Nugent Robinson.

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It arises trom vice and sometimes only Irom Ireshness, (he horse
being above himself Irom want of work . m the iatter case it la
soon cured by putting him to daily steady work.

fiNnng either tn saddle or harness, is a very dangerous vice,
and IS always the result ol bad temper. In saddle the horse
rears, kicks, and rubs the rider against anything m hu way.
He will go anywhere and rush anywhere but in the direction
in which he is wanted to go. A good thrashing will soiuetimes
cure him. but It is not always easy to do it. as the horse lU'
variably |ibs in the most awkward and dangerous places in
which to nght him. in harness the jibber wUl not start, he
runs tMick, and if whipped or punished, will plunge and throw
himsell down. Such animals are quite unfitted lor pnvate

' Shying,'^1\i\% bad habit may arise from timidity, defective
eyesight, or bad temper. If from- timidity, it can only be
overcome by gentle usage and allowing the horse to pass the
obiect without taking any notice of his fear beyond patting
and encouraging him , to chastise him is worse than useless
and senseless, if it arise from defective vision, it will t>e in*
curable, as it will be impossible for the animal to see objects
otherwise than through a distorted medium. M it arise from
vice, which is frequently the case, the horse must be made
hrmly bui temperately to pass the object at which he shies ;
having {jassed it, continue the nde , do not return and pass it
again and again, as that only irritates him ; and when he hnds
he Is mastered, he will daily improve.


This consists of saddles, bridles, breast-plates, and martiik*

Saddles may be had of almost any size and weight. They
may be made with either plain or padded flaps, according to
the seat and fancy of the rider. Some prefer the former, and
others the latter. For the generality cf .irters there cannot be
a doubt that the padded flaps are by fiar the better, as they
keep the knee more steadily in the proper place, prevent the
leg flying ^.^••If wards and forwards, if the horse jumps or plunges;
while in hunting they are of very material assistat^ce in takiii«

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ft drop |viDp| and aiio in itdtAyw^ sad ficnTtirin£ ft hotM
when t^mderiiig or fidling at a fence. Tht plain flaps kaTe
periiapa ft smarter appearance* and a defer boiaeman nuij be
able to ride as weU on them as on die padded flapi» hot that Is
almost all that can be said for them.

The saddle should be of snffident length and breadUi that
the weight of the rider may be prettj eqnaUj distriboted over
it, or the back of die hone win sofier, and aaddlfS-CBlls be dm

The stfarmps shonld not be small, Hor in the event of a kH^
die foot is more likely to hang in them. All wdl-made saddles
have spring bars, wiikh shonld be occasio n all y oiled, that they
may work easOy, and release die stirnip4eather shooldsnch an
accident oocor. The stimip-leather shonld be of the best»
dose and strong, not too heavy, or it will look dnmsy.

Every saddle r e qoii es two girths which may either be of
die ordinary kind of die tame width, with a ImclLla at each
Ond, or one broad, with two bnddes at each end,wtiich is pat
on first, and a second, about half the widdi only, over it, with
one bockle St eaeh end.

After nse, die fining of die sndOe most be thorooghly dried
in the son or before the fire, and then well bnished, wliich will
k^ it soft and dean.

This is paiticalaiiy necessary with side-saddles. It is
i»r want of this care and attention that so many ttorses have
•ore backs. IVben dirty, the saddle most Im sponged dean,
bat not made more wet than is atisohitely necessary \ after
which a litde soft soap nibbed on will preserve die leather
•oft and pliable, and prevent it cracking.

In choosing a saddle, go to a first-rate maker t he may be a
little more expensiTe, bat yoa will get a good article that vriO
vrear tliree dmes as long as an inferior one, will fit tlie gene*
fality of horses, will never get ont of fbnn, and will look well

T^ Brwut-fiiie or JlimHMg^fiBUh ^ntd to ktep dm mdOh
In its place wtisn hnnting. It is also of great service on horses
with short back-rttM, to prevent the saddle woridng back,
which ft IS very Hkely to da Bat on the road and m the field
no lady shonld nde without one, as it will keep the side-saddle
secnrely m its place, and prerent it taming roond shonid the
gnrth get loosened, or one break.

The Martingaii is osed to steady the hovK's head, and keep
it in lU proper place.

