Nugent Robinson.

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Partridges, when yomng» have yellow legs and dark-col-
ored bills. Old partridges are very indifferent eating.

Woodcock and Snipe, when old, have the feet thick
and hard ; when these are soft and tender, they are both
yonng and fresh killed. When their bills become moist, and
their throats muddy, they have been too long killed.


There is an old maxim, •* a place for everything, and every,
thing in its place.*' To which we beg to add another, *• A sea-
son for everything, and everything in season***

[Fkb,poiiltr7,cle.«distiagiiiilicd by Ac^&r are to be hid in tbe Id^


Fish.— -Cod, crabs, eels, flomiders, herrings, lobsters, oys*
ters, perch, pike, sturgeon, porgies.

Meat. — Beef^ house-lamb, mutton, poiic, veal, and doe

Poultry and Game. — Capons, chickens, ducks, wild-ducks,
fowls, geese, partridges, pheasants, pigeons (tame), pullets,
rabbitSp snipes, turkeys (hen), woodcock.

Vegetables.— Beets, sprouts, cabbage, cardoons, carrots,
celery, onions, parsnips, potatoes, turnips.

Fruit.— Almonds, apples.


Pish.— Cod, crabs, flounders, herrings, oysters, perch, pike,
sturgeon, porgies.

Meat. — Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

Poultry and Game. — Capons, chickens, ducklings, fovd
(wild), green geese, partridges, pheasanu, pigeons (tame and
wild), pullets, rabbits, snipes, turkeys, woodcock.

Vegetables. — Beeu, cabbage, carrots, celery, mushrooms,
onions, parsnips, potatoes, tumipfi.

Fruit. — Apples, chestnuts, oranges.


Fish.— Bels, crabs, flounders, lobsters, mackerel, oysters,
perch, pike, shrimp, smelts, sturgeon, porgies.

Meat. — Beef, house-Iamb, mutton /pork, veaL

Poultry and Game. — Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls,
green geese, pigeons, rabbits, snipes, turkeys, woodcock.

Vegetables. — Beets, carrots, celery, cresses, onions, pars-
nips, potatoes, turnip tops.

Fruit.^Applcs, chestnuts, oranges.


FIsIl — Shad, cod, crabs, eels, flounders, halibut, herrings,
iobsUrSt mackerel, oysters, perch, pike, salmon, shrimps, smelts,
sturgeon, tiont, porgies.

Meat.— Beef, house-Iamb, mutton, pork, veaL

Poultry and Game. — Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green
geese, leverets* pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkey-pouiu, wood-

Vegetables. — Onions, parsnips* ^>inach, small salad, tur-
aip tops, and rhubarb.

Pmit.— A|q;»les» nuts, oranges* pean.


Fish. — Shad, cod, erais, eels, flounders, haUbiit, herring^
lobsters^ mackerel, mullet, perch, pike, salmm%, shxiai|4^|
smelts, sturgeon, trout, clams.

Meat.— Beef, grass-lamb, house-lamb, mutton, puik, vi .L

Poultry and Game. — Chickens, fowls, green geest i«>
eons, pullets, rabbits.

Vegetables. — Artichokes, green peas, asptmgos, kio* ^
beans, cabbage, carrots, onions, peas, potatoes, n k lish e rfc iT
barb, salad, spinach, turnips. '

Fruit.— Apples, pears.


Fish.— Cod, sh«d, crabs^ eels, flounders, herrings, tobsun^
mackerel, perch, pike, salmon, dams, smelts, sturgeottt trout
cat-fish, black-fish.

Meat. — Beef, grass^iamb, mutton, poik, veal.

Poultry and Game. — Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green
geese, pigeons, pullets, rabbits.

Vegetables. — Asparagus, beans, white beet, cabbage, car-
rots, cucumbers, leeks, lettuce, onions, parsley, peas, potatoes,
radishes, salad'of all sorts, spinach, turnips.

Fruit. — Apples, apricots, cherries, currants, gooseberries*
melons, pears, strawberries.


Fish.— Cod, irabs, flounders, herrings, lobsters, mackertl,
perch, pike, salmon, trout, blue-JUk, klack^Jish, bass, pickerel,
eat'Jtsht eels, clams, poigies.

