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HabiiaL Mississippi Valley during migrations ; breeding in the interior
of, British America, wintering in the Gulf States, from Texas to Western
and Southern Florida, and West Indies (Cuba, Jamaica, Santo Domingo,
and Bahamas). Casual in certain Atlantic States (but not in New Eng-
land ?). Carlisle, Penn., April, May, and September ; District of Colum*
bia, April and October. (Specimens in Nat Mus.)

AdtiU Male in Spring (No. 915, Mus. ^ R., Mount Carmel, Illinois,
April 22, 1869. Brightest in the entire weetem eeries). Beneath yellowish-
white, tinged with yellow, the throat and crissum deepening into gam-
boge ; sides of the neck, sides, and entire hreatt^ streaked with umber-
brown, tinged with rusty, the shafts of the feathers darker ; a distinct
superciliary stripe of clear yellow. Pileum uniform rich chestnut, darker
next the bill, where divided medially by a short and indistinct streak of
yellow. Upper parts in general olive-gray, deepening into yellowish
olive-green on the upper tail-coverts. Tail-feathers dusky, edged exter-
nally with pale olive-yellowish, the two outer pairs with their inner webt
broadly tipped with white. Wings dusky, the remigee edged like the tail-
feathers, with yellowish olive-green ; both rows of coverts tipped with
pale grayish-buff, forming rather distinct indications of two bands. Wing,
2.55 ; tail, 2.30 ; bill, from nostril, .30 ; tarsus, .8a

Most other males in the series before me are rather duller than the one
described. A specimen frx)m Carlisle, Penn. (No. 152, Mus. S. F. Baiid^
April 26, 1845, — presumably a male), differs merely in the more indis-
tinct character of the streaks along the sides, those of the breast being
almost obsolete. One of the brightest males in the entire series is one in
Mr. Nelson's collection (No. 2,072, Waukegan, 111., April 12, 1876). This,



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ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB. 85

howeyer, ii scarcelj different from the one described, the onlj obviona dif-
ference being the somewhat brighter jellow on the breast, and the greater
amount of chestnut in the streaks of the side of the breast. The palest
male is also a Waukegan specimen (Na 2,073, Mus., K W. Nelson, April.
28, 1876), which has the posterior half of the superciliary stripe white
and the whole breast whitish, the pure jellow being thus restricted to the
throat and cxissum.

Ad^ Female vn Spring (No. 2,786 Mu& R. R, Mt Carmel, 111., Spring ;
S. Turner). Similar to the male, as described above, but pileum mixed
chestnut and dark xmiber-brown, dUHnctly streaked with duskj. Wing,
2.35 ; tail, 2.00 ; biU, from nostril, .28 ; tarsus, .71.

A female in my coUection, from Calumet, IlL (May 12, 1875), is con-
siderably paler and duller, the lower parts being whitish tinged with yel-
low on the throat and jugulum, the crissum only continuous yellow ; even
the superciliary stripe is white from the eye backward. The pileum is
grayish-olive, like the back, tinged in one or two places with chestnut,
and veiy indistinctly streaked. The streaks on the sides are almost ob-
solete, but across the jugulum they are quite well defined.

AduU {both eeocee) in Winter, Lower parts dirty whitish, the breast tfnd
rides with narrow streaks of grayish brown ; throeU and eupercUiary stripe
v^ioUy dirty tehitish; yellow entirely confined to the criseumy except a tinge
on the abdomen, and along the edge of the wing in some specimens ;
crown grayish-umber, with but little, if any, tinge of chestnut, and dis-
tinctly streaked with dusky.

This plumage is that of all late fall and winter specimens, whether from
far north or the West Indies. I have seen no specimens from the latter
region in the spring plumage.

Subspecies hypochrysea.

Dendraca palmarum^ Aucr., in part

DendrcBca palmarum hypochrysea, Ridoway.