It IS generally osed on loose weak-necked hones, and thoiq^
of service m the hands of the expenenced, it is often dangeroos
when used by others, as being apt to catch on the bit or bnckles
•f the bndle, and so cause senons accidenta.

Tk£ Bndle.^'TYkttt is a great Tanety of bits suitable for
different descriptions and tempera of horses, bnt it is impossible
to describe them all in so limited ft space. They all belong
to one of two classes— the snaffle or the curb, and are of differ-
ent degrees of severity and power.

The Snaffle la a piece of steel with a Joint in die middle; it
may be smooth and plain, twisted, or donble-Jointed. The
smooth snaffle is the mildest form of bit there is, and, except
inst for exercise, few horses ride pleasanUy Inone. The twisted
bit is sharper, and if drawn quickly backwards and forwards
iuoagh the month, is very punishing The double-jointed is

dm moat severe; it is formed of two plaia inalks erne above
dm other ; bat the Joints in eadinot being opposite each otho;
caose ft sharper and more narrow pressnre on the tongue and
lower Jaw. Veity liew horses ride wdl and pleasantly In a
snaffle of any kind, as they all cause a hone to raise his bead
and open his mouth to take the pressure off his tongne. In
addition lo this diere are the Chain-anaffle, which is a TCfj
fight bit^aad dm Ga^^ used lor horres that get dieir haidi

The Cufb-bit b a lever that, by means of a c nrt x hai n, acta
upon die lower Jaw, and may be made very easy or Tciy severe
according to the length of cheek or leverage, and the heigjht
of the port or ardi in the center of the month-piece. It ia Tety
seldem used singly, bnt in conjunction with some kind ol
snafile, when it forms a dooble*rein bridle, and is by fiu* the
■Bost usefol bit All horses go better in it, when prop e i l y
handled, than in any other ; as by lengthening or shortening
die cnrl>-chain, and talking up or dropping the bit in the
oKioth, it can be made either less or more severe, to suit

The Pelham is a curb and snafBe in one ; It b a cnib-bit
with a Jomt in the middle, instead of a port. Itfomisftdoabl»
retn bridle, and ia very light and ea^.

Like saddles, the Imdles shonld be of fint-rate material aad
workmanship ; the liita sewn on to the head-pieces and reins»
as bemg much neater and lighter than the bnckles. The
leather must tie kept clean and pliable with soft so^>, and the
bits deea and bn^ with sHver^eand and oIL


ff armsdt^ .'^lM aU cases die foA thing to be done, after
the hocae b dressed, b to put on the coUac» erhich b eflected faj
lonung the hone round in his stall, and slipping it over hb
head« with the large end upward. This mversion b required
because the front of the head is the widest part, and b in thb
way adapted to the widest part of the collar, which, even with
this arrangement, will m coarsdy-bred horses hardly pass ever
the cheek-bones. Before the collar b put in Its place, the
hamesare put on and buckled ; for if this was deUyed until
after it had been reversed, they would have to tie held on while
the hame-straps were being drawn together, whereas in thb
way their own weight keeps them in place. They are now
reversed altogether, and the pad put in its pbce« before buckling
the t>eny-band, of which the crupper b slipped over the tafl
by doubling up all the hair, grasping it carefully In the
lefl hand while the right adapts the crupper. A csreful exami-
nation should always be made that no hain are left under it,
for if they are they imtate the skin, and often cause a fit of
kidcing. Alter the crupper b set right the pad b drawn forwards,
and its belly-band buclded up pretty tightly ; the bridle b now
put on, and the curb-chain properly applied ; the reins bdng
slipped through the tenrets and buckled on both sides. If for
single harness, or on the outside only if for double, and the
driving-rein folded back and tied in the pad terret

Putting^ is managed very differently according to whedier
the horse is going in shafts or with ft pole. If for shafts, diej
are tilted up and held there by one person, while the other
backs the horse antH he b under them, wlmi thqr are dropped