Meat.— Beef, gmss'^amby mutton, veal, buck-venison.

Poultry and Gwamt. - Chickens, ducks, fowls, green geese,
leverets, pigeons, {Covers, rabbits, wild^geons.

Vegetables. — ^Artichokes, asparagus, balm, beans, carrots,
cauliflowers, celery, cucumbers, herbs of all sorts, lettuce,
mint, mushrooms, peas, potatoes, radishes, salads of all sorts,
spinach, turnips, tomatoes, Carolina potatoes.

For Drying.— Mushrooms.

For Pickling.— French beans, red cabbage^ cauliflowers,
garlic, gherkins, onions.

Fruit. — Apples, apricots,cherries, currants, dSmwiMir, goose*
berries, melons, nectarines, peaches, pears, oraQges* pine*
apples, plums, raspberries, strawberries.


Fish. — Cod, eels, crabs, flounders, herrings, lobsters, mcuk^
erel, perch^ pike, 4almon^ b/ue-Jish, black-Jish, weak-JUh, sheef 9
head, trout, porgies^ clams*

Meat. — Beef, grass-lamb, mutton, veal, buck«^renboU.

Poultry and Game.— Chickens, ducks, fowls, grmn ^eese
pigeons, plovers, rabbits, wild ducks, wild pigeons, red-bir^

Vegetables. — ^Artichokes, beans, white-beet, carrots, cauli-
flowers, cucumbers, pot-herbs of all sorts, leeks, lettuce,
mushrooms, onions, peas, potatoes, radishes, salad of all 8ort%
spinach, turnips, tomatoes.

For Drying. — Basil, sage, thyme.

For Pickling. — Red cabbage, tomatoes, walnuts.

Fruit.- Apples (summer pippin), cherried, currants, dam.
sons, gooseberries, grapes, melons, mulberries, nectarine^
peaches, peais, plums (greengages)^ raspberries.

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Fish. — Cockles, ood, crabs, eels, flotinden» lobsters, oysters^
perch^pike^ shrimps, porgies, black-fish» weak -fish.

MeAt«— Beef, mutton, pork, veal, back-venison.

Poultry and Game. — Chickens, ducks, fowls, green geese,
fartridj^^ pigeons, plovers, rabbiu, turkeys, wild ducks^ wild
pigeons, wild rabbits, quaiL

Vegetables.— Artichokes, beans, cabbages, carrots, cauli-
flowers, celery, cucumbers, herbs of all sorts, leeks, lettuce,
mushrooms, onions, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, salad of
all sorts, turnips, tomatoes, Carolina potatoes.

Pniit. — ^Apples, damsons, grapes, hazel-nuts, medlars,
peaches, pears, pine-apples, plums, quinces, strawberries,


Pish.— Cockles, cod, crabs, eels, gudgeons, halibut, lobsters,
mussels, oysters, perch, fike^ salmon-trout, shrimps, smelts,

Meat. — Beef, mutton, pork, veal, doe-venison.

Poultry and Game. — Chickens, ducks, fowls, green geese,
larks, partridges, pheasants^ pigeons, red -bird, black-bird,
robins, snipes, turkey, wild ducks, wild pigeons, wild rab-
bits, woodcock, teal.

Vegetables. — Artichokes, cabbages, cauliflowers, celery,
herbs of all sorts, onions, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes,
salad, spinach (winter), tomatoes, turnips, Carolina potatoes.'

Pniit. — Almonds, apples, black and white damsons, haxel*
nuts, grapes, peaches, pears, -quinces, walnuts.


Pish. — Cockles, cod, crabs, eels, gudgeons, halibut, lob-
sters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, salmon, shrimps, smelts,
porgies, flounders.

Meat. — Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal, doe-venison.

Poultry and Game. — Chickens, ducks, fowls, ^ese, larks,
partridges, pheasants, pigeons, rabbits, snipes, turkey, wild
ducks, woodcock^ robins.

Vegetables. — Beets, cabbages, carrots, celery, herbs of all
sorts, lettuce, onions, parsnips, potatoes, salad, spinach, to-
matoes, turnips.

