparison.

No. 88. The subject of a song should be slight a fact well exemplified
by this delightful number, which for delicacy of sentiment and treatment ranks
as one of the most charming trivial compositions of recent times.

No. 89. The stimulus here is a situation, the third part of the lyric
occupying the last verse.

No. 90. Written for the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria, 1897.
This plea for national rectitude had, undoubtedly, a strong and elevating
influence on the spirit of imperialism abroad in England at the date of its
composition.

Shard^ shell.

No. 92. From The Open Road, that most delightful of travelling
companions, edited by Mr. E. V. Lucas. A companion volume for town-lovers
is entitled The Friendly Town.

No. 93. Miss Ada Smith, whose literary career was so sadly and
prematurely terminated, now sleeps in the quiet churchyard of St. John Lee, in
the heart of that North country which she so much loved. This gives to her
song an added pathos.

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NOTES

II. THE SONNET

No. 95. So0tt=isvreet ; /& = also ; mings mingles.
Nos. 97-100. These four sonnets are from that long sequence of one
hundred and fifty-two poems the finest sonnet-sequence in our language.



No. 101. "The assault was intended to the city" when, after the Battle
of Edgehill (Oct. 23, 1642), Charles I advanced towards London. He
occupied Brentford, 'but ultimately retired to Oxford. The "defenceless
doors " are those of the house of Milton himself, who by the magic of his verse
can give " fame for a gentle act."
Colonel is a trisyllable here.

No. 102. Danven stream a small tributary joining the Ribble near
Preston where Cromwell defeated the Scottish army under Hamilton, August,
1648. Dunbar and Worcester were won in 1650 and 1651 respectively.

No. 104. In 1655, the Duke of Savoy, Emmanuel II, issued an edict
compelling the Protestant Vaudois or Waldenses to choose between Roman
Catholicism and exile from their homes in the Graian and Cottian Alps.
Piedmontese troops massacred many who refused to obey the edict, and drove
others to death from starvation in the mountain fastnesses adjoining their
homes. Cromwell pressed the Duke and Louis XIV of France for a repeal of
the edict and a large sum of money was raised in England for the relief of the
sufferers, who in 1658 were again allowed freedom of worship without
molestation.

The triple tyrant the Pope who wore the triple crown, the symbol of the
headship of the Roman Church.

No. 106. Why is the octave run-on into the sestet ?
No. 107. It is interesting in studying the sonnet to notice that Wordsworth
had no objection to, but rather welcomed, the artistic bonds of the sonnet-
form : it is equally interesting to note that in his arrangement both of the
sestet and the octave of many of his sonnets he did not suffer himself to be
bound by any strict rule as to the disposition of the rhymes or pauses. Of
Wordsworth as an English sonnet-writer the late Prof. W. Sharp had a very
high opinion " At his very best he is the greatest," says this learned critic of
sonnet literature.

No. in. Bonnivard, a Genevan patriot was imprisoned in the Castle of
Chillon, on Lake Geneva, by the Duke of Savoy. He was ultimately released,
but not until years of pacing to and fro had left traces of his steps upon the
stone floor of his prison.

No. 112. In common with many other descriptive sonnets, this one does
not observe the division between octave and sestet. The pictorial details in
the poem are especially worthy of note : they are as vivid and clear as those in
a good photograph.

No. 113. John Wilson ("Christopher North") was Professor of Moral
Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. He was a native of Paisley. His
longer poems are The Isle of Palms and The City of the Plague and most
of his writings are characterised by beauty of description and tenderness of
sentiment.

Note that this sonnet is irregular, though it resembles the Spenserian model
in the interlacing of the first two quatrains. Why did the author not interlace
the third quatrain with the second?

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NOTES

No. 114. George Chapman (1557-1634) wrote a fine, energetic translation
of Homer in heptameters. Mr. Palgrave considers that " to find in Chapman's
Homer ' the pure serene ' of the original, the reader must bring with him the
imagination of the youthful poet."

Cortez=& famous Spaniard who conquered Mexico and explored the
isthmus of Darien ( = Panama), though he did not, as this sonnet suggests,
discover the Pacific Ocean. Balboa had that honour.

Nos. 116, 119. These two sonnets were written in friendly rivalry under a
time-limit. The same two poets and Shelley also wrote sonnets on The
Nile under similar conditions.

