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Ilissus, near the Acropolis of Athens. The remainder is groined
with stone and brick, springing from columns and pilasters of the
Roman Doric.

"The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives'
chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter
2,849 square feet. Four apai'tments enter from Senate Chamber,
two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the

The State Capitol 21

other two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two
rooms enter from Representatives' chamber, each containing an
area of 170 square feet; of two committee rooms, each containing
an area of 231 square feet; of four presses and the passages,
stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square

"The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns
and antse of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and
the plan of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theatre and
the columns and antte in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are
of the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva Polias, and Pandrosus, in
the Acropolis of Athens, near the above named Parthenon.

"Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the
Supreme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 square
feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square feet;
also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square
feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These
lobbies as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is pi'oposed
to finish the court and library in the florid Gothic style."


Governors of "Virginia"

Ralph Lane, April ...., 1585-June ...., 1586.
John White, April ...., 1587-August ...., 1587.

Chief Executives Under the Proprietors

William Drummond, October ...., 1663-October ...., 1667.
Samuel Stephens, October ...., 1667-December ...., 1669.
Peter Carteret, October ...., 1670-May ...., 1673.
John Jenkins, May ...., 1673-November ...., 1676.

Thomas Eastchurch, November ...., 1676- , 1678.

Thomas Miller, ,1677-

John Culpepper, , 1677- , 1678.

Seth Sothel, , 1678-

John Harvey, February ...., 1679-August ...., 1679.
John Jenkins, November ...., 1679- , 1681.

22 North Carolina Manual

Seth Sothel, , 1682- , 1689.

Philip Ludwell, December ...., 1689- , 1691.

Philip Ludwell, November 2, 1691- , 1694.

Thomas Jarvis, , 1691- , 1694.

John Archdale, August 31, 1694- , 1696.

John Harvey, , 1694- , 1699.

Henderson Walker, , 1699-August 14, 1704.

Robert Daniel, , 1704- , 1705.

Thomas Gary, , 1705,- , 1706.

William Glover, , 1706- , 1708.

Thomas Gary, , 1708-January ...., 1711.

Edward Hyde, , 1710-May 9, 1712.

Edward Hyde, May 9, 1712-September 8, 1712.
Thomas Pollock, September 12, 1712-May 28, 1714.
Gharles Eden, May 28, 1714-March 26, 1722.
Thomas Pollock, March 30, 1722-August 30, 1722.
William Reed, August 30, 1722-January 15, 1724.
George Burrington, January 15, 1724-July 17, 1725.
Richard Everard, July 17, 1725-May ...., 1728.

Governors Under the Crown

Richard Everard, May , 1728-February 25, 1731.

George Burrington, February 25, 1731-April 15, 1734.
Nathaniel Rice, April 15, 1734-October 27, 1734.
Gabriel Johnston, October 27, 1734-July 17, 1752.
Matthew Rowan, July 17, 1752-November 2, 1754.
Arthur Dobbs, November 2, 1754-March 28, 1765.
William Tryon, March 28 1765-December 20, 1765.
William Tryon, December 20, 1765-July 1, 1771.
James Hasell, July 1, 1771-August 12, 1771.
Josiah Martin, August 12, 1771-May ...., 1775.

Governors Elected by the Legislature

Name, Gounty, Term of Office
Richard Gaswell, Dobbs, December 19, 1776-April 18, 1777.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 18, 1777-April 18, 1778.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 18, 1778-May 4, 1779.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, May 4, 1779-April, 1780.

Governors 23

Abner Nash, Craven, April, 1780-June 26, 1781.
Thomas Burke, Orange, June 26, 1781-April 26, 1782.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, April 26, 1782-April 30, 1783.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, April 30, 1783-April 1, 1785.
Eichard Casvirell, Dobbs, April 1, 1785-December 12, 1785.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 12, 1785-December 23, 1786.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 23, 1786-December 20, 1787.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, December 20, 1787-November 18, 1788.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, November 18, 1788-November 16, 1789.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, November 16, 1789-December 17, 1789.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, December 17, 1789-December 9, 1790.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, December 9, 1790-January 2, 1792.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, January 2, 1792-December 14, 1792.
R. D. Spaight, Craven, December 14, 1792-December 26, 1793.
R. D. Spaight, Craven, December 26, 1793-January 6, 1795.
R. D. Spaight, Craven, January 6, 1795-November 19, 1795.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, November 19, 1795-December 19, 1796.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, December 19, 1796-December 5,1797.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, December 5, 1797-December 7, 1798.
W. R. Davie, Halifax, December 7, 1798-November 23, 1799.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 23, 1799-November 29, 1800.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 29, 1800-November 28, 1801.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 28, 1801-December 6, 1802.
James Turner, Warren, December 6, 1802-Decemb'er 1, 1803.
James Turner, Warren, December 1, 1803-November 29, 1804.
James Turner, Warren, November 29, 1804-December 10, 1805.
Nathaniel Alexander, Mecklenburg, December 10, 1805-December 1,