Pruit. — ^Almonds, apples, chestnuts, hazel nuts, grapes,


Fish. — Cod^ crabs, eels, gudgeons, halibut, lobsters, oysters,
perch, pike, salmon, shrimps, smelts, sturgeon.

Meat. — Beef, house-lamb, mutton, pork, veal, doe-venison.

Poultry and Game. — Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls,
gee^, guineapfowl, hares, larks, partridges, pea*fowl, pheas-
Its, pigeons, rabbits, snipes, turkey, wild ducks, woodcock.

Veg^tables.'^Beets, cabbages, carrots, celery, herbs of all
sorts, lettuce, onions, parsnips, poUtoes, salad, spinach, tnr-

Fruit. — ^Apples, diestnuts. hazel-umts.


The method of cutting up the caScases varies. That whidi
we describe below is the most generaL

Beef— /i?r/ Quarter^ — Fore rib (five ribs); middle rib
(four ribs) ; chuck (three ribs). Shoulder piece (top of fore
leg) ; brisket (lower or belly part of the ribs) ; clod (fore
shoulder blade) ; neck ; shin (below the shoulder) ; cheek.

Hind Quarter, — Sirloin; rump; aitchbone — these are the
three divisions of the upper part of the quarter ; buttodc and
mouse-buttock, which divide the thigh ; veiny piece, joining
buttock ; thick flank and thin flank (belly pieces) and leg.
The sirloin and rump of both sides form a baron. Beef is im
season all the year; best in the winter.

Mutton. — Shoulder ; breast (the belly); over which are die
loin (chump, or tail end). Loin (best end) ; and neck (best
end) ; neck (scrag end). A chine is two necks ; a saddle, two
loins ; then there are the leg and head. Mutton is the best im
winter, spring, and autumn.

Lamb is cut into fore quarter and hind quarter ; a saddle, or
loin ; neck, breast, 1^, and shoulder. Grass4ttmk is in seasem
from fune to August.

Pork is cut into leg, hand, or shoulder ; hind-loin ; fore
loin j belly part ; spare rib (or neck) ; and head. Pork is in
season nearly all the year.

Veal is cut into neck (scrag end) ; neck (best end) ; loin
(best end) ; loin (chump, or Uil end) ; fillet (upper part of the
hind leg) ; hind knuckle (which joins the fillet knuckle of fore
leg; blade (bone of shoulder); breast (best end); breast
(brisket end) ; and hand. Veal is always in season, but dear
in the winter and spring.

Venison is cut into haunch (or back) ; neck, shoulder, and
breast. Doe-venison is best in fanuary, October^ November,
and December, and buck-venison in fune, fufy, August, and

Ox-tail is much esteemed for purposes of soup ; so also is
the CHEEK. The tongue is highly esteemed.

Calves' Heads are very useful for various dishes ; so also
their knuckles, feet, heart, etc

Cooking. — Ten pounds of beef require from two hoois to
two hours and a half roasting, eighteen inches from a good

Six pounds require one hour and a quarter to one hour
and a half, fourteen inches from a good clear fire.

Three ribs of beef, boned and rolled, tied round with paper,
will require two hours and a half, eighteen Inches from the
fire ; baste once only.

The first three ribs of fifteen or twenty pounds, will take
three hours or three and a half ; the fourth and fifth ribs will
take as long, managed in the same way as the sirloin. Paper
the fat and the thin part, or it will t>e done too much, before
the thick part is done enough.

When beef is very fat, it does not require basting; if vciy
lean, tie it up in greasy paper, and baste frequently and welL

Common cooks are generally fond of too fierce a fire, and «l
putting things too near to it.

Slow roasting is as advantageous to the tenderness and fl»
vor of meat as slow boiling.

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The warmer the weather^ and the staler killed the meat is,
the less time it will require to roast it

Meat that is very fat requires more time than other meat
In the hands of an expert cook, *' alimentary substances are
made almost entirely to change their nature, their form* con-
sistence, odor, savor, color, chemical composition, etc ; every*
thing is so modified, that it is oAen impossible for the most
exquisite sense of taste to recognize the substance which makes
up the basis of certain dishes. The greatest utility of the
kitchen consists in making the food agreeable to the senses,
and rendering it easy of digestion/'

Boiling extracts a portion of the juice of meat, which mixes
with the water, and also dissolves some of its solids ; ihe more
fusible parts of the fat melt out, combine with the water, and
form soup or broth. The meat loses its red color, becomes
more savory in taste and smell, and more firm and digestible.
If the process is continued iaa hng, the meat becomes indigest«
ible, less succulent, and tough.