No. 117. Of this sonnet Coleridge wrote that it was "the finest and most
grandly conceived sonnet in our language." Of no single sonnet has so much
appreciative criticism been written. I follow the text of the late Mr. William
Sharp in altering "fly" in the eleventh line to "flow'r."

No. 118. Humour, as a rule, is not a fitting subject for the sonnet, and
this is probably one of the most successful attempts at the humorous sonnet.

Spence (1699-1768). His Anecdotes serve as a mine of information
about Pope and his circle. Johnson used them in his Lives.

Gay (1685-1732) was a writer of happy songs, among other forms, and his
Black-eyed Susan is still well known.

John Blair (1699-1746) wrote a dull poem entitled The Grave on which
Hood puns, as he does on Thomson's (1700-48) Castle of Indolence.

No. 1 20. A model sonnet of the Italian type.

No. 122. From Sonnets from the Portuguese.

No. 123. Those best qualified to judge place Rossetti as a sonneteer
second to no one unless, perhaps, to Shakespeare. His conception, therefore,
of what a sonnet ought to be, is of interest in a section like the present, while
the poem itself is an excellent example of the form.

Nos. 125, 126. It is with especial pleasure that I am able to include
these two sonnets by Mr. Watts- Dunton poet, novelist, and critic whose
sonnets in The Coming of Love entitle him to a place in the highest rank of
English sonneteers. The two poems should be compared as the poetical
expression of the view that Nature is benigna or maligna according to the
heart that contemplates her.



III. THE ODE

In addition to the characteristics enumerated in the Introduction to this
section notice :

1 i ) the large number of odes which begin with an invocation or address :
e.g. "Awake, Aeolian lyre, awake!" {Progress of Poesy} ;

"Ethereal Minstrel! Pilgrim of the sky!" (To a Skylark] ;

(2) that the majority of odes are rhymed, though rhyme is not essential to
excellence in this form. Collins' very fine Ode to Evening shows the possibilities
of unrhymed verse in an odic poem.

No. 128. Trace carefully in this poem the connection between the
varying sounds and metres and the emotions aroused in Alexander by the Theban
musician, Timotheus. The incident referred to is the burning of Persepolis by
Alexander under the influence both of Timotheus' music and of the
Athenian, Thais.

254



NOTES

Hautboy a high-toned wind instrument consisting of a tapering wooden
tube with holes as keys.

Divine Cecilia was supposed to have invented the organ. St. Cecilia was
the patron saint of music.

No. 129. The fairly uniform metre in this poem suggests that Collins is
not depending entirely on metrical or tonal variation for the expression of the
different passions. On what does he depend ?

Buskins = hunting-boots, which extended to halfway up the lower leg;
Fauns = attendants on Pan; Dryads = forest-nymphs ; Satyrs =. mythological
wood-dwellers, half men and half goats.

No. 130. The principal clause to all the preceding clauses in the first
three and a half stanzas is in stanza 4 :

"Now teach me, Maid etc."

The editor prefers the texts of stanzas 8, 9, and 1 3 to alternative texts which
exist.

No. 131. This ode was written in 1746 and was probably inspired by the
English defeats in Belgium and at Falkirk in Scotland, in 1745 and 1746
respectively.

No. 132. If the pupil writes down the rhyme-scheme of this ode, he will
note that the first, fourth, and seventh stanzas are exactly inter-correspondent
and that a similar relationship exists between the second, fifth, and eighth, and
the third, sixth and ninth. The whole poem is therefore divisible into three
precisely similar parts (stanzas 1-3 ; 4-6 ; and 7-9) known technically as the
Strophe or "Turn," Antistrophe or "Counter-Turn" and Epodos or "After-
Song." This was the regular form of the Pindaric Ode referred to in the
Introduction to this section.

The sad Nine=\he Nine Muses sad because of the decadence of poetry
and the arts in Greece ; Nature's Darling Shakespeare ; nor second He
Milton ; two coursers of ethereal race=ihe heroic couplet used by Dryden with
consummate skill ; the Theban eagle Pindar.

No. 133. One of the finest regular odes in English.

No. 134. There are many fine lines in this poem, which should find a
place in the pupil's note-book.

Mr. Theodore Watts-Dunton, whilst admitting that this is "the finest
irregular ode in the language "objects that the metrical and rhyme arrange-
ment is not always "inevitable" and instances the passage in stanza 4, "My
heart is at your festival... fresh flowers" as not being the outcome of any
specific emotional necessity.