Nathaniel Alexander, Mecklenburg, December 1, 1806-December 1,

Benjamin Williams, Moore, December 1, 1807-December 12, 1808.
David Stone, Bertie, December 12, 1808-December 13, 1809.
David Stone, Bertie, December 13, 1809-December 5, 1810.
Benjamin Smith, Brunswick, December 5, 1810-December 9, 1811.
William Hawkins, Warren, December 9, 1811-November 25, 1812.
William Hawkins, Warren, November 25, 1812-November 20, 1813.
William Hawkins, Warren, November 20, 1813-November 29, 1814.
William Miller, Warren, November 29, 1814-December 7, 1815.
William Miller, Warren, December 7, 1815-December 7, 1816,

24 North Carolina Manual

William Miller, Warren, December 7, 1816-December 3, 1817.
John Branch, Halifax, December 3, 1817-November 24, 1818.
John Branch, Halifax, November 24, 1818-November 25, 1819.
John Branch, Halifax, November 25, 1819-December 7, 1820.
Jesse Franklin, Surry, December 7, 1820-December 7, 1821.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 7, 1821-December 7, 1822.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 7, 1822-December 6, 1823.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 6, 1823-December 7, 1824.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 7, 1824-December 6, 1825.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 6, 1825-December 29, 1826.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 29, 1826-December 8, 1827.
James Iredell, Chowan, December 8, 1827-December 12, 1828.
John Owen, Bladen, December 12, 1828-December 10, 1829.
John Owen, Bladen, December 10, 1829-December 18, 1830.
Montfort Stokes, Wilkes, December 18, 1830-December 13, 1831.
Montfort Stokes, Wilkes, December 13, 1831-December 6, 1832.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 6, 1832-Deceiiiber 9, 1833.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 9, 1833-December 10, 1834.

D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 10, 1834-December 10, 1835.

R. D. Spai£?ht, Jr., Craven, December 10, 1835-December 31, 1836.

Governors Elected by the People

E. B. Dudley, New Hanover, December 31, 1836-December 29, 1838.
E. B. Dudley, New Hanover, December 29, 1838-January 1, 1841.
J. M. Morehead, Guilford, January 1, 1841-December 31, 1842.

J. M. Morehead, Guilford, December 31, 1842-January 1, 1845.
W. A. Graham, Orange, January 1, 1845-January 1, 1847.
W. A. Graham, Orange, January 1, 1847-January 1, 1849.
Charles Manly, Wake, January 1, 1849-January 1, 1851.
D. S. Reid, Rockingham, January 1, 1851-December 22, 1852.
D. S. Reid, Rockingham, December 22, 1852-December 6, 1854.
Warren Winslow, Cumberland, December 6, 1854-January 1, 1855.
Thomas Bragg, Northampton, January 1, 1855-January 1, 1857.
Thomas Bragg, Northampton, January 1, 1857-January 1, 1859.
John W. Ellis, Rowan, January 1, 1859-January 1, 1861.
John W. Ellis, Rowan, January 1, 1861-July 7, 1861.
Henry T. Clark, Edgecombe, July 7, 1861-September 8, 1862.
Z. B. Vance, Buncombe, September 8, 1862-December 22, 1864.
Z. B. Vance, Buncombe, December 22, 1864-May 29, 1865.

Governors 25

W. W. Holden, Wake, May 29, 1865-December 15, 1865.

Jonathan Worth, Randolph, December 15, 1865-December 22, 1866.

Jonathan Worth, Randolph, December 22, 1866-July 1, 1868.