To boil meat to perfection, it should be done slowly, in
plenty of water, replaced by other hot water, as evaporation
takes place ; for» if boiled too quickly, the outside becomes
tough ; and not allowing the ready transmission of heat, the in-
ferior remains rare.

The loss by boiling varies from t\ to 16 per cent The
average loss on boiling butcher's meat, pork, hams, and bacont
is 13 ; and on domestic poultry, is 14}.

The loss per cent on boiling salt beef is 15 ; on legs of mut*
ton, 10; hams, 12^ ; salt pork, 13^ ; knuckles of veal» 8) ; ba-
con, 64 ; turkeys, z6 ; chickens, 13I.

The established rule as regards time. Is to allow a quarter of
an hour for each pound of meat if the boiling is rapid, and
twenty minutes if slow. There are exceptions to this , for in-
stance, ham and pork, which require from twenty to twenty-
five minutes per pound, and bacon nearly half an hour. For
solid joints allow fifteen minutes for every pound, and from ten
to twenty minutes over ; though, of course, the length of time
will depend much on the strength of the fire, regularity in the
boiling and size of the joint The following table will be use-
ful as an average of the time required to boil the various

H. M.

A ham, 30 lbs. weight, requires 6 30

A tongue (if dry), after soaking 4 00

A tongue, out of pickle 2^ to 3 00

A neck of mutton I 30

A chicken o ao

A large fowl o 45

A capon O 35

A pigeon O 15

The loss by roasting varies, according to Professor Dono*
van, from 14 3-5ths to nearly double that rate, per cent. The
average loss on roasting butcher's meat is 22 per cent; and on
domestic poultry is 90|.

The loss per cent, on roasting beef, viz., on sirloins and ribs
together, is 19 x-6th ; on mutton, viz., legs and shoulders to-
gether. 24 4-5ths ; on fore quarters of lamb, 22^ ; on ducks,
ay i-5th ; on tnikeysy 90( ; on geese, 19) ; on chickens,
I4 3-5ths.

Broiling requires a brisk, rapid heat, which, by producing
a greater degree of change in the affinities of the raw meat
than roasting, generates % higher flavor, so that broiled meat is
more savory than roast. The surface becoming charred, a
dark-colored crust is formed, which retards the evaponOion ol
the juices ; and therefore, if properly done, broiled may ht as
tender and juicy as roasted meat

Baking does not admit of the evaporation of the vapors 19
rapi \y as by the processes of broiling and roasting ; the fat is
also retained more, and becomes converted by the agency il
the heat into an empyreumatic oil, so as to render the meat
less fitted for delicate stomachs, and more difficolt to digest
The meat is, in fact, partly boiled in iu own r'^^r^ water,
and partly roasted by the dry hot air of the oven.

The loss by baking has not been estimated ; and, as the
time required to cook many articles must vary with their m%
nature, etc., we have considered it better to leave that nncft
giving the receipts for them.

Frying is of all methods the most objectionable, from tiie
foods being less digestible when thus prepared, as the fat em*
ployed undergoes chemical changes. Olive oil in this respect
b preferable to lard or butter.

Roast Beef. — The tender-loin and first and second cuts
off the radc are the best roasting pieces— the third and fourth
cuts are good. When the meat is put to the fire, a little salt
should be sprinkled on it, and the bony side turned toward
the fire first When the bones get well heated through, turn
the meat, and keep a brisk fire — baste it frequently while
roasting. There should be a little water put into the dripping
pan when the meat is put down to roast If it is a thick
piece, allow fifteen minutes to each pound to roast it in — if
thm, less time will be required.