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dowiip andthetug^ slipped under or ovtr the ends of the shafts,
•coording to the formation of the tugs, some being hooks, and
others merely leather loops. Care must be taken that they do
not slip beyond the pins on the shafts. The traces are now
attadied to the drawing-bar, the breechen or kicking-strap
bnckled, and the false belly-band buckled up pretty tightly, so
as to keep the shafts steady. In foor-wheeled carnages it
tiMMild be left tolerably loose wlien a breechen is used, to allow
of this having free play. The rems are now nntwnted from
the terret, and the horse is pnt«ta For double harness, the
first thing Is lo bring the horse roond by the side ci the pole,
and pot the po&e- piece through the sliding ring of the harness
the groom holding It, or else buckling It at the longest hole
while the traces are being put*to ; as soon as this is done, the
pole-piece is buckled op to its proper length, each coupling
rein buckled to the opposite horse's bit, the dnvrng-reins on
twisted from the terret, and the two bockled together, and the
horses are ready* The leaders of a tandem or tour-in hand
are easily attached, and their reins are passed through the rings
on the head of the wheelers, and through the opper half of the
pad terret

Unharnessing is exactly the rererse of the above, everything
being undone exactly in the same order in which it was done
The chief errors in either are — in double harness, in not at-
taching the pole-piece at once in potting-to, or in unbuckling it
altogether too soon, by which the horse is at liberty to get back
apon the bars, and often does considerable damage by kicking.


The Action of Medlclnea, and the Porma In which they are geo-
•rly pr — c rtbed.

Alteratives are intended to produce a fresh and healthy ac-
tion, instead of the previously disordered function The pre-
cise mode of action is- not well understood, and it is only by
the results that the utility of these medianes is recognized.

I. SUnkiog heOebore, 5 to 8 gra j p o w dere d rhobarb, « t04grs. Mia.
and form into a pUl, to be given every mghu

m Im DiMrdered States o/th* 5^/ff.— Emetic tartar, 3 ox. ; powdered
ginger, 3 oc. ; opium, 1 ox. Syrup enough to form 16 balls ; one to be
■ given every night.

y Simpfy e^im.^BmtmAoeB aloes, 1 os. ; Castile soap, H os. t gm-
gci I OS. Syrup enough to form 6 balls ; one to be given every

4. /« 4/raii^«r.— Barbadoes aloes, 1 os. 1 emetic tartar, a drms. i Cas-
Ok soap, 2 drms. Mia.

5. AUerativt BaU far Otmrml' ^Aar.— Bteck solpharet of antimony, •
to 4 Arms. ; solpbuf , a drms. 1 niter, drms. Liaaeed meal and water
enough to form a ImJI.

6. fmr C^neraiiy D^ftcti^ Sterwticmt.-^Fkmtn of sulphur. 6 ox. (
emetic tartar, s to 8 drms. « corrosive subltmate, 10 grs. Ltnseed meal
Bilsed whh boi water, enough to form sta balls, ooe of which may be
gflven two or three umcs a week.

7 Im Dtkitity 0/ Stommek.^-fMaaxA^ 1 scruple t aloes, 1 drm. ; ca»>
carilia, gentian, and ginger, of each in powder, 1 drm. , Castile soap, 3
drms. SympenoQghtomakeaball, which may be given twice a week,
oc every otbei night*


Anodyne medicines are given either to soothe the genera) nervous
•ySKm. or to stop diarrhoea ; or s om etim es to relieve spasm, as in colic
or fstanoa Opium is the chief anodyne used m veterinary medicine,
•ad ft may be employed in very Arge doses.

s. im CW!ir^— Powdered opium, ii to s drms. 1 CascUe soap and cam-

pbor» o< eacfe a drms. ; gingefv 2^ drm. Make into a ball with Ikjoo^
io^powder and treacle, and give eveiy boor wtiUe the pam laaia. )X
aboaiA be kept in a bottle or bladder.

a. A m m fym BmUifrdimaryyr'O^Mam^ J^ to i drm. t CaatDe soap, a to
4 drms. i gmgcr, I to sdrms. ; powdeced aniseed, ^ to i oa. , oil of
camway seeds, % dm. Syrup enough to form a bail, to be dlsso.ved
inahaii^ani ol waimalc,andgtvenasaditnch. '

). Ammlym X>nmeJk im SmfttfurgmSim^ mr mrdkuuy Dimirwkmm^^
G«m arsMc, 8 OS. i bofUng water, t piiu ( dissolve, and then add oU ol
p t p p ermim , as drops ; tloctufe of opnua, )i oa. Mis, and give nigiit
and mocniog, if neoesssry.

