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20 North Carolina Manual

$100,000, yet the people were satisfied. The building had been
erected with rigorous economy, and it was an object of great pride
to the people. Indeed, never was money better expended than in
the erection of this noble Capitol.

Description of the Capitol, Written by David Paton,

the Architect

"The State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south
by 140 feet from east to west. The whole height is 97^/2 feet in the
center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. The stylobate
is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes
are 5 feet 21/2 inches in diameter. At entablature, including block-
ing course, is continued around the building, 12 feet high.

"The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied
from the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon,
which was erected in Athens about 500 years before Christ. An
octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with
Grecian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a
similar ornament to that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates,
commonly called the Lanthorn of Demosthenes.

"The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First,
the lower story, consisting of ten rooms, eight of which are appro-
priated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and Comp-
troller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one contain-
ing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet — the two
committee rooms, each containing 200 square feet, and four
closets; also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, and piazzas, con-
tain an area of 4,370 square feet. The vestibules are decorated
with columns and antae, similar to those of the Ionic Temple on the
Ilissus, near the Acropolis of Athens. The remainder is groined
with stone and brick, springing from columns and pilasters of
the Roman Doric.

"The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives'
chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter
2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from Senate Chamber,
two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the
other two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two
rooms enter from Representatives' chamber, each containing an

The State Capitol 21

area of 170 square feet; of two committee rooms, each containing
an area of 231 square feet; of four presses and the passages,
stairs, lobbies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square

"The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns
and antae of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and
the plan of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theatre and
the columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are
of the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva Polias, and Pandrosus, in
the Acropolis of Athens, near the above named Parthenon.

"Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the
Supreme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 square
feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square feet;
also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square
feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These
lobbies as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed
to finish the court and library in the florid Gothic style."


Governors of "Virginia"

Ralph Lane, April ...., 1585-June ...., 1586.
John White, April ...., 1587-August ...., 1587.

Chief Executives Under the Proprietors

William Drummond, October . .., 1663-October ...., 1667.
Samuel Stephens, October ...., 1667-December ...., 1669.
Peter Carteret, October ...., 1670-May ...., 1673.
John Jenkins, May ...., 1673-November ...., 1676.

Thomas Eastchurch, November ...., 1676- , 1678.

Thomas Miller, , 1677-

John Culpepper, , 1677- , 1678.

Seth Sothel, , 1678- ...

John Harvey, February ...., 1679-August ...., 1679.

John Jenkins, November ...., 1679- , 1681.

Seth Sothel, , 1682- , 1689.

Philip Ludwell, December ...., 1689- , 1691.

22 North Carolina Manual

Philip Ludwcll, November 2, 1G91- , 1694.

Thomas Jarvis, , 1691- , 1694.

John Archdale, August 31, 1694- , 1696.

John Harvey, , 1694- , 1699.

Henderfon Walker , 1699-August 14, 1704.

Robert Daniel, , 1704- , 1705.

Thomas Gary, , 1705- , 1706.

William Glover, , 1706- , 1708.

Thomas Gary, , 1708-January ...., 1711.

Edward Hyde, , 1710-May 9, 1712.

Edward Hyde, May 9, 1712-September 8, 1712.
Thomas Pollock, September 12, 1712-May 28, 1714.
Charles Eden, May 28, 1714-March 26, 1722.
Thomas Pollock, March 30, 1722-August 30, 1722.
William Reed, August 30, 1722-January 15, 1724.
George Burrington, January 15, 1724-July 17, 1725.
Richard Everard, July 17, 1725-May ...., 1728.

Governors Under the Crown

Richard Everard, May ...., 1728-February 25, 1731.
George Burrington, February 25, 1731-April 15, 1734.
Nathaniel Rice, April 15, 1734-October 27, 1734.
Gabriel Johnston, October 27, 1734-July 17, 1752.
Matthew Rowan, July 17, 1752-November 2, 1754.
Arthur Dobbs, November 2, 1754-March 28, 1765.
William Tryon, March 28, 1765-December 20, 1765.
William Tryon, December 20, 1765-JuIy 1, 1771.
James Hasell, July 1, 1771-August 12, 1771.
Josiah Martin, August 12, 1771-May ...., 1775.