Beef Steak.^The tender-loin is the best piece for broil-
ing — a steak from the round or shoulder clod is good and
comes cheaper. If the beef is not very tender, it should be
laid on a board and pounded, before broiling or frying it
Wash it in cold water, then lay it on a gridiron, place it on a
hot bed of coals, and broil it as quick as possible without
burning it If broiled slow, it will not be good. It takes
from fifteen to twenty minutes to broil a steak. For seven or
eight pounds of beef, cut up about a quarter of a pound ol
butter. Heat the platter very hot that the steak is to be pot
on, lay the butter on it, take up the steak, salt and pepper it
on both sides. Beef steak to be good, should be eatea i0
soon as cooked. A few slices of salt pork brofled wtlli i3bt^
steak makes a rich gravy with a very little butter. There shonld
always be a trough to catch the juices of the nail whdi
broiled. The same pieces that are good broiled ave good for
frying. Fry a few slices of salt pork brown, then take them
up and put m the beef. When brown on both sUea, take it
up, take the pan off from the fire, to let the fiit coot i when
cool, turn in half a teacup of water, mix a fiOtgils of tea*
spoonfuls of flour with a little water, stir it faito the fiU, put
the pan back on the fire, stir it till it boils up, tiien torn It
over the beef.

Alamode Beef.— The round of beef is the best piece to
alamode — ^the shoulder clod is good, and comes lower : it !•
also good stewed, without any spices. For five poinds ol

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beefy soek about a poand of bread in cold water till toft, then
drain off die water, mash the bread fine, put in a piece of
batteryof the size of a hen's egg, half a teaspoonful of salt, the
■une qaaatily of gronnd doves, allspice, and pepper, half a
nutmeg, a couple of eggs, and a tablespoonful of flour — ^mix
the whola wdl together ; then cut gashes in the beef, and fill
tiiem with about half of the dressing, put the meat in a bake-
p-n, with lukewarm water enough to cover it ; set it where it
will stew gentlf for a couple of hours ; cover it with a heated
bAke-pan lid* When it has stewed a couple of hours, turn
the rcaenwtd diessing on top of the meat, heat the bake-pan
lid hot enough to brown the dressing, stew it an hour and a
half loDgf, After the meat is taken up, if the gravy is not
thick tWNi^» mix a teaapoonful or two of flour with a little
water, tad itir it into the gravy ; put in a little butter, a
wineglaia of wine, and turn it over the meat.

Beef LiTer.— yver is very good fried, but the best way
to cook ity Is to broil it ten minntes with four or five slices of
salt pork« Then take it oat, cat it into small strips together
with the pork, put it in a stew-pan, with a little water, butter
and pepper. Stew it fonr or five minutes.

To Com Bcefl— To every gallon of cold water, put a
quart of rock salt, an ounce of saltpetre, quarter of a pound of
brown sugar (some p>eople use molasses, but it is not as good) ;
no boiling is necessary. Put the beef in the brine. As
long as any salt remains at the bottom of the cask it is strong
enough. Whenever any scum rises, the brine should be
scalded, skimmed, and more sugar, salt, and saltpetre added.
When a piece of beef is put in the brine, rub a little salt over
it If the weather is hot, cut a gash to the bone of the meat,
and fill it with salt Put a heavy weight on the beef in order
to keep it under the brine. In very hot weather, it is difficult
to com beef in cold brine before it spoils. On this account it
is good to com it in the pot when boiled. It is done in the
f6]lowing manner: to six or eight pounds of beef, put a teacup
of salt; sprinkle flour on the side that is to go up on the table,
and put it down in the pot, turn the water into the pot aAer
the beef is pnt in, boll it a couple of hours, then turn in more
cold water, and boil it an hour and a half longer.

