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NORTH CAROLINA
1^ MANUAL
1955





JONATHAN DANIELS



THE LIBRARY OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF

NORTH CAROLINA




THE COLLECTION OF
NORTH CAROLINIANA

PRESENTED BY

Jonathan Daniels



CO17.05
N87in
1955
C.3



UNIVERSITY OF N C. AT CHAPEL HILL



00017482537



This book is due on the last date stamped
below unless recalled sooner. It may be
renewed only once and must be brought to
the North Carolina Collection for renewal.






IMft



JUN 1 2004



Form No. A -369



NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL

1955




Issued by

Thad Eure

Secretary of State

Raleigh



1955



JANUARY

S M T W T I" S
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1956



JANUARY

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TO THE

1955 MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
OF NORTH CAROLINA



TO THE

STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND TOWN OFFICIALS



AND TO THE

PEOPLE OF THE OLD NORTH STATE
AT HOME AND ABROAD



THIS MANUAL IS RESPECTFULLY
DEDICATED




Secretary of State



Printed by

WINSTON PRINTING COMPANY

Winston-Salem, N. C, U. S. A.



CONTENTS

PART I
HISTORICAL

Page

The State 3

The State Capitol 15

Chief Executives of North Carolina

Governors of Virginia 18

Executives under the Proprietors 18

Governors under the Crown 19

Governors Elected by the Legislature 19

Governors Elected by the People 21

List of Lieutenant Governors 23

The State Flag — - 25

The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence 26

The Great Seal of North Carolina 28

The State Bird 31

The Halifax Resolution 32

Name of State and Nicknames 33

The State Motto 33

The State Colors 34

The State Flower 34

The State's Most Famous Toast 34

Legal Holidays in North Carolina 34

Population of the State since 1675 35

State Song 36

The Constitution of North Carolina 37

The American's Creed 77

The American Flag

Origin 77

Proper Display 79

Pledge to the Flag 83

The National Capitol 85

Declaration of Independence 88

Constitution of the United States -— 93

PART II

CENSUS

Seventeenth Census, 1950

Population of State — 117

Population of Counties 118

Population of Cities and Towns

Incorpoi-ated places of 10,000 or more 118

Incorporated places of 2,500 to 10,000 ._-... 119

Incorporated places of 1,000 to 2,500 119

Incorporated places of less than 1,000 121



VI North Carolina Manual

PART III

POLITICAL

Page

Cong:ressional Districts 127

Judicial Districts 127

Senatorial Districts and Apportionment of Senators 128

Apportionment of Members of the House of Representatives _.._ 131

State Democratic Platform 132

Plan of Organization of the State Democratic Party 151

Committees of the Democratic Party

State Democratic Executive Committee 164

Congressional District Executive Committees 170

Judicial District Executive Committees 174

Senatorial District Executive Committees 178

State Democratic Solicitorial District

Executive Committees 181

Chairman of the County Executive Committees 185

State Republican Platform 187

Plan of Organization of the State Republican Party 190

Committees of the Republican Party

State Republican Executive Committee 197

Congressional, Judicial and Senatorial

District Committees . 202

Chairmen of the County Executive Committees 202

PART IV

ELECTION RETURNS

Popular and Electoral Vote for President by States, 1952 205

Popular Vote for President by State, 1936-1948 206

Vote for President by Counties, 1932-1952 208

Vote for Governor by Counties, Primaries, 1952 __ 211

Vote for Governor by Counties, General Elections, 1932-1952 ._.. 213

Vote for State Officials, Democratic Primaries, 1944 and 1948 ._ 216

Vote for State Officials by Counties, Primary, 1952 217

Total Votes Cast— General Election, 1952 225

Vote for Governor in Democratic Primaries, 1924-1952 226

Vote for State Officials in Democratic Primary, May 29, 1954 .. 227

Vote for State Officials in General Election, November 2, 1954 __ 229
Vote for Justices of Supreme Court in General Election,