Humorous stage = i\\a\. on which he represents the varying characteristics and
humours of human life ; thou in stanza 8 refers to the child.

No. 136. The succession of fine images in this poem is typical of Shelley.
His preference for what is fleeting and evanescent in Nature, the flux, the
change, the eternal motion of things, is illustrated in No. 137.

Nos. 138-141. These four odes by Keats are flawless and perfect
specimens of their kind and prove that so far as he was concerned "A thing
of beauty is a joy for ever." Beauty unassociated with passion, that pure,
absolute Beauty of Nature and of Art Keats loved ; to him it was Joy and

255



NOTES

Truth, and it was his aim as a poet to express in verbal form all the images of
Beauty which his fancy conceived. In studying these four odes carefully
notice :

(i| the series of clear, delicate, sensuous pictures and images ;

(2) the method by which these pictures are presented to us, viz. the
picturesque associations of individual words, which by their music and
suggestion transfuse sight and emotion into sound ;

(3) the exquisite personifications which sometimes remind us of groups of
statuary, e.g.

' ' She dwells with Beauty Beauty that must die ;
And Joy, whose hand is ever at his lips
Bidding adieu";

(4) the curious and original metres and rhyme-schemes. In the Melan-
choly note the irregular rhyme-arrangement of the last stanza.

Brede (139) = braid.

No. 143. Note the rapid metre, entirely in keeping with the subject.

No. 145. The broad and free movement of the metre in this poem is
typical of Swinburne, who revealed in magnificent fashion the rich metrical
resources of our language. As a writer of odes he takes first rank among the
poets of the Victorian Age.

IV. THE IDYLL

No. 146. From Breton's The Passionate Shepherd. The metre of this
poem is a favourite among the idyll- writers. See also Nos. 147, 150, 152, 154.
Note the close resemblance between this poem and the descriptive portion of
Milton's V Allegro which begins at line 41. The sequence of ideas, the metre,
the cadences, and even some of the very language of Breton's poem resemble
those of D Allegro so strikingly that it seems fair to argue that Milton was
undoubtedly, if perhaps unconsciously, influenced by Breton's lines. An
interesting article in The Modern Language Review for April, 1911, deals fully
with this subject and in it the writer remarks that the lines immediately
following line 20 "might slip in anywhere between lines 41 and 68 of L 'Allegro
with scarcely an appreciable break in the rhythm or, for that matter, in the
sense."



No. 147. Side = \on.g ; "whittle knife ; chape a metal band round the top
of the knife-sheath; whig=o. drink made from whey ; doon fa>\ alderliefest
most delightful of all.

No. 148. Izaak Walton is supposed by some critics to have contributed
the sixth stanza to this poem of Marlowe's.

No. 149. From Drayton's The Muses' Elizium.

Higkt=is called.

No. 150. A companion poem to this, though not in the present volume, is
// Penseroso. L'A llegro = the Joyous ; // Penseroso the Thoughtful. In the
former the descriptions of country scenery and country life are very fine,
though they differ from descriptions of similar things written by more modern
poets like Wordsworth. How do they differ?

Yclept = called ; quips = smart retorts ; cran&s = p\ms, turns of wit ; dight
decked; faery J/a = the Queen of the Fairies; Friar's lantern probably
Will-o'-the Wisp, a flickering light seen sometimes near the ground in marshy
districts ; Goblin Robin Goodfellow, who was supposed to do work at night in

256



NOTES

exchange for a bowl of cream ; lubber =. awkward ; weeds of peace civil dress ;
Jonson's learned sock = ~Qen Jonson's comedies, which evidence great classical
learning on the part of their author. The soccus or low slipper worn by Roman
comedy-actors is symbolical of Comedy just as the buskin is of Tragedy.

Note: (i) that the descriptions are so arranged as to represent the
passage of an entire day, from sunrise to evening ;

(2) that the invocation in the first ten lines is merely a kind of introduction
and is therefore cut off in a separate stanza with a rhyme-system differing from
that in the remainder of the poem ;

(3) that after the invocation the descriptions are continuous and merge
into one another like the scenes in a series of dissolving views. Hence the
continuity of the metre which is unbroken by any stanzaic arrangement.

No. I5 1 - The palm, the oak, or l>ays = honours in war, civil life and
learning respectively ; this dial new = new method of telling time by the
opening and closing of flowers.

