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flag or when the flag is passing in a parade or in a review, all
persons present should face the flag, stand at attention, and salute.
Those present in uniform should render the right-hand salute.
When not in uniform, men should remove the headdress with
the right hand holding it at the left shoulder, the hand being
over the heart. Men without hats merely stand at attention.
Women should salute by placing the right hand over the heart.
The salute to the flag in the moving column should be rendered
at the moment the flag passes.

Sec. 6. That when the national anthem is played and the flag is
not displayed, all present should stand and face toward the music.
Those in uniform should salute at the first note of the anthem,
retaining this position until the last note. All others stand at
attention, men removing the headdress. When the flag is displayed,
the salute to the flag should be given.

Sec. 7. That the pledge of allegiance to the flag, "I pledge al-
legiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the
Republic for which it stands, one Nation indivisible, with liberty
and justice for all," be rendered by standing with the right hand
over the heart; extending the right hand, palm upward, toward
the flag at the words "to the flag" and holding this position until
the end, when the hand drops to the side. However, civilians will
always show full respect to the flag when the pledge is given by
merely standing at attention, men removing the headdress. Per-
sons in uniform shall render the military salute.

Sec. 8. Any rule or custom pertaining to the display of the flag
of the United States of America, set forth herein, may be altered,
modified, or repealed, or additional rules with respect thereto may
be prescribed, by the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy
of the United States, whenever he deems it to be appropriate or
desirable; and any such alteration or additional rule shall be set
forth in a proclamation.

The Pledge to the Flag

(Taught in many of the schools and repeated by pupils daily)
"I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America,

And to the Republic for which it stands.

One Nation, indivisible.

With liberty and justice for all."

84 North Carolina Manual

The Pledge to the Flag-, according to a report of the Historical
Committee of the United States Flag Association (May 18, 1939),
was written by Francis Bellamy (August 1892), a member of the
editorial staff of The Youth's Compcmion, in Boston, Massa-
chusetts. It was first repeated at the exercises in connection with
the celebration of Columbus Day (October 12, 1892, Old Style).
The idea of this national celebration on Columbus Day was largely
that of James B. Upham, one of the junior properietors of The
Youth's Covifpanion.

Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence,
was the designer of the Stars and Stripes — not Betsy Ross of
Philadelphia, who made flags. He also designed the first Great
Seal of the United States, and a number of coins and several items
of paper currency in the early days of the Republic.

Hopkinson, born in Philadelphia (September 21, 1737), and a
graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, was the first native
American composer of a secular song, "My Days Have Been So
Wondrous Free." He was a lawyer and later a judge in New
Jersey, and then in Pennsylvania. He died in Philadelphia (May
9, 1791). His portrait, painted by himself, hangs in the rooms of
the Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia. He played the
organ and the harpsichord.


The Capitol building in Washington, D. C, is situated on a
plateau 88 feet above the level of the Potomac River and covers
an area of 153,112 square feet, or approximately three and one-
half acres. Its length, from north to south, is 751 feet, four
inches; its vi^idth, including approaches, is 350 feet; and its loca-
tion is described as being in latitude 38°53'20.4" N. and longitude
77°00'35.7" W. from Greenwich. Its height above the base line on
the east front to the top of the Statue of Freedom is 287 feet,
five and one-half inches. The dome is built of iron, and the aggre-
gate weight of material used in its construction is 8,909,200

The Statue of Freedom surmounting the dome is of bronze and
weighs 14,985 pounds. It was modeled by Thomas Crawford,
father of Francis Marion Crawford, the novelist, in Rome, and
the plaster model shipped to this country. It was cast in bronze
at the shops of Clark Mills, on the Bladensburg Road, near Wash-
ington. The cost of the casting and the expenses in connection
were $20,796.82, and the sculptor was paid $3,000 for the plaster
model. It was erected and placed in its present position Decem-
ber 2, 1863.

The grounds have had an area of 58.8 acres, at one time a part
of Cern Abby Manor, and at an early date were occupied by a
subtribe of the Algonquin Indians known as the Powhatans, whose
council house was then located at the foot of the hill. By sub-
sequent purchase of ground at the north of the Capitol and at the
west of the new House Office building the area of the grounds
has been increased to 139% acres.

The Rotunda is 97 feet 6 inches in diameter, and its height from
the floor to the top of the canopy is 180 feet, 3 inches.

The Senate Chamber is 113 feet, 3 inches, in length by 80 feet,
3 inches, in width and 36 feet in height. The galleries will accom-
modate 682 persons.