November 2, 1954 231

Vote for Congressmen in Democratic Primary, May 29, 1954 ._-. 233

Vote for Members of Congress, 1940-1954 _ -.... 235

Vote for United States Senator, Democratic Primary,

May 29, 1954 -: 247

Vote for United States Senator, General Election,

November 2, 1954 251

Vote for Constitutional Amendments by Counties, 1954 253

Vote on Prohibition, 1881, 1908, 1933 ..-.. 259



Contents VII

PART V
GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES, BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS

Page

Agencies, Boards and Commissions 263

North Carolina Institutions
Correctional

White 290

Negro 290

Educational

White - 291

Negro 299

Hospitals

White 302

Negro 305

Confederate Woman's Home 306

Examining Boards 307

State Owned Railroads 315

PART VI
LEGISLATIVE

The General Assembly

Senate

Officers . 319

Senators (Arranged Alphabetically) 319

Senators (Arranged by Districts) 320

Rules 321

Standing Committees 337

Seat Assignments 342

House of Representatives

Officers . 343

Members (Arranged Alphabetically) 343

Members (Arranged by Counties) 345

Rules 347

Standing Committees 363

Seat Assignments 378

PART VII
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

Executive Officials 383

Administrative Officials 392

United States Senators 412

Representatives in Congress 415

Justices of the Supreme Court .. 426

Members of the General Assembly

Senators — 433

Representatives 464

Occupational and Professional Classification 530



VIII North Carolina Manual

PART VIII

OFFICIAL REGISTER

Page
United States Government

President and Vice-President 537

Cabinet Members 537

North Cai-olina Senators and Representatives in Congress 537

United States Supreme Court Justices 537

United States District Court

Judges -_- 537

Clerks 537

District Attorneys 537

United States Circuit Court of Appeals

Judge Fourth District 537

State Government

Legislative Department - 538

Executive Department 538

Judicial Department 538

Administrative Department 539

State Institutions 540

Heads of Agencies other than State 541

County Government 542

ILLUSTRATIONS

State Capitol 16

State Flag-. .. 24

State Seal 29

State Bird 30

State Song (Words and Music) 36

Map of North Carolina 74

The American Flag 76

Map Showing Congressional Districts 136, 137

Map Showing Senatorial Districts 168, 169

Map Showing Judicial Districts 200, 201

Seating Diagram of Senate Chamber 341

Seating Diagram of House of Representatives 379

Pictures

Governor 382

State Officers 387

Senators and Congressmen 411, 420

Justices of the Supreme Court 425

State Senators - 432, 443, 454

Members of the House of Representatives

466, 473, 482, 489, 498, 505, 514



PART 1
HISTORICAL



THE STATE

North Carolina, often called the "Tar Heel" state, was the scene
of the first attempt to colonize America by English-speaking peo-
ple. Under a charter granted to Sir Walter Raleigh by Queen
Elizabeth, a colony was begun in the 1580's on Roanoke Island.
This settlement, however, was unsuccessful and later became
known as "The Lost Colony."

The first permanent settlement was made about 1650 by immi-
grants from Virginia. In 1663 Charles II granted to eight Lords
Proprietors a charter for the territory lying "within six and
thirty degrees of the northern latitude, and to the west as far as
the south seas, and so southerly as far as the river St. Mattias,
which bordereth upon the coast of Florida, and within one and
thirty degrees of northern latitude, and so west in a direct line as
far as the south seas aforesaid; . . ." and the colony was called
Carolina. In 1665 another charter was granted to these noble-
men. This charter extended the limits of Carolina so that the
northern line was 36 degrees and 30 minutes north latitude, and
the southern line was 29 degrees north latitude, and both of these
lines extended westward to the South Seas.

In 1669 John Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitutions as a
model for the government of Carolina. The Lords Proprietors
adopted these constitutions and directed the governor to put into
operation as much of them as was feasible. In 1670 there were
four precincts (changed to counties in 1739) ; Pasquotank, Per-
quimans, Chowan, and Currituck. North Carolina now has one
hundred counties.