Eabitai* Atlantic States, from East Florida (in winter) to Nova Scotia.
Breeding in Maine and northward, and wintering in the South Atlantic
States ; apparently not found at all in West Indies, nor in Southern or
Western Florida !

AduU Male in Spring (No. 2,164, Mus. R. R., Cambridge, Mass. ; W.
Brewster). Entire lower parts, and a conspicuous superciliary stripe,
bright yellow, entirely continuous and uniform beneath ; entire sides marked
with broad streaks of deep chestnut, these most distinct on the sides of
the breast Auriculars mixed olive and chestnut (the latter prevailing),
somewhat darker immediately behind the eye ; lore with an indistinct
dusky streak. Entire pileum rich chestnut, becoming darker next the
bill, where divided medially by a short and rather indistinct yellow streak.
Best of the upper parts olive, tinged with brown on the back, and bright-



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86 BULLETIN OF THE NUTTALL

ening into yellowish olive-green on the romp and upper tail-coverts, the
latter having shaft-streaks of reddish-chestnut. Tail-feathers dusky,
edged externally with yellowish-olive, the inner webs of the two outer
feathers broadly tipped with white. Wings dusky, all the feathers edged
with pale brownish-olive, this edging rather widest on the ends of the mid-
dle and greater coverts, where, however, they do not form any indication
of bands. Wing, 2.65 ; tail, 2.60 ; bill, from nostril, .30 ; tarsus, .SQ.

The above description will apply almost equally well to the generality of
bright-colored males in the series, except that the chestnut streaks on the
upper tail-coverts are not found in any of the others ; there is considerable
individual variation in the amount of the chestnut on the cheeks, but the
auriculars seem to be never entirely of this color.

Adult Female in Spring (No. 63,155, Nat Mus., Cambridge, Mass. ; H.
W. Henshaw). Entirely similar to the male, as described above, except
that the chestnut of the pileum is rather lighter, and less abruptly defined
posteriorly, the chestnut streaks absent from the upper tail-coverts, no tinge
of chestnut on the auriculars, which are plain olive, and size smaller.
Wing, 2.60 ; tail, 2.40 ; bill, from nostril, .32 ; tarsus, .75.

A female from Nova Scotia, in breeding dress (parent of eggs in Nat.
Mus.), is entirely similar in color, but rather smaUer in size. Wing, 2.50 ;
tail, 2.30 ; bill, from nostril, .30 ; tarsus, .75.

Adult in Autumn (No. 2,567, Mus. R. R., Washington, D. C, October 10,
1861 ; E. Coues). Generally similar to the spring male, as described
above, but the chestnut of the pileum overlaid and almost entirely con-
cealed by olivaceous tips of the feathers ; no tinge of chestnut on the
auriculars, which are grayish-olive. Yellow beneath as bright and eon-
tinucms as in spring, but chestnut streaks much less distinct Markings
generally less distinct, and colors more suffused ; tips of wing-coverts and
edges of tertials decidedly brownish.

A specimen from Carlisle, Penn., in the same plumage (No. 783, Mus.
S. F. Baird, October 7, 1842), differs merely in being more brownish above.
The measurements of this and the preceding may be found in the accom-
panying table.

Advit in Winter (No. 59,811, Nat Mus., Hibemia, Florida, February,
1870 ; G. A. Boardman). Similar to the autumnal plumage, but less
browTiish above.

Youngy first Plumage (No. 2,807, Mus. R. R., St Croix R., Maine, July
20, 18'74 ; G. A. Boardman). Above grayish-brown, distinctly streaked
with dusky, the streaks broader on the back, where they widen at the end
of the feathers ; both rows of wing-coverts narrowly tipped with ptde buff;
tertials edged externally with rusty cinnamon ; rump and outer edges of
primaries and rectrices yellowish olive-green ; upper tail-coverts pale rusty-
cinnamon. Lower parts mostly dull whitish, tinged on the throat and
abdomen with lemon-yellow, the throat, breast, and sides heavily streaked
with dusky ; crissum and edge of the wing bright yellow.