4. In Ckr»mic ZKarr^fapawPow d ered chalk and gum arabic, of eadi
los. ; ciDCcnrs ol opaiin,Xoa. ; peppermmt water, xo oa. Mia,and
gtvtt niglK and monnat.

Antispasmodics, as their name implies, are medicines which
«re Intended to counteract excessive muscular action, called
Spasm, ox, in the hmbs, cramp^ This deranged conditioD de»
pends npon a variety of causes, which are generally of an irritat-
ing nature \ and its successful treatment will often depend upon
the employment of remedies calculated to remove the cause^
rather than directly to relieve the efiecL It therefore follows
that, in many cases, the medicines most successful in rem o v iB g
spasm will ht derived from widely separate divisions of the
malerut mediio^ such as aperients, anodjmes, alteratives,
stimulants, and tonics. It is useless to attempt to give many
formulas for then exhibition ; bat there are one or two medi*
cines which exercise a peculiar control over spasm, and 1 shall
give them without attempting to analyze their mode of operatioiu

X. Ftr CWic.— Sptfits of turpentine^ 3 os. ; unctnre of opium, x ox,
Mu with a pmi of warm ale, and give as a drench.

s. Spirits of turpenune^ ^H <^' : nncture ol opium, \}i oc. ; Baita*
does SMies, i oa. Hmder the aioea, and dissoive m warm water ( then
add the other mgredieata.andgiveasadrenclL

9. Gjftttr in Oiie. —Spirits of curpeotina^ 6 oa. ; aloes, s drms. Dls»
soive ID I quans ol warm water, and stir the turpentine weL into IL

4 Antisptumodic Ortmh.—Gim, 4 to 6 oc. ; tincture of capsicum, a
drms. uncture ol opium. 3 drms : warm water, \% pmt. Mix, and
give as a drench, wktn tJUrt i» «« mfimmmmtt^m.

Aperients^ or Purges, are those medicines which quicken or
mcrease the evacnauons from the bowels, varying, however,
a good deal in their mode of operatioiu Some act merely by
exciting thp muscular coat of the bowels to contract , others
cause an immense watery discharge, which, as it were, washes
out the bowels , whilst a third set combine the action of the
two The various purges also act upon liiflerent parts of the
canal, some stimulating the small intestines, whilst others pass
through them without affecting them, and only act upon th6
large bowels , and others, again, act upon the whole canaL
Inhere is a third point of difference in purges, depending upoA
their influenang the liver in addition, which mercurial parga*
tives certainly do, as well as rhubarb and some others, and
which effect is partly due to their absorption into the circula*
tion, so that they may be made to act, by injecting into the
veins, as strongly as by actual swallowing, and their subsequent
passage into the bowels. Purgatives are likewise classed, ac*
cording to the degree of their effect, into laxatives, acting mild-
ly, and draxtic purges, acting very severely



X. OrdinnfyPAy*ieSaUt.—h»rt)adotBa:ioc^3WndmM.\hMdwmt^

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4t!ri I flofcr, 1 droL Di w otm m ma MMifla qomtityof bonhif water
as wdk tulBce ; then slowly evaporate to the propef coosistence, by
which means griping is avoided.

s. A IVarmtr Physic Bal/^—BaxbrnAotM aloet, 3 to 8 drms. ; carbonate
of soda, H dnn. ^ aromatic powder, i drm. ; oil of carraway, is drops.
Dttsotre as above, and then sdd the oil.

9. G^mtiy Laxatfve ^o//.— Barbadoes aloes, 3 to 5 drms. ; rhubarb
fowder, i to a drms. ; ginger, s drms. ; oil of csrraway, 15 drops. Mix,
•Dd form mto a baU, as in No. i.

4. S t ^mm ck i e Laxative Balis ^ for IVasky /^<9n«r.— Barbsdoes aloes,
S drms. r rhubarb, 9 drms. ; ginger and cascsnlla powder, of each 1
drm. $ oil of carraway, 15 drops , carbonate of soda, ii« drm. Dtssotre
tfiealoesasin No. i, and thai add the other ingredients.