Carolina on December 7, 1710, was divided into North Carolina
and South Carolina, and Edward Hyde, on May 12, 1712, became
the first governor of North Carolina.

In 1729 seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their interest
in Carolina to the Crown and North Carolina became a royal
colony. George Burrington was the first royal governor. Richard
Everard, the last proprietary governor, served until Burrington
was appointed.

North Carolina, on April 12, 1776, authorized her delegates in
the Continental Congress to vote for independence, and on Decem-
ber 18, 1776, adopted a constitution. Richard Caswell became the



4 North Carolina Manual

first governor under this constitution. On November 21, 1789, the
state adopted the United States Constitution, being the twelfth
state to enter the Federal Union. North Carolina, in 1788, had
i-ejected the Constitution on the grounds that certain amendments
were vital and necessary to a free people.

A Constitutional convention was held in 1835 and among several
changes made in the Constitution was the method of electing the
governor. After this change the governor was elected by the peo-
ple for a term of two years instead of being elected by the Legis-
lature for a term of one year. Edward Bishop Dudley was the
first governor elected by the people.

North Carolina seceded from the Union May 20, 1861, and was
readmitted to the Union in July, 1868.

A new State Constitution was adopted in 1868 and since that
date the governor has been elected by the people for four-year
terms and he cannot succeed himself. There has not been a new
constitution since 1868, but numerous amendments have been
added to it.

North Carolina has had a democratic administration since 1900,
during which period it has made its greatest progress.

North Carolina has had two permanent capitals — New Bern and
Raleigh — and there have been three capitol buildings. Tryon's
Palace in New Bern was constructed in the period, 1767-1770, and
the main building was destroyed by fire February 27, 1798. The
first capitol in Raleigh was completed in 1794 and was destroyed
by fire on June 21, 1831. The present capitol was completed in 1840,

The state in 1790 ceded her western lands, which was composed
of Washington, Davidson, Hawkins, Greene, Sullivan, Sumner,
and Tennessee counties, to the Federal government, and between
1790 and 1796 the territory was known as Tennessee Territory,
but in 1796 it became the fifteenth state in the Union.

In 1738, the General Assembly of North Carolina passed an act
authorizing the establishment of district courts which served as
appelant courts. These courts were authorized to be held in Bath,
New Bern, and New Town — now Wilmington. In 1746, the Gen-
eral Assembly repealed the act of 1738 and established district
courts to be held at Edenton, Wilmington, and Edgecombe. From
1754 until 1790, other districts were formed as the state expanded
in territory and developed needs for these districts. By 1790, there



The State 6

were eight judicial districts divided into two ridings of four dis-
tricts each. In 1806, the General Assembly passed an act estab-
lishing a superior court in each county. The act also set up judi-
cial districts composed of certain contiguous counties, and this
practice of expanding the districts has continued from five dis-
tricts in 1806 until now there are twenty-one districts.

When North Carolina adopted the Federal Constitution on
November 21, 1789, she was authorized to send two senators and
five representatives to the Congress of the United States accord-
ing to the constitutional apportionment. In 1792, when the first
federal census had been completed and tabulated, it was found
that North Carolina was entitled to ten representatives. It was
then that the General Assembly divided the state into ten congres-
sional districts. In 1812, the state had grown and increased in
population until it was entitled to thirteen representatives in Con-
gress. Between 1812 and 1865, however, the population decreased
so much in proportion to the population of the other states of the
Union that North Carolina was by that time entitled only to
seven representatives. Since 1865 the population of the state has
shown a slow but steady increase, and now there are twelve con-
gressional districts. The state, therefore, has two senators and
twelve representatives in the Congress of the United States.

Agriculture

North Carolina from its earliest time has been an agricultural
State. Approximately 62 per cent of the State's total land area of
31,422,080 acres is in farm land. The United States Census for
1950 shows that 1,376,560 or nearly one-third of the people in
North Carolina live on farms, giving it the largest farm popula-
tion of any State in the Nation. According to the United States
Census of 1950, the average size of farms was 67 acres.