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ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB.



87



List of Specimens examined.
Subspecies pcUmarum.



Nam«
ber.


Mmeum.


Sex
and
Age.


Locality.




Date.


Wing.


TaU.


BiU

from

Nostril.


Taxras.


19606


U.S.


<f*d.


Ft. Rfliolatlon, Br. Am.


Junel


266


2.40


.28


.80


28600


•• •


II


Cuba (Moat« Yerde).


Winter


240


2.20


.80


.76


28628





cf "


M ^ '


Jan. 17, 1861


2.60


2.80


.80




12102






DIftrlct of Colombia.


M^.°&


2.66


2.80


.80


.78


6494


<


-,-, II


Florida andian Key).


2.66


240


.80


.80


8647


**


__ II


Cape Florida.


Oct 27. 1867


2.60


2.80


.80


.76


82260


II


<f "


Blacon, Georgia.
Penn. (CiMide).


April, 1848


2.60


2.26


.81


.80


]fi2


8. f . B.»


__ ««


ApU 26, 1846


2.40


2.26


.28


.76


64








May 2,1840


2.46


2J»


.80


.76


788


M


.— *«


II u


Sep. 30. 1842
Winter


2.46


2.26


.29


.76


946


II


II


f


2.60


2.80


.80


.80


946


II


__ t*


— ?




2.66


2.80


.28


.78


1848


B. W. N.t


9 "


niinolf (WankegaaJL


May 12, 1876
ApM12.1876


2.40


2.10


.80


.76


2072


II


<f ••


a 11


2.60


2.20


.28


.80


2078


*•


<f "


II tt


ApU 28. 1876


2.60


2.80


.80


.78


2074


II


<f "


II II


JMay 12. 1876


2.46


2.16


.28


.78


9076




<f "


«l u




2.60


2.16


M


.76


1684


B.Ct




DIrtrict of Colombia.


Oct 1,1869


2.60


2.46


.28


.80




P.L.J.II


<f "


It u


Oct. 11, 1861


2.60


2.86


.80


.80


916
2786


K^i


^'


BUnoiaCMiCkrmel).


Ap'122,1869
Sp.ring


2.66
2.86


2.80
2.06


.80
.28


.80
.71





II


__ ««


" (BnglewoodX


[May. 1874


2.60


2.26


.80


.80


—.


II


V "


•• Calomet


^ay 12, 1876


2.40


2.16


.80


.72


.~


II


V-


WI«o. (BoMeTTiUe).


May 2,


2.66


2.20


.80


.80


_






May 14.


2.46


2.06


.27


.80





II




II

Arerage,...


Aotomn


24i0


2.10


.80


.76










.2.62


2.24


.29


.76



Subspecies hppochtytea.



NOQ-

ber.


MoMom.


Sex
and


Locality.


Date.


Wlqg.


TalL


BiU
from


Tarsuh.




Age.










Nostril.




10286


. U.S.


-ad.


MaM.(Sberbom).
NoTa Scotia.


Summer


2.80


2.40




.80


26929


II


9 "


Jone


2.60


2.80


.80


.76


69611


II


Jl II


Florida (Hibemia).
MaM. (Cambridge).


Feb.. 1870


2J0


2.60


.28


.80


68166


II


9 "


Spring
Oct T; 1842


2.60


2.40


.82


.76


788


S. F. B.»


W"*


Penn. (Cariiale).
MaM. (Cambridge).


2.76


2.66


.80


.80


2164


B.B.I


<f "


Spring
Oct 10, 1861


2.66


2.60


.80


.80


2667


II


__ «♦


District of Colombia.


2.76


2.60


.80


.80


2062


It


9 "


Mass. (Cambridge).


Spring


2.66


2.80


.80


.80





t*


<f "


It t«




2.76


2.60


.82


80





II


zL II


Maryland (Baltimoie).




270


2.80


.80


.80








ATerage,...