5. Purging Baiis^ with Csi^NMA^Barbadoes aioes^ 3 to 6 dnns. ; cal-
omel, J4 to 1 drm. , rhubarb^ i to a arms. » ginger^ ^ ID ii^nn. Castile
•oap,sdrms. Mix asm No. i«

6. Laxative ZVvj»f>l.— Barbadoes aloes, 3 to 4 drms. ; canefla alba, t
to adrms. ; salt of tartar, 1 drm. ; mmt water, 8 os. Mia.

7. Another Laxative Drench.^Castor on, 3 to 6 as. r fiarbadoes aloes,
f tosdrma. icart>onateof soda,9 drma. : mim water. 80s. Mix. by
dlTiiiiim the Sioes m the mmt water, t>y ;bA aid ot best, and then
adding <ne otner mgredienta.

t AMtidOfe$tsngDrenU,'-Camor<A^40^x1tp&em9tJtM,3to$iM.;
gniei, • pints. Mix.

9. A yerf Miia LaxtUivo^-Ctatux oH and linseed oU, 4 os. ol each t
warm water, or gniei, 1 pmu Mix.

la Uieit tn the staggers.— BartMdocB aloes, 6 drms. t common salt, 6
as. , flouf of mustard, 1 os. ; water, a pints. Mix.

It, A Gentty Coottng Drench in Slight Attacks ^ CoU^—'B^aaak salts,
i to 8 01. . wbey, a pmts. Mix.

la. Purgative dyster.—Qammoa salt, 4 to 8 os. ; warm water, 8 to
s6 pmts.


Astringents are supposed 10 produce contraction in all living
animal tissues with which they come in contact, whether in the
interior or exterior of the body, and whether immediately ap-
plied or by absorption into the circulation. But great doubt
ezisu as to the exact mode in which they act ; and, as in many
other cases, we arc obliged to content ourselves with their effects,
and to prescribe them empirically. They are divided into
astringents administered by the mouth, and those applied
locally to external ulcerated or wounded surfaces.

X. Astringent Wash /or the £>rx.-^ulpha<« of sine, 5 to 8 grs. ; water,
9 OS. Mix.

9. Gou.ard extract, t drm. ; water, i os. Mix.

3. Astringent Remedies /or the Horse. For Bioody Urine.— 9ow6en6
^echu. M oz. : alam, X ox. t cascarllla t>ark in powder, 1 to 7 drms.
Uconce powder and treacle, enough to form a ball, to be given twice

4. For DiaSeiet.—O^lum. H drm. j ginger powdered, 9 drms. : oak
bark powdered, ■ ox. : alum, as much as the tea will dissolve ; camo-
fiiile tea, 1 pint. Mix for a drench.

5. External Astringent PoTifder /or Ulcejoted Sur/tues.—^Powdaed
atom. 4 OS. : Armenian boie. 1 os.

6. White vitriot, 4 oa. ; oxide of zinc, t oz. Mix.

7. Astringent /^i^— Goulard extract, a to 3 drms. ; wat^r, )4

8. Sulphate of copper, t to 9 drms. ; water, K pint. Mix.

f. Astrtngent Ointment /or Sore Heels.Supencttaxcoi lead, i drm. ;
Isrd, 1 OS. Mix.

to. Another /brihe w*»#.— Nitrate of silver powdered, K drm. ;
foiilatd extnct« s drm. ; lard. 1 oz. Mix.


Blisters are applications which inflame the skin, and cause
watery bladders to form upon it ; they consist of two kinds,
one for the sake of counter-irritation, by which the oritjinal
disease is lessened, in consequence of the establishment of this
frritation at a short distance from it* The other, commonly

called *' Sweating" in Tetennaiy siugery. ojwmcn adischaip
is obtained from the v&els of the pan itself, which are in that
way relieved and unloaded ; there is also a subsequent process
of absorption in consequence of the peculiar stimulus applied.

t. MUd Blister Ointment (counter-imtant).— Hog's lard, 4 oa. \
Venice tnrpentine, 1 ox. ; powdered cantharides, 6 drma. Mix and

a. Stronger BUaier £Mii<MMMr(coiinter-imtant).— Spirits of tui pc nth i ^
I OS. ; sulphuric acid, by measure, 9 drms. Mix carefully in an opea
place, and add bog's lard, 4 OS. ;pc«vderedcantharides, IOC Biixand

3. Very strong BUaterisxeaaiXxxAxt^ioexA) — Strong mei t mia lofatmeat,
4 OS. { oil Of origanum, % os. ; finely«^owdered euphottinm, 3 drma .
powdered canthandes, % ox. Mu and spread.