In 1953 cash receipts from farming totaled nearly $904,000,000
— third highest of record. For the same period. North Carolina
ranked fourth among all states in cash receipts from crops, 23rd
in receipts from livestock and products, and held 12th position in
total cash receipts from farming. North Carolina farmers re-
ceived about 76 per cent of their cash receipts from sales of crops,
and 24 per cent from sales of livestock and livestock products.



6 North Carolina Manual

From the standpoint of cash returns, tobacco is by far the most
important single crop produced in the State, contributing almost
51 per cent of the total cash receipts during 1953. Cash receipts
from cotton lint and cottonseed during 1953 accounted for a little
over 10 per cent of the total cash farm income, making it the sec-
ond in importance from this standpoint. Peanuts ranked "third
with North Carolina farmers receiving 3.8 per cent of the total
cash farm income from this source. Cash receipts from mai-ketings
of poultry and eggs, including turkeys, amounted to 10.4 per cent
of the total cash receipts. Dairy products accounted for 6.2 per
cent, hogs 5.4 per cent, and cattle and calves 2 per cent.

North Carolina produced 832.3 million pounds of flue-cured
tobacco in 1953, or about 65 per cent of all flue-cured tobacco pro-
duced in the United States. The production of hurley tobacco
totaled 20.5 million pounds, making total tobacco production in the
State during the year 852.8 million pounds, having a total value
of slightly more than $458,000,000.

Corn w^as produced on 2,137,000 acres in the State during 1953,
and is the biggest single crop from the standpoint of acreage pror
duced in the State. The total production of corn amounted to ap-
proximately 58 million bushels valued at $92,300,000, making it
the second most important crop from the standpoint of value of
production. The State produced 453,000 bales of cotton during
1953 from 775,000 acres. Cotton lint production was valued at
$74,100,000, with the cottonseed crop worth about $9,500,000,
making a total value of $83,600,000.

During the year 878,000 acres was devoted to the production of
small grains (wheat, oats, barley and rye). The production of
all small grains amounted to 26.2 million bushels, with a value
of $32,100,000. The 1953 all hay crop was worth $37,200,000. Hays
were cut from 1,164,000 acres, with a total hay production of
1,145,000 tons. Lespedeza is the biggest single hay crop in the
State, making about 36 per cent of the total production in 1953.

The 1953 peanut crop had a value of approximately $32,500,-
000. This crop is concentrated largely in the northeastern section
of the State, and is a major cash crop in this area. Practically all
of the peanuts produced in North Carolina are the edible type,
and are grown for commercial purposes. About 271 million pounds
were produced in North Carolina in 1953 from 177,000 acres.



The State 7

Soybeans are another important cash crop in Coastal areas.
About 263,000 acres of soybeans were harvested for beans in 1953.
Total production amounted to 3,800,000 bushels, having a total
value of about $9,700,000. North Carolina also produces a wide
variety of truck crops for commercial purposes. Commercial truck
crops, excluding Irish potatoes, were harvested from approxi-
mately 80,000 acres during 1953. The total value of all truck crops
produced during the year was .$14,500,000.

The State also produced a 24 million pound lespedeza seed crop,
having a value of slightly more than $4,000,000.

The total Irish potato crop for the year was 6.1 million bushels,
having a value of $5,600,000. Sweet potatoes are produced gen-
erally over the State, with commercial production concentrated in
eastern counties. The 1953 crop totaled 4.7 million bushels and
was worth $12,300,000.

North Carolina also produces considerable quantities of cer-
tain fruits and nuts. Normally the State produces slightly over
a million bushels of commercial apples, but in 1953, due to cli-
matic factors, the crop amounted to only 873,000 bushels. In addi-
tion to apples, the State produced 1,180,000 bushels of peaches
during the year, approximately half of which goes for commer-
cial purposes. The 1953 pecan crop totaled almost 3.8 million
pounds — the largest pecan crop ever produced in the State.