Mutton.-— The saddle is the best part to roast — the shoulder
and leg are good roasted ; but the best mode to cook the latter
is to boil it with a piece of salt pork. A little rice boiled with
it improves the look of it. Mutton for roasting should have
a little butter rubbed on it, and a little salt and pepper
sprinkled on it— some people like cloves and allspice. Put a
811) all piece of butter in the dripping-pan, and baste it fre-
q ently. The bony side should be turned towards the fire
fi' ^t. and roasted. For boiling or roasting mutton, allow a
q larter of aa hoitr to each pound of meat The leg is good
cut in gashes, and filled with a dressing, and baked. The
dressing It made of soaked bread, a little butter, salt, and
pepper, and a couple of eggs. A pint of water with a little
butter should be put in the pan. The leg is also good, cut
into slioea and broiled. It is good corned a few days, and
tfien boiled. The rack is good for broiling— it should be
divided, each bone by itself, broiled quick, and buttered,
salted and peppered. The breast of mutton is nice baked.
The Jointa of the brisket should be separated, the sharp ends

of the ribs sawed ofl^ the outside rubbed over with n Btlie
piece of butter— salt it, and put it in a bake-pan, with a pint
of water. When done, take it up, and thicken the gravy with
a little flour and water, and put in a small piece of butter;
A tablespoenful of catsup, cloves and allspice, improve it, but
are not essentiaL The neck of mutton makes a good soiqk
Parsley or celery-heads are a pretty garnish for mutton.

VeaL — The loin of veal is the best piece for roasting. Tha
breast and rack are good roasted. The breast also is good
made into a pot-ftte, and the rack cut into small pieces and
broiled. The leg is nice for frying, and when several slices
have been cut ^S for cutlets, the remainder is nice boiled with
a small piece of salt pork. Veal for roasting should be salted,
peppered, and a litUe butter rubbed on it, and basted fre-
quently. Put a tittle water in the dripping-pan, and unless
the meat is quite fat, a little butter should be put in. The
fillet is good baked, the bone should be cut out, and the place
filled with a dressing, made of bread soaked soft in cold water;
a little salt, pepper, a couple of eggs, and a tablespoonful of
melted butter put in — then sew it up, put it in your bake-pan,
with about a pint of water, cover the top of the meat with
some of the dressing. When baked sufficiently, take it up,
thicken the gravy with a little flour and water well mixed, put
in a small piece of butter and a little wine and catsup, if yoa
like the gravy rich.

Veal Cutleta.— Fry three or four slices of pork undl
brown — take them up, then put in slices of veal, about an indi
thick, cut from the leg. When brown on both sides, take
them up ; stir half a pint of water into the gravy, then mix
two or three teaspoonfuls of flour with a little water, and stir
it in ; soak a couple of slices of toasted bread in the gravy,
lay them on the bottom of the platter, place the meat and
pork over it, then turn on the gravy. A very nice way to
cook the cutlets, is to make a batter with half a pint of milk,
an egg beaten to a froth, and flour enough to render it thick.
When the veal is fried brown, dip it into the batter, then put
it back into the fat, and fry it until brown again. If you have
any batter left«. it is nice dropped by the large spoonful into
the fat, and fried till brown, then laid over the veal. Thidcea
the gravy and turn it over the whole* It takes about an hoar
to cook this dish. If the meat is tough, it will be better tQ
stew it half an hour before frying it

Calf 8 Head.— Boil the head two hours, together with die
lights and feet Put la the liver when it has boiled an boar
and twenty minutes. Before the head b done, tie the brains
in a bag, and boil them with it ; when the brains are done,
take them up, season them with salt, pepper, butter, and
sweet herbs, or spices if you like— use this as a dressing Ibc
the head. Some people prefer part of the Hver and feet ibc
dressing ; they are prepared tike the brains. The liquor thai
the calf s head is boiled in, makes a good soup, seasoned in a
plain way like any other veal soup, or seasoned turtle Cuhkm.
The liquor should stand tmtil the next day after the bead b
boiled, in order to have the fat rise, and skimmed ofi^ If yoa
wish to have your calfs head look brown* take it up when
tender, rub a little butter over it, sprinkle on salt, peppei* and
allspice — sprinkle flour over it, and put before the fire, with a
Dutch oven over it, or ^Qf[i|>|jfi!^ OYen where it will 1



^ck. Warm up the bzains with a little water, bntter, salt,
and pepper. Add wine and spices if you like. Serve it up
as a dressing for the head. Calfs head is also good baked.
Halve it, mb batter over it, put it in a pan, with about a quart
of water ; then cover it with a dressing made of bread soaked

Online LibraryNugent RobinsonCollier's cyclopedia of commercial and social information and treasury of ... → online text (page 126 of 148)