.2.60 2.48


.80


.79



^ 8. F. Baird. J & W. Nelson. % E. Cooes. | P. L. Jooy. f B. Bidgway.



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88 BULLETIN OF THE NUTTALL



NOTES ON TEXAN BIRDS.

BT J. 0. MBBBHiLy M. D., ASSISTANT SUBOBON, U. S. A.

I. Five Specie$ of Birds new to the Fauna of the United States,
I have recently obtained the following species, new to the fstiina
of the United States, in the vicinity of Fort Brown, Texas : —

1. Molothms lenens, Wagler, This species, next to Quisealui major
var. macrurtu, is the most abundant of the fSetmily here during the summer
months, and it is strange it was not obtained by earlier collectors. Pro-
fessor Baird infonns me that specimens forwarded to him may constitute a
variety.

2. Nyotidromns albioollis, Sclater. In Baird, Brewer, and Ridgwa/s
" Birds of North America " (Vol. II, p. 399), mention is made of the pos-
sible occurrence of this species within our limits. My first specimen was
taken within Fort Brown on the Ist of April of this year. On May 2,
while in camp some sixty-five miles up the river (Rio Grande), I obtained
a female as she flew up from her two eggs ; and on the 15th c^ the same
month a second set of ^gs was found near the place where the first were
obtained. The characteristic notes heard every evening showed that this
species was by no means rare.

3. Pjrrrhophasna riefferl, Bourc. This Mexican and Quatemabm
species of Hummer is identified by Mr. Ridgway from my description of a
specimen taken here last June by a soldier. He wished (o keep it, but it
escaped in a day or two. A second specimen was shot here a few weeks
later, determined by Mr. Ridgway to be this species.

4. Parra gymnoatoma, Wagler. Early in August I saw a pair of
water-birds quite new to me on the borders of a lagoon near Fort Brown.
I was on horseback at the time, and did not have my gun, but had a good
opportunity to observe them carefully. The next day I winged one of
them, but it fell into a dense bed of water-plants, and could not be found,
and the survivor disappeared. Respecting a letter describing the bird as
seen, Mr. Ridgway writes : '* The bird you describe is undoubtedly Parra
gymnostoma ; .... the chestnut back and yellow (greenish-yellow) wings
settle the species beyond a doubt."

5. Podioepa dominioua, Lath, This species was first obtained early
in March, three specimens being killed at one shot I have also seen them
in April, May, and August, in the shallow lagoons about here.



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ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB. 89

II. On the Breeding HahiUy prcvtcusiy unhnaunif of two Species of
North American Birds.

Bmbamagni mfirirgats, Loior. This litUe-known species is quite
abundant in the vicinity of Fort Brown, Texaa. During the past season I
searched in yain for its nest on the ground, where it seemed almost certain
it would be found, on account of its eminently terrestrial habits. No nest
was taken, however, until August 5, when one was found within the limits
of the fort, placed on a sapling about four feet from the ground ; it con-
tained two ^;g3. On returning two days later, the female was obtained as
she left the nest, to which a third egg had been added. Dissection showed
that no more would have been laid. The domed nest was neatly con-
structed of fine twigs and straws, the more delicate (Aes being used for the
lining. The eggs are pure white, and are large for the size of the bird,
averaging .90 by .66 of an inch.

On September 7 a second nest was found, in all respects like the first,
except that it was lined with hair ; the two eggs were but slightly incu-
bated, and do not differ from those first found.