W. W. Holden, Wake, July 1, 1868-December 15, 1870.

T. R. Caldwell, Burke, December 15, 1870-January 1, 1873.

T. R. Caldwell, Burke, January 1, 1873-July 11, 1874.

C. H. Brogden, Wayne, July 11, 1874-January 1, 1877.

Z. B. Vance, Mecklenburg, January 1, 1877-February 5, 1879.

T. J. Jarvis, Pitt, February 5, 1879-January 18, 1881.

T. J. Jarvis, Pitt, January 18, 1881-January 21, 1885.

A. M. Scales, Rockingham, January 21, 1885-January 17, 1889.

D. G. Fowle, Wake, January 17, 1889-April 8, 1891.
Thomas M. Holt, Alamance, April 8, 1891-January 18, 1893.
Ellas Carr, Edgecombe, January 18, 1893-January 12, 1897.
D. L. Russell, Brunswick, January 12, 1897-January 15, 1901.
C. B. Aycock, Wayne, January 15, 1901-January 11, 1905.

R. B. Glenn, Forsyth, January 11, 1905-January 12, 1909.
W. W. Kitchen, Person, January 12, 1909-January 15, 1913.
Locke Craige, Buncombe, January 15, 1913-January 11, 1917.
Thomas W. Bickett, Franklin, January 11, 1917-January 12, 1921.
Cameron Morrison, Mecklenburg, January 12, 1921-January 14,

Angus Wilton McLean, Robeson, January 14, 1925-January 11, 1929.
O. Max Gardner, Cleveland, January 11, 1929-January 5, 1933.
J. C. B. Ehringhaus, Pasquotank, January 5, 1933-January 7, 1937.
Clyde R. Hoey, Cleveland, January 7, 1937-January 9, 1941.
J. Melville Broughton, Wake, January 9, 1941-January 4, 1945.
R. Gregg Cherry, Gaston, January 4, 1945-January 6, 1949.
W. Kerr Scott, Alamance, January 6, 1949-

An Act to Establish a State Flag

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact:

Section 1. That the flag- of North Carolina shall consist of a blue
union, containing in the center thereof a white star with the letter
N in gilt on the left and the leter C in gilt on the right of said
star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of
the union.

Sec. 2, That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally pro-
portioned bars ; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be white ;
that the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to the per-
pendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag
shall be one-third more than its width.

Sec. 3. That above the star in the center of the union there
shall be a gilt scroll in semicircular form, containing in black let-
ters this inscription: "May 20th, 1775," and that below the star
there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the in-
scription: "April 12th, 1776."

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th
day of March, A.D., 1885.

No change has been made in the flag since the passage of this
act. By an act of 1907 it is provided:

"That the board of trustees or managers of the several State in-
stitutions and public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag,
of such dimensions and material as they may deem best, and the
same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and
every such building at all times except during inclement weather,
and upon the death of any State officer or any prominent citizen
the Flag shall be put at half-mast until the burial of such person
shall have taken place.

"That the Board of County Commissioners of the several coun-
ties in this State shall likewise authorized the procuring of a North
Carolina flag, to be displayed either on a staflp upon the top, or
draped behind the Judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in
the State, and that the State flag shall be displayed at each and
every term of court held, and on such other public occasions
as the Commissioners may deem proper." (Rev., s. 5321; 1885, c.
291; 1907, c. 838.)


20th May, 1775*


Names of the Delegates Present

Col. Thomas Polk John McKnitt Alexander

Ephraim Brevard Hezekiah Alexander

Hezekiah J. Balch Adam Alexander

John Phifer Charles Alexander

James Harris Zacheus Wilson, Sen.

William Kennon Waightstill Avery

John Ford Benjamin Patton

Richard Barry Mathew^ McClure

Henry Downs Neil Morrison

Ezra Alexander Robert Irwin

William Graham John Flenniken

John Quary David Reese

Abraham Alexander Richard Harris, Sen.

Abraham Alexander was appointed Chairman, and John McKnitt
Alexander, Clerk. The following resolutions were offered, viz. :

1. Resolved, That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in
any way form or manner countenanced the unchartered and
dangerous invasion of our rights as claimed by Great Britain is
an enemy to this country, to America, and to the inherent and in-
alienable rights of man.

2. Resolved, That we '.he citizens of Mecklenburg County, do
hereby dissolves the political bands which have connected us to the
mother country and hereby absolve ourselves from all allegiance
to the British Crown and abjure all political connection contract
or association with that nation who have wantonly trampled on
our right and liberties and inhumanly shed the blood of Ameri-
can patriots at Lexington.

