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localities, it may be found throughout the year ; its migrations being
influenced more by the question of food than of climate. In the valleys
among the White Mountains, where snow covers the ground from October
to June, and where the cold reaches the freezing-point of mercury, flocks
of Robins remain during the entire winter, attracted by the abundance of
berries. In Massachusetts a few Robins remain throughout the year, but
the greater proportion leave early in November, returning late in February
or early in March."

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Also in resp^t to th6 Hairy Woodpecker, we read in the same work
(Vol. II, p. 506) : '' It is a resident and not a migratory species, and wher-
ever found it also breeds."

Also (in Vol. Ill, p. 46) of Nyetale (icadica: '' Mr. Boardman and Pro-
fessor VerriU both give it as resident, and as common in Maine."

Other species, namely, the Short-billed Marsh Wren {Cistothorui $tel-
larii), the Warbling Vireo {Vireo gilvus), the White-eyed Vireo (F.
novehoracensis), the Field Sparrow {SpisxUa ptuilh,), the Carolina Dove
{Zencedura carolinensis)^ and the Quail {Ortyx virginianiLs), which wer»
given as summer residents, presumably of all New England, I said seldom
reached Northern New England. With the exception of Ortyx virginianu$y
1 did not make the positive statement that the above-named species never
did so, knowing that one or two of them had been found sparingly at
certain localities in that section. Here again, the published record, with
but slight exceptions, supports me in my assertion. As to Virm> gUcug
and Spizella pusUlay though given by Mr. Yerrill as summer visitants at
Norway, Me., and by Dr. Coues as summer visitants to all New England,
the former is rare, and the latter does not occur at all, at Calais, Me., nor
does C. J. Maynard give either as found in Coos County, N. H., or Oxford
County, Me. He considers the White Mountain range as forming their
northern limit of distribution. Mr. William Brewster did not find them
at Franconia, N. H.

Respecting V. noveboracengis, I quote the following from the •* History of
North American Binls" (Vol. 11, pp. 386,386) : " In the last-named State
[Massachusetts] it becomes exceedingly rare, and beyond it is apparently
not found, none having been met with either by Messrs. VerriU or Board-
man in any part of Maine. Mr. Audubon states that he himself found
them along the coast in Maine, Nova Scotia, and Labrador. This, how-
ever, I am inclined to consider a misstatement, as they have not since
been detected north of the 42d parallel."

From the same work (VoL II, p. 5), respecting S. jmsUla, is the follow-
ing : ** In the summer it breeds from Virginia to Maine, as far as the
central and western portions. It is not found near Calais, but occurs and
breeds near Norway, Oxford County."

Again of Z, carolinensis (Vol. Ill, p. 384) : ** It is found in the southern
part of Maine as far to the eastward as Calais, but was not collected by Mr.
Verrill at Norway, and is not known to occur in the northern part of that
State." I said it was not "rare," meaning of course in Southern New
England, and by looking up the matter, such will be found to be the case.
Citing again from our standard work on North American birds, we find
this of Ortyx virginianus : " This bird is probably found in all the New
England States, though its presence in Maine is not certain, and if found
there at all, is only met with in the extreme southwestern portion. It is
also rare in Vermont and New Hampshire, and only found in the southern
portions. It is not given by Mr. Boardman, nor by Professor Verrill."

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ObBervAtions mode in the nesting-season daring tiie la^ five or «ix
yeajrs in New Hampshire and Maine, by such experienced collectors as
Messrs. Brewster and Maynard, and, to a less extent, by Bailey, Deane, and
myself, show the absence of the foregoing species from the Fauna, and the
presence of the five following, namely, the Cape May Warbler {Perissoglo9$a
figrina)y the Mourning Warbler (Geothlypis phUadelpkia), the Olive-sided
Flycatcher (Contopus borealis), and, in less abundance, the Black-backed
md the Banded Three-toed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcHctu and P. ameri-

What had already appeared in print'respecting the distribution of these
birds, added to the observations of the above-named gentlemen, I thought
warranted me in saying that at least P, tigrina^ 0. philadelpkicty and C
horecUiSf were " generally," that is, usually, if, perhaps, not universally,
common, and bred regularly in Northern New England.

The Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitherus vermiwrus\ the Blue-winged
Yellow Warbler (Helminthaphaga pinus), the Yellow-breasted Chat {Icteria
virens)y the Hooded Warbler (Myiodioctea mitrattis)y and the Great-crested
Flycatcher {Myiarchm crimtus) have generally been considered rare birds
in any part of New England, but in the " American Naturalist " (Vol. VII,
1B73, p. 692) I mentioned, on the authority of Mr. J. N.Clark, of Saybrook,
Conn., that they were found at that locality regularly in numbers and breed-
ing, though he had not actuaUy found the nest of H, vermivorus, I also
spoke of a Water-Thrush that occurred there, and inferred that it was prob-
ably the Long-billed Water-Thrush {Siwrus ludovidanus). Subsequent
correspondence, and a visit to Saybrook in June, 1875, confirmed my sus-
picion, proving that ludovicianiu was the species that summered there, and
that it was common, as were all the others, with the exception of H. vermi-
wrui. Mr. C. M. Jones, now of Eastford, Conn., has written me that he
observed all but S, ludovidanus and H. vermivorus, at Madison, in that
State, where he formerly resided. '

The Golden-winged Warbler (Helminthophaga chrysoptera) and the Yel-
low-winged Sparrow {Cotumicuhu passerinus) are two species that Dr.
Brewer still denies can be consider^ as breeding r^ularly, or in numbers,
in any portion of New England. As far back as June, 1869 (Am. Nat,
Vol. Ill, p. 497X ^^^ agai^ ^ 1870 (Samuels^s Om. and OoL of New Eng-
land, revised edition, 1870, Appendix), I showed that the Golden-winged
Warbler was far from uncommon in Massachusetts. Observations made
every year since have not altered my opinion. I find it in the proper
places from May to August It is apparently less plenty after the first of
June, but is still not a bird of the Canadian Fauna.

In " History of North American Birds " (Vol. I, p. 193) we read : " Oc-
casionally specimens have been obtained in Massachusetts, and, of late,
these occurrences have become more common or more observed. .... Mr.
J. A. Allen has known of several specimens taken within the State. Mr.
Jillson has observed it spending the summer in Bolton, and evidently

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breeding, as has also Mr. Allen at Springfield, and Mr. Bennett at Holy-
oke." (See also Am. Nat., Vol. Ill, 1869, p. 575 ; MaynaixI's Naturalist's
Qoide, 1870 ; and this Bulletin, Vol. I, p. 6, for accounts of the nesting of
this species in Massachusetts.)

I had no idea that any one acquainted at all with New England birds
could say that C. passerinus was rare, or even uncommon, in Southern
New England. Why, it absolutely swarms, so to speak, on Nantucket. I
presume Dr. Brewer will allow that island to be included within our
limits. On Cape Cod, and, indeed, in various portions of Massachusetts,
Rhode Island, and Connecticut, and even northward to Concord, New
Hampshire, it may be found in plenty at all suitable localities. At Say-
brook, Conn., its notes were to be heard in every field. (See History
North American birds, Vol. I, p. 554, and local lists of New England
birds, south of Northern sections, in confirmation of this statement

The Long-billed Curlew (Nwmenuu longirostris), the Yellow Rail (Par-
mtia novebaracentis), and the Coot {FtUica americana) 1 considered spring
and fall migrants, rather than as summer residents. The lists show this
statement also to be true, while the gunners and collectors further confirm
' it Perhaps a few may summer on the extreme northeastern coast of
Maine. •

But my space is becoming limited. That the €k>lden-creeted Kinglet
(RegiUtts satrapa) winters in numbers in Southern New England, that the
Snowbird {Junco hyemalis) does not do so in Northern New England, that
the Titlark (Anthus Ittdovicianiu) does not winter (perhaps with rare ex-
ceptions in the southernmost parts), and that Ectopistes migratoria Tega-
larly summers in different portions of New England, are all statements
demonstrable by facts already in print, and by the observations of those
who speak of that which they do know.

A word about the Stilt Sandpiper {Micropalma kimantopm), and I am
done. In the "American Naturalist '^ (Vol. Ill, p. 639) is recorded the
first supposed instance of its occurrence in New England. In the same
periodical (VoL VII, p. 727) is given the first supposed ♦ instance for
Massachusetts. Again (in Vol. VI, p. 307) Mr. Brewster says : " The Stilt
Sandpiper (MicropcUma himarUoptu), which I see was recorded in a recent
number of the * Naturalist ' as new to our Fauna, I consider by no means
rare in its migrations. Indeed, I have seen as many as six or seven sent
into Boston market at one time, from Cape Cod, and, in the course of a
few weeks' shooting in August, at Rye Beach, N. H. (just north of our
State limits), secured no less than ten specimens." Not only has he since
shot it, but he, as well as myself and others, find it frequently in the
Boston markets.