January 1, 1954 inventories of livestock on North Carolina
farms show 961,000 head of cattle and calves, having a total value
of $68,200,000. This is the largest inventory of cattle and calves
in the State on record and reflects the trend toward the use of
livestock for further diversification and added source of income.
Of this total, 606,000 head were being kept primarily for milk
production, with the remaining 355,000 being primarily beef stock.
On this same date there were 1,035,000 head of hogs and pigs on
North Carolina farms, worth $30,222,000. All chickens on farms
numbered 12,404,000 having a total value of $15,505,000. The in-
ventory of turkeys showed 67,000 on hand January 1, with a total
value of $429,000.

Conservation and Development
In the conservation and development of its natural resources,
North Carolina is making notable progress. Efforts being made



8 North Carolina Manual

to promote wiser and more profitable use of these resources are
paying: dividends.

Considerable progress is being made in bringing about a better
balance between agriculture and industry. More payrolls of a
year-around nature are being provided through the industrial
expansion program that is receiving so much attention during
the present administration.

Long known for its leadership in the various types of industry,
North Carolina is gaining recognition as a state in which many
diversified products are manufactured for the markets of the
Nation and the world. In sales volume, textiles, tobacco, furni-
ture, food and chemicals are highest.

The electrical and electronics equipment industry is the newest
and the fastest growing in the State. Its rapid growth is attracting
to the State some of the most respected names in industry. Before
World War II this industry was practically non-existent in North
Carolina. Now there are 40 such plants with more than 22,000
employees engaged in the production of electrical and electronics
equipment and supplies.

At the end of 1953 there were approximately 7,500 manufac-
turing plants in operation in the State. They employed some
464,000 persons, who had a total income of approximately $1,802,-
000,000. These workers, who have won wide acclaim for their
productivity from many out-of-state industrialists locating new
plants in North Carolina, produced products valued at $6,599,-
000,000. An indication of how North Carolina is growing indus-
trially is seen in comparison with products manufactured in 1939.
That year they were valued at $1,421,000. There are now about
3,500 more manufacturing plants in the State than there were in
1945.

The approximately 1,100 textile plants in the State employed
some 234,000 workers in 1953. They had gross earnings of about
$944,000,000, and they turned out products valued at $2,819,000,-
000. Textile products manufactured in the State in 1939 had a
value of $550,000,000.

The State's textile industry is becoming more and more diversi-
fied within itself. In addition to cotton, it produces a wide variety
of synthetic and woolen textiles.

More than 40 per cent of America's hosiery is produced in
North Carolina.



The State



Although textiles and tobacco account for more than half the
dollar value in production, healthy diversification of the State's
industrial development is shown in the following table' of the
eleven largest classifications, listed according to 1953 rank:





1939


1951


1952


1953


Textiles -.


$ 549,700,000
538,400,000
69,200,000
58,800,000
50,000,000
45,800,000
50,700,000
26,000,000


$ 2,688,000,000

1,284,000,000

478,000,000

239,000,000

300,000,000

305,000,000

343,000,000

244,000,000

68,000,000

123,000,000

9,000,000

400,000,000


$ 2,870,000,000
1,476,000,000
487,000,000
276,000,000
315,000,000
.300.000.000
259.000.000
197.000,000

67.000.000
127,000,000

12,000,000
.355,000,000


$ 2,819,000,000


Tobacco


1,661,000.000


Foods _


490,000,000


Furniture


332,000,000


Tourists

Lumber


.325,000,000
271,000,000


Chemicals^


197,000,000


Paper


194,000,000


Elect. Machinery


162,000,000


Apparel


19.000,000

1,000,000

62,700,000


125,000,000


Rubber Mfg.


18,000,000


Others ..


324,000,000








$ 1,471,300,000


$ 6,481,000,000


$ 6,741,000,000


1 6,924,000,000



' Source — Blue Book of Southern Progress.

* Synthetic yarns and fabrics included under Te.xtiles.

Other examples of the State's growing industrial diversifica-



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