Zanthnra inoaa var. luznoaa, Bon, My first nest of this species
was taken on the 27th of May, while in camp near Edinburgh (now
Hidalgo), Texas, about seventy miles above Fort Brown, on the Rio
Grande. It was placed on the horizontal branch of a waican-tree, about
twenty-five feet fr^m the ground, and was built of twigs and rootlets ;
the cavity was slight, and the entire structure so thin that the eggs could
be seen through the bottom. These were three in number, and were quite
fresh. The ground-color is a grayish- white, thickly spotted with brown
and pale lilac, especially at the larger end ; they average 1.11 by .82 inches.
A second nest, found in the same vicinity May 8, was on a sapling seven
feet frx>m the ground ; it closely resembled the first one, and contained
four ^gs, three far advanced in incubation ; the fourth, which also differed
in having the markings most numerous at the smaller end, was quite
fresh. These eggs are shorter than the first set, averaging 1.01 by .80 ;
in other respects they are much alike. During the latter part of the same
month I found two more nests of this handsome bird ; they resembled the
others in situation and construction, but I was obliged to leave b^ore eggs
were deposited in either.



BIRDS OF NEW ENGLAND.

BT THOMAS M. BBEWER.



Mt attention baa been called to the paper in the September
*' Bulletin" signed ''H. A. P.," and I notice with surprise certain



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90 BULLETIN OF THE NUTTALL

strictures that are hardly deserved. My Catalogue of the Birds of
New England was, at first, only intended to be a simple list, without
note or comment, transferring to a challenged list such species given
by others as my own judgment led me to question, and adding the
names of recent additions. This list I gave for what it was worth,
expecting and desiring to have it amended and improved. But this
writer seems to have totally misapprehended, in several essential
respects, the purpose proposed in my list. It was but an initiative
towards a complete and reliable list of the birds of New England,
based upon the sure foundation of undisputed /octo. Mere opinions,
no matter by whom held, crude inferences from insulated facts, and
still less empty conjectures, without data, were of no value in my
eyes, and wholly irrelevant. We had had quite too much of this
already, and our local lists had been overloaded with, and rendered
comparatively valueless by, smart guesses and shrewd anticipations
of coming occurrences.

Nor was it any part of my original design to indicate the charac-
ter of the presence of birds in the New England States. At the
last moment, and when it could only be done very briefly, and there-
fore incompletely, my friend, Mr. J. A. Allen, persuaded me to add
this feature, after the whole article was in type, and when it could
only be done so far as was possible, without materiaUy adding to its
length. Of course the additions are very brief, and never ex-
haustive.

" H. A. P.," apparently not appreciating the real purport of these
notes, is at the quite unnecessary pains to supplement them with
additions, all of them more or less liable to exceptional criticism.
For instance, Turdus migratoriui is given by me as a general sum-
mer resident, which is certainly correct, so far as it goes. Of course
the merest tyro in ornithology knows that the Robin is also migra-
tory in the spring and in the fall, and also that birds of this species
may be met with irregularly and occasionally during winter in
various parts of New England. But these peculiarities are many-
sided, and to have done the subject full justice, with proper dis-
crimination, would have required more space than I had at my dis-
posal. " H. A. P." naively informs us that the Robin is a constant
resident in Southern New England. If by this he intends to have
us understand that the same individual Robins are constant resi-
dents with us, I take issue with him. I deny it to be a fact. The
individuals of this species that occupy New England in the summer



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ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB, 91

leave before the approach of winter. Those who visit us in the
winter are of a very different race, come from far beyond our limits,
and do not remain with us after the approach of spring. More than
this, these winter visits are not confined to Southern New England.
In some seasons, and under certain conditions, Robins are more
numerous in some portions of Northern New England, in mid-
winter, where food is abundant, than I have ever found them in the
southern portions. So far as my note on the Robin went, it was at
least accurate, but the supplement of " H. A. P.** is both inexact
and calculated to mislead.

" H. A. P." asks if certain species, five in number, and named by
him, are not shown by the records as birds to be retained. Having
answered these questions to the best of my ability, in advance,
and in the negative, I can only repeat that all the records we have
in reference to them are unreliable, and that, in my judgment, these
names should remain on the list of those requiring more evidence.
One of them, NetHon creecay will probably prove to be of occasional
occurrence, but this I do not deem at all probable of the other four.
If H. A. P." can answer his own question, he should do so ; if not,
it is irrelevant.