* Mr. F. C. Browne, of Framingham, has a specimen taken at Plymouth in

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I WAS recently informed, by Mr. Harold Herrick, that a specimen
of this species could be seen at the store of Mr. Conway, taxidermist,
in Carmine Street, said to have been killed on Long Island. I called
there and was shown a nicely mounted example of this Goose in
perfect plumage. Mr. Conway said that it was brought to him in
the flesh, in good condition, and was eaten by his family ; he spoke
Tery favorably of its edible qualities.

I learned from him that its possessor was Mr. J. K. Kendall of
this city. I had an interview with this gentleman, and requested
that he would ascertain all the facts possible as to its capture, and
send me the information. I received from him the following letter
giving the result of his inquiries : —

New York, November 29, 1S76.
Dear Sir, — About October 20 I saw a specimen of the Barnacle
Goose hanging in a restaurant in this city, — bought it and had it stuffed.
I questioned the proprietor, and learned from him the place where he
bought it, — from a produce-dealer near Washington. Market After-
wards I interviewed the marketman, and he recollected the bird well,
although he had no idea what it was. He told me he bought it from a
Long Island farmer, who brought it to the city in his wagon, and who
said that it was killed by a boy in^ Jamaica Bay. Unfortunately he did
not know the farmer, — never saw him before nor since, so I was unable
to trace the bird any farther, but I am fully satisfied the story was true.

Yours truly,

J. E. Kendall.

This is the second instance of this species having been procured
on the Atlantic coast ; the first was obtained in Currituck Sound,
North Carolina, in 1870, and is recorded in Vol. V, p. 10, of the
** American Naturalist." *

♦ In Dr. Brewer's " Catalogue of the Birds of New England " (from Proceed-
ings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. XVII, March 8, 1875) he
excludes this species from our New England list, and also states that the speci-
men recorded by Mr. Lawrence as having been taken in North Carolina was

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In 1874 I had the pleasure of publishing in the " Proceedings of
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia " (p. 220, pi. xv)
a description of a new species of UelmirUkophaga that I had just
been fortunate enough to unearth. It has remained unique up to
the present time, and although its friends have stoutly maintained
its validity, the " hybrid *' theorists have sorely tried their faith ;
therefore I am more than pleased to be able to set the matter per-
manently at rest by announcing the capture of a second specimen
of Helmiitthophaga lavyreacei. Thie specimen, oddly enough, was
secured by Mr. Lawrence himself, who sends it to me with a letter
of explanation, from which the following is an extract : —

" I obtained the specimen of JET. Lawrencd last fall irom a dealer, who
called my attention to it as having a black throat, differing in that respect
from any species he had ever before met with. He said it was sent to him
last spring from Hoboken, N. J., with a miscellaneous lot of Warblers.
I think the acquisition of a second specimen of this species should put at
rest all doubt of its validity."

This specimen agrees precisely with the type, with this slight ex-
ception, that the type is an adult male, probably in the second or
third year, while the bird under consideration is unquestionably a
yearling male, and still has the immature yellowish tips to the
coal-black feathers of the throat-patch. A slightly similar effect is
seen in the yearling males of Dendroeca virens, I cannot better
describe it than by republishing the description of the type.

probably one of eight specimens which escaped from the grounds of a gentleman
in Halifax m the fall of 1871 or 1872.

From Mr. Lawrence's record (Am. Naturah'st, Vol V, p. 10) we find this
Goose was captured on October 81, 1870, one or two years previous to the es-
caping of the Halifax birds.

In view of this fact may not Mr. Lawrence's specimen still remain as the
first authentic instance of the occurrence of the Barnacle Goose in the United
States ; at all events, until we bear of a confined specimen having escaped pre-
vious to that date ? — Rutuven Dbai^s.

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"Upper parts and rump olive-green, a shade darker than in jptnu#.
Wings bluish-gray, with two white bands, the upper not so clearly defined
as in pinus. Tail bluish-gray, with the three outer tail-feathers with mo^t
ef the web white, also 'a small white spot on the end of the fourth feather.
Crown and under parts, from breast to vent, orange. A broad black patch
extends from the bill through and behind the eye. Chin, throat, and fore-
part of the breast black. A yellow stripe, commencing under the bill,
extends back between the black eye- and breast-patches, and increases in
width upon the shoulder. Length, 4.50 ; wing, 2.50 ; tail, 2.00. Meas-
urements from the mounted bird.''