Governors Elected by the Legislature

Name, County, Term of Office

Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 19, 1776-April 18, 1777.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 18, 1777-April 18, 1778.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 18-1778-May 4, 1779.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, May 4, 1779-April, 1780.
Abner Nash, Craven, April, 1780-June 26, 1781.
Thomas Burke, Orange, June 26, 1781-April 26, 1782.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, April 26, 1782-April 30, 1783.

Governors 23

Alexander Martin, Guilford, April 30, 1783-April 1, 1785.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 1, 1785-December 12, 1785.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 12, 1785-December 23, 1786.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 23, 1786-December 20, 1787.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, December 20, 1787-November 18, 1788.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, November 18, 1788-November 16, 1789.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, November 16, 1789-December 17, 1789.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, December 17, 1789-December 9, 1790.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, December 9, 1790-January 2, 1792.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, January 2, 1792-December 14, 1792.
R. D. Spaight, Craven, December 14, 1792-December 26, 1793.
R. D. Spaig-ht, Craven, December 26, 1793-January 6, 1795.
R. D. Spaight, Craven, January 6, 1795-November 19, 1795.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, November 19, 1795-December 19, 1796.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, December 19, 1796-December 5, 1797.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, December 5, 1797-December 7. 1798.
W. R. Davie, Halifax, December 7, 1798-November 23, 1799.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 23, 1799-November 29, 1800.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 29, 1800-November 28, 1801.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 28, 1801-December 6, 1802.
James Turner, Warren, December 6, 1802-December 1, 1803.
James Turner, Warren, December 1, 1803-November 29, 1804.
James Turner, Warren, November 29, 1804-December 10, 1805.
Nathaniel Alexander, Mecklenburg, December 10, 1805-December

1, 1806.
Nathaniel Alexander, Mecklenburg, December 1, 1806-December 1,

Benjamin Williams, Moore, December 1, 1807-December 12, 1808.
David Stone, Bertie, December 12, 1808-December 13, 1809.
David Stone, Bertie, December 13, 1809-December 5, 1810.
Benjamin Smith, Brunswick, December 5, 1810-December 9, 1811.
William Hawkins, Warren, December 9, 1811-November 25, 1812.
William Hawkins, Warren, November 25, 1812-November 20, 1813.
William Hawkins, Warren, November 20, 1813-November 29, 1814.
William Miller, Warren, November 29, 1814-December 7, 1815.
William Miller, Warren, December 7, 1815-December 7, 1816.
William Miller, Warren, December 7, 1816-December 3, 1817.
John Branch, Halifax, December 3, 1817-November 24, 1818.
John Branch, Halifax, November 24, 1818-November 25, 1819.

24 North Carolina Manual

John Branch, Halifax, November 25, 1819-December 7, 1820.
Jesse Franklin, Surry, December 7, 1820-December 7, 1821.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 7, 1821-December 7, 1822.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 7, 1822-December 6, 1823.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 6, 1823-December 7, 1824.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 7, 1824-December 6, 1825.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 6, 1825-December 29, 1826.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 29, 1826-December 8, 1827.
James Iredell, Chowan, December 8, 1827-December 12, 1828.
John Owen, Bladen, December 12, 1828-December 10, 1829.
John Owen, Bladen, December 10, 1829-December 18, 1830.
Montford Stokes, Wilkes, December 18, 1830-December 13, 1831.
Montford Stokes, Wilkes, December 13, 1831-December 6, 1832.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 6, 1832-December 9, 1833.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 9, 1833-December 10, 1834.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 10, 1834-December 10, 1835.
R. D. Spaig-ht, Jr., Craven, December 10, 1835-December 31, 1836.