3. Resolved, That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and in-
dependent people, are, and of right ought to be a sovereign and

* The above is foUTid in Vol. IX, pages 1263-65 of The Colonial Records of
North Carolina.


Mecklenburg Declaration 29

self-governing association under the control of no power other
than that of our God and the General Government of the Congress
to the maintenance of which independence we solmenly pledge to
each other our mutual cooperation, our lives, our fortunes, and
our most sacred honor.

4. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and con-
trol of no law or legal officer, civil or military within this County,
we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of life all each and every
of our former laws — wherein nevertheless the Crown of Great
Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, im-
munities, or authority therein.

5. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every
Military Officer in this Country is hereby reinstated in his former
command and authority, he acting comformably to these regula-
tions. And that every member present of this delegation shall
henceforth be a civil officer, viz., a justice of the peace, in the
character of a "committee man" to issue process, hear and deter-
mine all matters of controversy according to said adopted laws
and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, and
to use every exertion to spread the love of Country and fire of
freedom throughout America, until a more general and organized
government be established in this Province.


The Constitution of North Cai'olina, Article III, section 16, re-
quires that

"There shall be a seal of the State which shall be kept by the
Governor, and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be
called 'The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina.' All grants
and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority
of the State of North Carolina, sealed with The Great Seal of the
State,' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary
of State."

The use of a Great Seal for the attestation of important docu-
ments began with the institution of government in North Carolina.
There have been at various times nine different seals in use in
the colony and State.

The present Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is
described as follows:

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is two and one-
quarter inches in diameter, and its design is a representation of
the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but
not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise disposed, as
follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole with cap on
it in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Constitution' in-
scribed thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting
down, her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of
wheat in her right hand, and in her left the small end of her
horn, the mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents
of horn rolling out. In the exergon is inserted the words May
20, 1775, above the coat of arms. Around the circumference is the
legend 'The Great Seal of the State of Noi-th Carolina' and the
motto 'Esse Quam Videri'." (Rev., s. 5339; Code ss. 3328, 3329;
1868-9, c. 270, s. 35; 1883, c. 392; 1893, c. 145.)



By popular choice the Cardinal was selected for adoption as
our State Bird as of March 4, 1943. (S. L. 1943 c. 595; G. S.

This bird is sometimes called the Winter Redbird because it is
most conspicuous in winter and is the only "redbird" present at
that season. It is an all year round resident and one of the com-
monest birds in our gardens and thickets. It is about the size of a
Catbird with a longer tail, red all over, except that the throat and
region around the bill is black; the head is conspicuously crested
and the large stout bill is red; the female is much duller — the
red being mostly confined to the crest, wings and tail. There are
no seasonal changes in the plumage.

The Cardinal is a fine singer, and what is unusual among birds
the female is said to sing as well as the male, which latter sex
usually has a monopoly of that art in the feathered throngs.

The nest is rather an untidy affair built of weed stems, grass
and similar materials in a low shrub, small tree or bunch of briars,
usually not over four feet above the ground. The usual number of
eggs to a set is three in this State, usually four further North.
Possibly the Cardinal raises an extra brood down here to make
up the difference, or possibly he can keep up his normal population
more easily here through not having to face inclement winters
of the colder North. A conspicuous bird faces more hazards.

The Cardinal is by nature a seed eater, but he does not dislike
small fruits and insects.



Adopted by the Provincial Congress of North Carolina in Session

at Halifax, April 12, 1776

It appears to your committee that pursuant to the plan concerted
by the British Ministry for subjugating America, the King and
Parliament of Great Britain have usurped a pov^^er over the per-
sons and properties of the people unlimited and uncontrolled; and
disregarding their humble petitions for peace, liberty and safety,
have made divers legislative acts, denouncing v^ar, famine, and
every species of calamity, against the Continent in general. The
British fleets and armies have been, and still are, daily employed
in destroying the people, and committing the most horrid devasta-
tions on the country. The Governors in different Colonies have de-
clared protection to slaves who should imbrue their hands in the
blood of their masters. That ships belonging to America are de-
clared prizes of war, and many of them have been violently seized
and confiscated. In consequence of all of which multitudes of the
people have been destroyed, or from easy circumstances reduced
to the most lamentable distress.