4. Rafidly Acting Blister (counter-irritant).— Best door of mustaid,
8 OS., made into a paste with water. Add spina of turpentine, s oc. ;
strong liquor of ammonia, i ox. This Is to be well mt>bcd Into tbs
chest, behy, or back, m caaea of acute nflammarton.

5. Sweating Blteter^Saoog mercurial oincment, a os. ; oil of Qriga>
oum, 9 drma. , carro ai v e suDumate, a drma ; umthandea, powdcred,3
drms. Mix^ and rub m with the hand.

b. Strong Sweating Biister,/or S/lints^ Ring^Bones, S/tavtns^ eic-^
Red iodide 01 mercury, i to %% drm. ; lard, r ox. To be well rubbed Id
the tegs after cuning the hair short, and followed by the daily use of
arnica, m the shapeot a wash, as follows, which is to be pointed 00
with a brusn tincture of armca, i oz. ; water, la to (5 ox. Mix.

7. Tinctuteo/ iodine^ which should be painted on with a brush da%,
until It causes the cuucie to exfoliate. It may then be omitted for a liM
days, to be resumed after that mtervaL


Caustics are substance which burn awaj the living dssnesol
the body, by the decomposition of their elements. They are
of two kinds, viz. — first, the actual cautery, consisting in tbe
application of the burning iron, and called Firing , and,
secondly, the potential cautery, by means of the powers ol
mineral caustics, such as potash, lunar-caustic, etc.

Fifing is used extensively upon horses for inflamnution d
the legs. A set of firing-irons is heated to a great heat, and,
one at a time, are lightly applied across the limb, or in lines op
and down, according to the nature of the disease. This excites
a very great amount of swelling and inflammation, by which
the mischief is often abated, and is followed also by a contrac-
tion of the skin, which appears to act as a bandage in the weak
state of the vessels of the legs which often occurs. The firing
is generally followed by blistering, in order to keep up the
inflammation, and at least three months must be consunoed
before the fired horse, if thoroughly operated on, will be fit for

Strong solid caustics are as follows ^—

t. Fused Potass, difficult to manage, t>ecacise It nmsabcntlaandiree
tions, and little used in veterinary medicine.

9. Lunar-Caustic, or nitrate of silver, very valuable to tbe t etalua r y
surgeon, and constantly used to apply to profuse granulations.

3. Sulphate of Copper, almost equally useful, but not so strong as
lunar-caustic ; it may be well rubbed hi to all high granulatioos, as In
broken knees, and similar growths.

4. Corrosive Sublimate In powder, whkh acts flsost energetScaUy upon
wart7 growths but should be used with great care and diacretkn. It
may safely be applied to small surfaces, but not without a regular pno>
titionrr to large ones. It should be washed off after r em a inin g 00 a few

5. Yellow Orplment, not so strong as the corro si ve sublimate, aad
may be uesd with more freedom. It will generally remove WHty
growths, by picking off their heads and rubbing it In.

Digitized by




$k aibbiioanc moA. m aaric add, owr ^ ate^ iHlHr In foC Mrawtb
•rffikmeo fnthaneqiouqiuuiurr « vBio am H man '^ mea mat
Wtmi cutuoa as it destrora a» odb nptotf.

% ImOu$Jktr^iA4Fs0t.- \jUicaaLt^,i ot. (mafciieid,am. Mil
Id an eanoen ▼eatei, and wnea co*a dai nac a wide futtt ooctie^ and
cork It. U may De muwd mtn a^ m. toe orofxsrtioc «t » to v

t. A Biffliiat appucauon^ irtucn ataf M uted auenuuekT max tne jwu
— Copper fihnga^ it oa.t fiittic and,! Oft. Mia. and on x Om tama

^ Muriafee of
f fffti^ unmanaffeaiMa camtitu

ao^ Yeniigfiai euncr in powtfaf of
the propdmoo of i to 3.
SI. Red precipitate, dow, te^
an. Burm aiom, oaed dnr«
B^ Pbwdered white

t4. ScMiitionoinitfateot8&ver,stnis

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