Governors Elected by the People

E. B. Dudley, New Hanover, December 31, 1836-December 29, 1838.
E. B. Dudley, New Hanover, December 29, 1838-January 1, 1841.
J. M. Morehead, Guilford, January 1, 1841-December 31, 1842.
J. M. Morehead, Guilford, December 31, 1842-January 1, 1845.
W. A. Graham, Orange, January 1, 1845-January 1, 1847.
W. A. Graham, Orange, January 1, 1847-January 1, 1849.
Charles Manly, Wake, January 1, 1849-January 1, 1851.
D. S. Reid, Rockingham, January 1, 1851-December 22, 1852.
D. S. Reid, Rockingham, December 22, 1852-December 6, 1854.
Warren Winslow, Cumberland, December 6, 1854-January 1, 1855.
Thomas Bragg, Northampton, January 1, 1855-January 1, 1857.
Thomas Bragg, Northampton, January 1, 1857-January 1, 1859.
John W. Ellis, Rowan, January 1, 1859-January 1, 1861.
John W. Ellis, Rowan, January 1, 1861-July 7, 1861.
Henry T. Clark, Edgecombe, July 7, 1861-September 8, 1862.
Z. B. Vance, Buncombe, September 8, 1862-December 22, 1864.
Z. B. Vance, Buncombe, December 22, 1864-May 29, 1865.
W. W. Holden, Wake, May 29, 1865-December 15, 1865.
Jonathan Worth, Randolph, December 15, 1865-December 22, 1866.

Governors 25

Jonathan Worth, Randolph, December 22, 1866-July 1, 1868.
W. W. Holden, Wake, July 1, 1868-December 15, 1870.
T. R. Caldwell, Burke, December 15, 1870-January 1, 1873.
T. R. Caldwell, Burke, January 1, 1873-July 11, 1874.

C. H. Brogden, Wayne, July 11, 1874-January 1, 1877.

Z. B. Vance, Mecklenburg, January 1, 1877-February 5, 1879.

T. J. Jarvis, Pitt, February 5, 1879-January 18, 1881.

T. J. Jarvis, Pitt, January 18, 1881-January 21, 1885.

A. M. Scales, Rockingham, January 21, 1885-January 17, 1889.

D. G. Fowle, Wake, January 17, 1889-April 8, 1891.
Thomas M. Holt, Alamance, April 8, 1891-January 18, 1893.
Elias Carr, Edgecombe, January 18, 1893-January 12, 1897.
D. L. Russell, Brunswick, January 12, 1897-January 15, 1901.
C. B. Aycock, Wayne, January 15, 1901-January 11, 1905.

R. B. Glenn, Forsyth, January 11, 1905-January 12, 1909.
W. W. Kitchen, Person, January 12, 1909-January 15, 1913.
Locke Craige, Buncombe, January 15, 1913-January 11, 1917.
Thomas W. Bickett, Franklin, January 11, 1917-January 12, 1921.
Cameron Morrison, Mecklenburg, January 12, 1921-January 14,

Angus Wilton McLean, Robeson, January 14, 1925-January 11,

O. Max Gardner, Cleveland, January 11, 1929-January 5, 1933.
J. C. B. Ehringhaus, Pasquotank, January 5, 1933-January 7, 1937.
Clyde R. Hoey, Cleveland, January 7, 1937-January 9, 1941.
J. Melville Broughton, Wake, January 9, 1941-January 4, 1945.
R. Gregg Cherry, Gaston, January 4, 1945-January 6, 1949.
W. Kerr Scott, Alamance, January 6, 1949-


An Act to Establish a State Flag

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact:

Section 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a blue
union, containing in the center thereof a white star with the letter
N in gilt on the left and the letter C in gilt on the right of said
star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of
the union.

Sec. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally pro-
portioned bars; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be white;
that the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to the per-
pendicular length cf the union, and the total length of the flag
shall be one-third more than its width.

Sec. 3. That above the star in the center of the union there
shall be a gilt scroll in semicircular form, containing in black let-
ters this inscription: "May 20th, 1775," and that below the star
there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the in-
scription: "April 12th, 1776."

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th
day of March, A.D., 1885.

No change has been made in the flag since the passage of this
act. By an act of 1907 it is provided:

"That the board of trustees or managers of the several State in-
stitutions and public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag,
of such dimensions and materials as they may deem best, and the
same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and
every such building at all times except during inclement weather,
and upon the death of any State officer or any prominent citizen
the Flag shall be put at half-mast until the burial of such person
shall have taken place.

"That the Board of County Commissioners of the several coun-
ties in this State shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North
Carolina flag, to be displayed either on a staff upon the top, or
draped behind the Judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in
the State, and that the State flag shall be displayed at each and
every term of court held, and on such other public occasions as
the Commissioners may deem proper." (Rev., s. 5321; 1885, c. 291;
1907, c. 838.)