*' H. A. P." wanders from the path of legitimate criticism to accuse
me of having withheld credit due to certain other and recent
authorities, and in so doing ceases to be critical and becomes per-
sonaL I will only here remark, that his insinuations are both
gratuitous and unjust. No one, other than myself, can know the
extent or the limits of my knowledge, and no one has any right to
assume how much of it is solely due to information derived from
others. The limit to which I was restricted prevented my giving
any extent of data^ and where I depended upon authorities already
made public, I was not at liberty so unnecessarily to swell my arti-
cle as to repeat them. In every instance where there was any real
occasion to do so, I have given due credit, so far as my limits per-
mitted. And what makes this censure seem the more inconsistent
and uncalled for is that, in his own paper, in which we find such an
amount of sweeping generalizations, no credit whatever is given to
any one else as having aided him in forming his conclusions. He
has been either inconceivably fortunate in acquiring knowledge
under difficulties, or he, too, has withheld the credit due to others
for the data upon which he bases the positive dogmas he gives out
in a manner quite ex ocUhedrd,



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92 BULLETIN OF lEE NUTTALL

I might go on and take up and critioisa, one by one^ each of these
supplemental opinions, but as they are only opinions unsupported by
fiiotSy I yiew them as valueless. Some I know to be incorrect. Ftroo
gilvuB and ZcMsdura earoliftentii, for instance^ to my certain knowl-
edge, have been found very nearly, if not quite, throughout New Eng-
land. Then, too, '^ H. A. P."* and your humble servant do. not appear
to always attach the same significance to the same words, — " rare,"
for instance. With all due deference to his opiniani, as expressed
in all the instances where I have made use of this word, I must still
adhere to my own, and am prepared to take issue with him squarely
in every instance named by him where he challenges its use. Until
he can produce the data for his sweeping declarations I am not
prepared to admit the correctness of any of his unproven state-
ments or inferences. I do not believe, for instance, that FerissoglosM
HgriMo, Geothlypts Philadelphia, or Contopus hor^is are " generally
common " throughout Northern New England. Neither am I pre-
pared to admit, without positive proof, that Helminthophaga chry-
9optera can be said to breed in any considerable numbers in South-
em New England, nor does it, so far as I know, in any part of the
United States. The mere ipn dixit of a single observer, and scattered
insulated instances, do not afford even inferential data. The same
holds true of Coiumieulus passerinus^ though a much more common
bird, but the portion of Southern New England in which it breeds in
considerable numbers regularly must be small indeed. So far as my
own observations go, and so far also as I have been able to obtain
information from others, '' H. A. P." is not warranted in his sweep-
ing statement that Mieropalama himanU>pu$ is a regular migrant
along the whole New England coast. But if he is better posted, and
can produce the evidence to establish his views on this long-contro-
verted point, such data are too valuable and would be too inter-
esting to be suppressed. But let us have facta, not imaginative
opinions, and these not insulated, but in sufficient numbers. As for
Anthm ludovicianuSf I speak of that which I do know when I repeat
that I have found it, sometimes in large flocks, in open country near
the coast, in Massachusetts, in midwinter, notwithstanding the
negative testimony of ** H. A. P." to the contrary.

But I will not occupy any further space by taking up, point by
point, the various forms of difference of opinion between '^ H. A. P."
and myself I will only add, in conclusion, that I see nothing in
his criticisms, unsupported as they are by facts, to induce me to



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ORNITHOLCXSICAL CLUB. 93

make any material changes in mj own yiews. Our ornithological
horieons have eyidently not been the same, and consequently our
conclusions are not always in unison. He is welcome to his own
conjectures, inferences, and opinions, but I must be permitted to
retain my own, " H. A, P." to the contrary notwithstanding, until
he produces something of more weight than unsupported assertion.



Hecetit %itnntuxt.

Birds of Southwbstbrn Mbxico. — Mr. George N. Lawrence has
recently published* his Report on the Birds qf Southwestern Mexico, •col-



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