The measurements of the two birds are as nearly identical as is
possible when cue bird is mounted and the other a skin. Of its
habitat, the plumage of the female, and its nesting peculiarities, we
can only conjecture, but it seems not unreasonable to presume that
its habitat is similar to that of its near congener, H, pinits, and
that New Jersey may some day produce its nest and eggs, as it has
already produced the only two known specimens of the bird.

The female, I believe, will be found to be not unlike that of JT.
pinuSy and a close inspection of supposed specimens of the latter
bird now in collections may develop some interesting facts.

In conclusion it may be well to add, what by inadvertence I
omitted when the description was first published, namely, that for
the correct delineation of the bird in the plate I am indebted to
Mr. Robert Ridgway, of the Smithsonian Institution^ to whom I
take this opportunity of tendering my thanks.



The following data respecting the occurrence of the following
fourteen species so far to the northeastward as New England are of
special interest. I am indebted to Messrs. Frederic T. Jencks of
Providence, R. I., Erwin I. Shores of Suffield, Conn., F. C. Browne
of Framii^ham, Mass^ and J. N. Clark of Saybrook, Conn., for facta
relating to eleven of the birds here mentioned.

1. Polioptlla oa»mlea. Blue-qray Onatcatcheb. — Mr. Jencks
writes : " Two were shot at Waiu^gan (Windham County), Conn., by

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Mr. C. M. Car]; enter, — a male in 1874 and a female in 1876. Three or
four were seen by me at Providence, R. I., May 23, 1875.'*

A male was also shot, by Mr. Shores, at Silver Spring, near Providence,
June 24, 1875, and several others have been seen by him at different times
in Providence and vicinity.

2. Helmithems vermiTonui. Worm-eatino Warbler. — Mr.
Shores shot a male at Suffield (Hartford County), Conn., August 22,
1874. This is, I think, its most northerly record in the Atlantic States
yet noted.

a Helminthophaga oelata. Orattoe-crownbd Warbler. — Mr.
Jencks writes me that '* a specimen was shot in Cranston, R. I., Decem-
ber 3, 1874.'' This is the fifth specimen reported for New England, and
the second taken in the winter season.*

4. DendrcBoa oa»nilea. Blue Warbler. — A male was obtained by
Mr. Shores at Suffield, June 12,*1875. This species and Polioptiia caruUay
though previously recorded as occurring in New England, have not been
recently taken here.

5. Myiodiootes mitratus. Hooded Warbler. — A male was shot
at Suffield, Conn., by Mr. Shores, July 8, 1875. This bird, though found
regularly along the Sound shore of Connecticut, has not been noticed so
far northward before in New England. This, as well as a few other spe-
cies characteristic of the Carolinian Fauna, will probably be found to
extend up the river-valleys of Connecticut, though not passing farther

6. Pyranga a»stiva. Summer Redbird. — Mr. Jencks informs me
that a male was shot a few years since on Ten- Mile River, six or eight miles
northeast of Providence. It has appeared before, but is sufficiently rare
here to merit nptice.

7. Btelgidopteryx serripatmia. Rough- winged Swallow. — A
female of this species was shot at Suffield, Conn., by Mr. Shores, June 6,
1874. At last this bird has been taken within our limits. It will be
interesting to determine whether it proves to be in future a regular visitant
to New England.

8. Collmlo ludoTidanns var. eaccubltoroidea. White-rumped
Shrike. — A typical example of this variety was shot by Mr. Jencks in
Cranston, R. I., September 2, 1873, and is now in his collection. Its pre-
vious record of having been found within our borders is somewhat doubt-
ful. I believe it is hardly found regularly much east of Buffalo, N. Y.
In this connection I would say that the CoUurio taken in Massachusetts,
recorded by me in the "American Naturalist" (Vol. VII, 1873, p. 116),
was a typical " Loggerhead '' Shrike (C. ludovicianus),

9. MUtoIiui forfioatus. Swallow-tailed Flycatcher. — Mr. Jencks
informs me that a specimen of this species was shot by Mr. Carpenter, at

* See this Bulletin, YoL 1, p. 94, for its previous New England record.