20th May, 1775*


Names of the Delegates Present

Col. Thomas Polk John McKnitt Alexander

Ephraim Brevard Hezekiah Alexander

Hezekiah J. Balch Adam Alexander

John Phifer Charles Alexander

James Harris Zacheus Wilson, Sen.

William Kennon Waightstill Avery

John Ford Benjamin Patton

Richard Barry ■ Mathew McClure

Henry Downs Neil Morrison

Ezra Alexander Robert Irwin

William Graham John Flenniken

John Quary David Reese

Abraham Alexander Richard Harris, Sen.

Abraham Alexander was appointed Chairman, and John Mc-
Knitt Alexander, Clerk. The following resolutions were offered,

1. Resolved, That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in
any way form or manner countenanced the unchartered and dan-
gerous invasion of our rights as claimed by Great Britain is an
enemy to this country, to America, and to the inherent and in-
alienable rights of man.

2. Resolved, That we the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do
hereby dissolve the political bands which have connected us to the
mother country and hereby absolve ourselves from all allegiance
to the British Crown and abjure all political connection contract
or association with that nation who have wantonly trampled on
our right and liberties and inhumanly shed the blood of American
patriots at Lexington.

3. Resolved, That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and in-
dependent people, are, and of right ought to be a sovereign and

* The above is found in Vol IX, pages 1263-65 of The Colonial Records of
North Carolina.


The Mecklenburg Declaration 29

self-governing association under the control of no power other
than that of our God and the General Government of the Congress
to the maintenance of which independence we solemnly pledge to
each other our mutual cooperation, our lives, our fortunes, and
our most sacred honor.

4. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and con-
trol of no law or legal officer, civil or military within this County,
we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of life all each and every
of our former laws — wherein nevertheless the Crown of Great
Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, im-
munities, or authority therein.

5. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every
Military Officer in this Country is hereby reinstated in his former
command and authority, he acting comformably to these regula-
tions. And that every member present of this delegation shall
henceforth be a civil officer, viz., a justice of the peace, in the
character of a "committee man" to issue process, hear and deter-
mine all matters of controversy according to said adopted laws
and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, and
to use every exertion to spread the love of Country and fire of
freedom throughout America, until a more general and organized
government be established in this Province.


The Constitution of North Carolina, Article III, section 16, re-
quires that

"There shall be a seal of the State which shall be kept by the
Governor, and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be
called 'The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina.' All grants
and commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority
of the State of North Carolina, sealed with 'The Great Seal of the
State,' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary
of State."

The use of a Great Seal for the attestation of important docu-
ments began with the institution of government in North Carolina.
There have been at various times nine different seals in use in
the colony and State.

The present Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is de-
scribed as follows:

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is two and one-
(juarter inches in diameter, and its design is a representation of
the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but
not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise disposed, as
follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole with cap on it
in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Constitution' inscribed
thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down,
her right arm half extended toward Liberty, three heads of wheat
in her right hand, and in her left the small end of her horn, the
mouth of which is resting at her feet, and the contents of horn
rolling out. In the exergon is inserted the words May 20, 1775,
above the coat of arms. Around the circumference is the legend
'The Great Seal of the State of Noilh Carolina' and the motto
'Esse Quam Videri'." (Rev., s. 5339; Code ss. 3328, 3329; 1868-9,
c. 270, s. 35; 1883, c. 392; 1893, c. 145.)



By popular choice the Cardinal was selected for adoption as
our State Bird as of March 4, 1943. (S. L. 1943 c. 595; G. S.

This bird is sometimes called the Winter Redbird because it is
most conspicuous in winter and is the only "redbird" present at
that season. It is an all year round resident and one of the com-
monest birds in our gardens and thickets. It is about the size of a
Catbird with a longer tail, red all over, except that the throat and
region around the bill is black; the head is conspicuously crested
and the large stout bill is red; the female is much duller — the
red being mostly confined to the crest, wings and tail. There are
no seasonal changes in the plumage.

The Cardinal is a fine singer, and what is unusual among birds
the female is said to sing as well as the male, which latter sex
usually has a monopoly of that art in the feathered throngs.