The Representatives' Hall is 139 feet in length by 93 feet in
width and 36 feet in height.

The room, until 1935 the meeting place of the Supreme Court,
was, until 1859, occupied as the Senate Chamber. Previous to
that time the court occupied the room immediately beneath, now
used as a law library.


86 North Carolina Manual

The Capitol has a floor area of 14 acres, and 430 rooms are de-
voted to office, committee, and storage purposes. There are 14,518
square feet of skylights, 679 windows, and 550 doorways.

The dome receives light through 108 windows, and from the
architect's office to the dome there are 365 steps, one for each day
of the year.

The southeast cornerstone of the original building was laid
September 18, 1793, by President Washington, with Masonic cere-
monies. It is constructed of sandstone from qaurries on Aquia
Creek, Va. The original designs were prepared by Dr. William
Thornton, and the work was done under the direction of Stephen H.
Hallet, James Hoban, George Hadfield, and B. H. Latrobe, archi-

The north wing was finished in 1800 and the south wing in 1811.
A wooden passageway connected them. On August 24, 1814, the
interior of both wings was destroyed by fire, set by the British.
The damage to the building was immediately repaired.

In 1818 the central portion of the building was commenced,
under the architectural superintendence of Charles Bullfinch. The
original building was finally completed in 1827. Its cost, includ-
ing the grading of the grounds, alterations, and repairs, up to
1827, was $2,433,844.13.

The cornerstone of the extensions was laid on the Fourth of
July, 1851, by President Fillmore, Daniel Webster officiating as
orator. This work was prosecuted under the architectural direc-
tion of Thomas U. Walter till 1865, when he resigned, and it was
completed under the supervision of Edward Clark. The material
used in the walls is white marble from the quarries at Lee, Mass-
achusetts, and that in the columns from the quarries at Cokeys-
ville, Maryland. The House extension was first occupied for legis-
lative purpose December 16, 1857, and the Senate January 4, 1859.

The House office building was begun in 1905 and occupied on
January 10, 1908; later a story on top was added. The Senate
office building was started in 1906 and occupied on March 5, 1909.
The House building cost, with site, $4,860,155; the Senate struc-
ture, $5,019,251.

Among the paintings in the Capitol are:

In Rotunda: Signing of the Declaration of Independence, Sur-
render of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at

The National Capitol 87

Yorktown, Va., George Washington Resigning His Commission as
Commander in Chief of the Army, all by John Trumbull.

Baptism of Pocahontas, by John G. Chapman; Landing of Co-
lumbus, by John Vanderlyn; Discovery of the Mississippi River,
by DeSoto, by William H. Powell; Embarkation of the Pilgrims,
by Robert W. Weir.

In House Wing: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way,
by Emanuel Leutze; First Reading of the Emancipation Proclama-
tion, by Francis Bicknell Carpenter.

In Senate Wing: Battle of Lake Erie, by William H. Powell;
Battle of Chapultepec, by James Walker.


(Unanimously Adopted in Congress, July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia)
When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for
one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected
them w^ith another, and to assume among the pow^ers of the earth,
the separate and equal station to vv^hich the Laws of Nature and
of Nature's God entitles them, a decent respect to the opinions of
mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel
them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident : That all men are created
equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain in-
alienable Rights; that among these are Life, Liberty and the pur-
suit of Happiness. That, to secure these rights. Governments are
instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the con-
sent of the governed; That, whenever any Form of Government
becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People
to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying
its foundations on such principles, and organizing its powers in
such forms, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety
and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments
long established should not be changed for light and transient
causes; and, accordingly, all experience hath shewn, that mankind
are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to
right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are ac-
customed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pur-
suing invariably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them
under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to
throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their
future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these
Colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to
alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the
present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries
and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment
of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts
be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his assent to Laws, the most wholesome and
necessary for the public good,


Declaration of Independence 89

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his
Assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly
neglected to attend to thein.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of
large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish
the right of Representation in the Legislature — a right inestim-
able to them, and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, un-
comfortable and distant from the depository of their public Re-
cords, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with
his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing
with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to
cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, in-
capable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for
their exercise; the State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to
all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States for
that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of For-
eigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration
hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing
his Assent to laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure
of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither
swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their sub-

He has kept among us, in times of peace. Standing Armies with-
out the Consent of our Legislature.