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Wauregan, Conn., about April 27, 1876. The bird first attracted Mr.
Carpenter's attention by its opening and closing the tail while flying
about a small sheet of water in quest of insects. The only other Eastern
United States capture of this species is a male taken at Trenton, N. J.,
a few years ago, as recorded by Dr. C. C. Abbott* Of course its appear-
ance here is entirely accidental

10. Porzana jamaioensis. Black Rail. — I have lately seen a skin
of this species belonging to Mr. Browne, of Framingham. The bird was
picked up dead, in August, 1869, by a relative of his, on Clark's Island,
Plymouth Harbor, and was forwarded to him as something entirely new
to our shores. This instance adds a new bird to the Fauna of Massa-

Of this species Mr. Clark, of Say brook, Conn., also writes me that a
neighbor of his, while mowing at that place, July 10, 1876, swung his
scythe over a nest of ten eggs on which the bird was sitting, unfortunately
cutting off the bird's head and breaking all but four of the eggs. The
only previous New England record of this species is that given by Dr.
Brewer (Proc. Bost. Soc Nat Hist, Vol. XVII, p. 477).

11. Rallns longirostria. Clapper Rail. — In the Natural History
store of Brewster & Knowlton, Boston, I recently saw a mounted specimen
of this species. The bird was captured by its flying on board a vessel in
the harbor. May 4, 1875. Though recorded from Maine and Connecticut,
it being in the latter probably quite a regular summer visitor (about the
Sound), I believe its appearance before in Massachusetts has been ques-

12. Rallns elegans. King Rail. — In the collection of Mr. George
p. Welch, of Lynn, Mass., is a mounted specimen shot at Nahant, No-
vember 21, 1875. This is a second species new to Massachusetts, and
has been but once or twice before recorded from any part of New Eng-

13. Sterna foliginosa. Sooty Tern. — Mr. Clark informs me that
he. has this species in his collection, mounted from a bird that last summer
flew against the side of the steam boat- wharf depot at Say brook. Conn.
Stunned by the concussion, it fell and was picked up. It had been
noticed for several days flying about the mouth of the river as something

14. Peleoanus traohyrhynohus. White Pelican. — At the Natural
History store of Mr. A. J. Colbum, Boston, I saw, a few months since, a
skin of this species, freshly made up from the flesh. The bird was shot
at North Scituate, October 6, 1876, by Mr. George Pratt. It was a male,
in fine plumage and good condition. Though not new to the State, I
think its presence with us worthy of notice.

• Amer. Nat, Vol. VI, p. 867.

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^tttXiX 3L(tetriitttr^

. Notices of pivb recent Ornithological Papers. — The first three
numbers of the " Proceedings of the 2^1ogical Society of London " for
1876 contain several important papers upon the anatomy and classifi-
cation of several groups of birds, by Mr. A. H. Garrod, while among the
numerous other ornithological articles of more or less special interest are
papers by Mr. Howard Saunders, on the Skau Gulls and on the Terns ;
by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin, on the Anatida of " Neotropical " America ;
an abstract of a memoir by Mr. W. K. Parker on .^ithognathous birds ;
and a paper by Mr. W. H. Hudson on the habits of some of the Rails of
the Argentine Repiiblic Among the numerous new species of birds
figured and described are quite a number from the Andean Region of
South America.

Among Mr. Garrod's contributions is a short paper (1. c. pp. 275 - 277)
on the anatomy of the Courlan {Aramus scolopaceus). He finds it to have,
on the whole, decidedly closer affinities with the Cranes {Grtu) than with
any other group, especially in respect to its osteology, notwithstanding its
many external resemblances to the Rails. Hence Mr. Garrod's researches
confirm the views of recent systematists in respect to the affinities of this
peculiar and interesting form. Mr. Garrod also writes (I. c pp. 335 - 345,
pis. xxvi - xxviii) concerning the anatomy of the Darter (Plotus anh.inga\
a bird whose anatomy, aside from its skeleton, had previously received
little attention. Mr. Garrod finds in its visceral anatomy several quite pe-
culiar features, one of which is the protection of the pyloric orifice by " a
mat of lengthy hair-like processes, much like cocoanut fibre, which nearly
half fills the second stomach.'^ These hair-like fibres are found to consid-
erably resemble in structure true cutaneous hairs. In general terms, the
Darter may be said to present many of the features characteristic of the
Gannets, Pelicans, and their allies, in an exaggerated degree.

The most important and interesting of Mr. Garrod's contributions is
a paper "On some Anatomical Characters which bear upon the Major
Divisions of the Passerine Birds" (1. c. pp. 606-519, pis. xlviii-liii).
Mr. Gbrrod attaches great importance to the mode of insertion of one of
the muscles of the wing (the teftuor patagii brevis\ to the character of the
syrinx, the absence or presence of either the femoral or the sciatic artery,
etc., to which points the researches here detailed are mainly directed. He
concludes his paper with a tabular arrangement of the larger groups of
the Passeres, expressive of his views of their affinities.

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