And Whereas, The moderation hitherto manifested by the
United Colonies and their sincere desire to be reconciled to the
mother country on constitutional principles, have procured no
mitigation of the aforesaid wrongs and usurpations, and no hopes
remain of obtaining redress by those means alone which have been
hitherto tried, your committee are of opinion that the House should
enter into the following' resolve, to wit :

Resolved, That the delegates for this Colony in the Continental
Congress be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other
Colonies in declaring Independency, and forming foreign alliances,
reserving to this Colony the sole and exclusive right of forming
a Constitution and laws for this Colony, and of appointing dele-
gates from time to time (under the direction of a general repre-
sentation thereof) , to meet the delegates of the other Colonies for
such purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out.



In 1629 King Charles the First of England "erected into a
province," all the land from Albemarle Sound on the north to the
St. John's River on the south, which he directed should be called
Carolina. The word Carolina is from the word Carolus, the Latin
form of Charles.

When Carolina was divided in 1710, the southern part was
called South Carolina and the northern or older settlement was
called North Carolina, or the "Old North State." Historians had
recorded the fact that the principal products of this State were
"tar, pitch and turpentine." It was during one of the fiercest
battles of the War Between the States, so the story goes, that the
column supporting the North Carolina troops was driven from the
field. After the battle the North Carolinians, who had successfully
fought it out alone, were greeted from the passing derelict regi-
ment with the question : "Any more tar down in the Old North
State, boys?" Quick as a flash came the answer: "No; not a bit;
old Jeff's bought it all up." "Is that so; what is he going to do
with it?" was asked. "He is going to put it on you'uns heels to
make you stick better in the next fight." Creecy relates that Gen-
eral Lee, hearing of the incident, said: "God bless the Tar Heel
boys," and from that they took the name. — Adapted from Grand-
father Tales of North Carolina by R. B. Creecy and Histories of
North Carolina Regiments, Vol. Ill, by Walter Clark.

The State Motto

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words
"Esse Quam Videri" as the State's motto and directed that these
words with the date "20 May, 1775," should be placed with our
Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State.

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to
seem." Nearly every State has adopted a motto, generally in Latin.
The reason for their mottoes being in Latin is that the Latin
tongue is far more condensed and terse than the English. The three
words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English words
to express the same idea.


36 North Carolina Manual

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the orijyin of our State motto.
It is found in Cicero in his esay on Friendship (Cicero de Ami-
citia, chap. 26.)

It is a little sinp:ular that until the act of 1893 the sovereign
State of North Carolina had no motto since its declaration of in-
dependence. It was one of the very few States which did not have
a motto and the only one of the original thirteen without one.
(Rev., s. 5320; 1893, c. 145; G. S. 145-2.)

The State Colors

The General Assembly of 1945 declared Red and Blue of shades
appearing in the North Carolina State Flag and the American
Flag as the official State Colors. (Session Laws, 1945, c. 878; G. S.

The State Flower

The General Assembly of 1941 designated the dogwood as the
State flower. (Public Laws, 1941, c. 289; G. S. 145-1.)

The State's Most Famous Toast

(Not Officially Designated)
"Here's to the land of the long leaf pine
The summer land where the sun doth shine;
Where the weak grow strong
And the strong grow great,
Here's to 'down home'
The Old North State."
(Composed in 190^ by Mrs. Harry C. Martin, former resident of
Raleigh, N. C, but now living in Toinessee.)

Legal Holidays

January 1 — New Year's Day.

January 19 — Birthday of General Robert E. Lee.

February 22 — Birthday of George Washington.

Easter Monday.

April 12 — Anniversary of the Resolutions adopted by the Pro-
vincial Congress of North Carolina at Halifax, April 12, 1776,
instructing the delegates from North Carolina to the Continental
Congress to vote for a Declaration of Independence.

May 10 — Confederate Memorial Day.

May 20 — Anniversary of the "Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde-

Population 37

May 30 — Memorial Day (Applies to State and National Banks
only) .

July 4 — Independence Day.

September, first Monday — Labor Day.

November, Tuesday after first Monday — General Election Day.

November 11 — Armistice Day.

November, Fourth Thursday — Thanksgiving Day.

By joint Resolution No. 41 of Congress, approved by the Presi-
dent December 26, 1941, the fourth Thursday in November in each

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