He has affected to render the Military independent of, and
superior to, the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction
foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giv-
ing his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

90 North Carolina Manual

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any

Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these

States :

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas, to be tried for pretended

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbor-
ing Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and
enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an example
and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into
these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable
Laws, and altering, fundamentally, the Forms of our Govern-
ments :

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring them-
selves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatso-

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his
Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns,
and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mer-
cenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny,
already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely
paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the
Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens, taken captive on the
high Seas, to bear Arms against their Country, to become the exe-
cutioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by
their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has
endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merci-
less Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undis-
tinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

Declaration of Independence 91

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for
Redress in the most humble terms; Our repeated Petitions have
been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose char-
acter is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is
unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our Britain brethren.
We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their
legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We
have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and
settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and
magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our com-
mon kindred to disavow these usurpations, which inevitably in-
terrupt our connections and correspondence. They, too, have been
deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, there-
fore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation,
and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind — Enemies in War,
in Peace Friends.

We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of
America, in General Congress Assembled; appealing to the Su-
preme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do,
in the Name and by authority of the good People of these Colonies,
solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and
of Right ought to be, free and independent States; that they are
Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all
political connection between them and the State of Great Britain
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that as Free and Inde-
pendent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude
Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other
Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And
for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the
protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other
our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

John Hancock

Button Gwinnett Edward Rutledge

Lyman Hall Thos. Heyward, Junr.

Geo. Walton Thomas Lynch, Junr.

Wm. Hooper Arthur Middleton

Joseph Hewes Samuel Chase

John Penn Wm. Paca


North Carolina Manual

Thos. Stone

Charles Carroll of Carrollton

James Wilson

Geo. Ross

Caesar Rodney

Geo. Reed

Tho. M. iKean

Wm. Floyd

Phil. Livingston

Frans. Lewis

Lewis Morris

Richd. Stockton

Jno. Witherspoon

Fras. Hopkinson

John Hart

Abra Clark

George Wythe

Richard Henry Lee

Th. Jefferson

Benja. Harrison

Thos. Nelson, Jr.

Francis Lightfoot Lee

Carter Braxton
Robt. Morris
Benjamin Rush
Benja. Franklin
John Morton
Geo. Clymer
Jas. Smith
Geo. Taylor
Josiah Bartlett
Wm. Hippie
Saml. Adams
John Adams
Robt. Treat Payne
Eldridge Gery
Step. Hopkins
William Ellery
Roger Sherman
Samuel Huntington
Wm. Williams
Oliver Woolcott
Matthew Thornton



We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more per-
fect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide
for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure
the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain
and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I

Section 1 — All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate
and House of Representatives.

Sec. 2 — 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of
members chosen every second year by the people of the several
States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have at-
tained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citi-
zen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an
inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among
the several States which may be included within this Union, ac-
cording to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by
adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound
to service for a term of years and excluding Indians not taxed,
three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be
made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of
the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years,
in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Repre-
sentatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each
State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enum-
eration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be en-
titled to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and Providence
Plantations, 1; Connecticut, 5; New York, 6; New Jersey, 4;


94 North Carolina Manual

Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1; Maryland, 6; Virginia, 10; North
Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia, 3.*

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State,
the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill
such vacancies.

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and
other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Sec. 3 — 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of
two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof,
for six years; and each Senator shall have one votet

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of
the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into
three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be
vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class at
the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the ex-
piration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every
second year, and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise,
during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive
thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting
of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.!

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to
the age of thii'ty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that
State for which he shall be chosen.

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of
the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a Presi-
dent pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he
shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments.
When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation.
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice
shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the con-
currence of two-thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further
than to removal fi'om office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy
any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the

* Sse Article XIV. Amendments.
+ See Article XVII, Amendments.

Constitution of the United States 95

party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indict-
ment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

Sec. 4 — 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections
for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State
by the Legislature thereof, but the Congress may at any time by
law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of
choosing Senators.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and
such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they
shall by law appoint a different day.

Sec. 5 — 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, re-
turns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of
each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller num-
ber may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to com-
pel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under
such penalties as each House may provide.

2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish
its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of
two-thirds, expel a member.

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from
time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their
judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members
of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of
those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without
the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to
any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Sec. 6 — 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a
compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid
out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases,
except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from
arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective
Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any
speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned in
any other place.

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which
he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority
of the United States which shall have been created, or the emolu-

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