The nest is rather an untidy affair built of weed stems, grass
and similar materials in a low shrub, small tree or bunch of briars,
usually not over four feet above the ground. The usual number of
eggs to a set is three in this State, usually four further North.
Possibly the Cardinal raises an extra brood down here to make
up the difference, or possibly he can keep up his normal population
more easily here through not having to face inclement winters
of the colder North. A conspicuous bird faces more hazards.

The Cardinal is by nature a seed eater, but he does not dislike
small fruits and insects.



Adopted by the Provincial Congress of North Carolina in Session

at Halifax, April 12, 1776

It appears to your committee that pursuant to the plan concerted
by the British Ministry for subjugating- America, the King and
Parliament of Great Britain have usurped a power over the per-
sons and properties of the people unlimited and uncontrolled; and
disregarding their humble petitions for peace, liberty and safety,
have made divers legislative acts, denouncing war, famine, and
every species of calamity, against the Continent in general. The
British fleets and armies have been, and still are, daily employed
in destroying the people, and committing the most horrid devasta-
tions on the country. The Governors in different Colonies have de-
clared protection to slaves who should imbrue their hands in the
blood of their masters. That ships belonging to America are de-
clared prizes of war, and many of them have been violently seized
and confiscated. In consequence of all of which multitudes of the
people have been destroyed, or from easy circumstances reduced
to the most lamentable distress.

And Whereas, The moderation hitherto manifested by the
United Colonies and their sincere desire to be reconciled to the
mother country on constitutional principles, have procured no
mitigation of the aforesaid wrongs and usurpations, and no hopes
remain of obtaining redress by those means alone which have been
hitherto tried, your committee are of opinion that the House should
enter into the following resolve, to wit:

Resolved, That the delegates for this Colony in the Continental
Congress be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other
Colonies in declaring Independency, and forming foreign alliances,
reserving to this Colony the sole and exclusive right of forming
a Constitution and laws for this Colony, and of appointing dele-
gates from time to time (under the direction of a general repre-
sentation thereof), to meet the delegates of the other Colonies for
such purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out.



In 1629 King Charles the First of England "erected into a
province," all the land from Albemarle Sound on the north to the
St. John's River on the south, which he directed should be called
Carolina. The word Carolina is from the word Carolus, the Latin
form of Charles.

When Carolina was divided in 1710, the southern part was
called South Carolina and the northern or older settlement was
called North Carolina, or the "Old North State." Historians had
recorded the fact that the principal products of this State were
"tar, pitch and turpentine." It was during one of the fiercest
battles of the War Between the States, so the story goes, that the
column supporting the North Carolina troops was driven from the
field. After the battle the North Carolinians, who had successfully
fought it out alone, were greeted from the passing derelict regi-
ment with the question: "Any more tar down in the Old North
State, boys?" Quick as a flash came the answer: "No; not a bit;
old Jeff's bought it all up." "Is that so; what is he going to do
with it?" was asked. "He is going to put it on you'uns heels to
make you stick better in the next fight." Creecy relates that Gen-
eral Lee, hearing of the incident, said: "God bless the Tar Heel
boys," and from that they took the name. — Adapted from Grand-
father Tales of North Carolina by R. B. Creecy and Histories of
North Carolina Regiments, Vol. Ill, by Walter Clark.

The State Motto

The General Assembly of 1893 (chapter 145) adopted the words
"Esse Quam Videri" as the State's motto and directed that these
words with the date "20 May, 1775," should be placed with our
Coat of Arms upon the Great Seal of the State.

The words "Esse Quam Videri" mean "to be rather than to
seem." Nearly every State has adopted a motto, generally in Latin,
The reason for their mottoes being in Latin is that the Latin
tongue is far more condensed and terse than the English. The
three words, "Esse Quam Videri," require at least six English
words to express the same idea.

Curiosity has been aroused to learn the origin of our State
motto. It is found in Cicero in his essay on Friendship (Cicero de
Amicitia, chap. 26.)


36 North Carolina Manual

It is a little singular that until the act of 1893 the sovereign
State of North Carolina had no motto since its declaration of in-
dependence. It was one of the very few States which did not have
a motto and the only one of the original thirteen without one.

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