No. 152. Prelates' rage. The emigrants are represented as having fled
from the ecclesiastical administration of Archbishop Laud during the reign of
Charles I; Ormus = a.n island in the Persian Gulf, at one time famous as a
market for precious stones and pearls.

No. 153. In an essay appended to the Preface to Lyrical Ballads (1815),
Wordsworth wrote : "Excepting the Nocturnal Reverie of Lady Winchilsea and
a passage or two in the Windsor Forest of Pope, the poetry of the period
intervening between the publication of Paradise Lost and The Seasons does not
contain a single new image of external nature." Though the accuracy of this
statement may be called into question, in connection with the present poem the
passage is of great interest, coming as it does from one who introduced so much
of what was fresh into the poetry of nature.

No. 154. This very fine poem was first published in 1726, the same year
as Thomson's Winter (subsequently incorporated in The Seasons referred to in
the last note). Though Thomson and Dyer were apparently in correspondence
with each other in 1726, the two poems are probably independent. Both are
interesting as showing that poets were beginning to leave the cities, and to
seek inspiration in the more accessible parts of the country. The present
poem is a description of a landscape in South Wales as seen from Grongar Hill.
What simple alteration in lines 82, 83 would make them comply with modern
grammatical usage ?

No. 155. From Shenstone's Pastoral Ballad (stanzas omitted). Generally
the narrator has no part in the incidents or descriptions given in an idyll ; but
not infrequently, as in this and the next two poems, narrative is replaced by
monologue, and sometimes even by dramatic dialogue.

No. 156. Desire for the quiet pleasures of a country life especially during
the later years of life is a very common motive in lyrical verse. See also
No. 169.

No. 157. Fountains^ springs.

No. 158. Compare the last three lines of this poem with the last stanza of
the same poet's Daffodils.

No. 159. Coleridge was a master of verbal and metrical music, and this
poem, fragment as it is, is convincing proof of his genius in this direction.
The late Mr. Swinburne considered Kubla Khan to be the most wonderful

H. R 257



NOTES

poem in the world, and Mr. Theodore Watts-Dunton writes that in it Coleridge
" having broken away from all restraints of couplet and stanza having caused
his rhymes and pauses to fall just where and just when the emotion demands
that they should fall... has found... a music as entrancing, as natural, and at the
same time as inscrutable as the music of the winds or of the sea."

Kubla A"/fca/z = Cublai Can, founder of the Mongol Dynasty in China;
Mount Abora, in Abyssinia. Coleridge had been reading Purckas His
Pilgrimage, a book of travels which described the great Palace in Xanadu.

No. 160. The simple metre suits the subject well.

No. 161. This might with equal propriety be included among the songs.
Why? Note the pathos of the poem and study its onomatopoetic language.

No. 165. This is a wonderful example of the musical use of words and the
original metrical and rhyming scheme produces an effect which can only be
described as haunting. Collect instances of onomatopoeia, alliteration, etc.
Note, for instance, the sense of mystery conveyed by the short vowels and s-
sh- sounds in the last three lines of stanza 4 in Part I.

No. 167 contains some singularly fine imaginative marine pictures.

Nos. 168, 169. Two Victorian poems of rare beauty in their description
and sentiment.

V. THE ELEGY

No. 170. Hebrew poetry is rhythmical, but has no metre as we understand
the term, inasmuch as there are no regularly recurring groups of accented and
unaccented syllables or of long and short syllables as in classical verse. It is,
however, divided into rhythmical verses on the principle of parallelism. Two
or more lines make a verse, and the thoughts in each line of the verse are
parallel either synonymously or antithetically more generally the former.
Thus in the present poem we have :

"Tell it not in Gath,
Publish it not in the streets of Askelon ;
Lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice,
Lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph,"
where the lines clearly fall into pairs.

Numerous other examples can be found in the Psalms and in the Book of
Proverbs, much of the spirit and many of the characteristics of the Hebrew
poetry being preserved in the English translation as given in the Authorised
Version.

No. 171. Melpomene = \hz Muse of Tragedy. O heavie herse! Q heavy
refrain; carefull=i\\\\ of care ; wight = woman (in this case); carke=gnei' y
ygoe = gone; bale = destruction ; 6&=also; flouds = floods; maugre = 'm spite
of (cf. malgre, Fr.) ; dreaded sisters = the three Fates Clotho, Lachesis and
Atropos, who were supposed to control the births, careers, and deaths of all
men, the first holding the distaff, the second spinning the thread of life, and


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