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Mr. Howard Saunders's paper (1. c pp. 317-332, pi. xxiv) on the
Skau or Jager Gulls (Stercorariince) is devoted to the synonymy and
range of the species, with incidental remarks on their progressive changes
of plumage. Mr. Saunders recognizes six species, all of which he refers

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to one genus, for which he adopts the name Stercorarius as being the only
proper and tenable one. Two of these species belong to the Southern
Hemisphere, the other four to the Northern, all of which latter occur in
the boreal parte of North America, as well as in the Old World. The
nomenclature adopted by Mr. Saunders for two of the Northern species
differs from that commonly emplo]^, Mr. Saunders maintaining, and
apparently with good reason, that the Linnssan name parcuilicus belongs
not to the bird commonly so called, but to the bird usually called cepphut
or buffoni. Thus Stercoraritu crepidatus Saunders is the /S. parasiticus of
Coues and most recent authors, while the S. pa^asitictLs Saunders is the
S. bvffoni of Coues and others, which is again the SL cepphut of Gray and
other writers.

Mr. Saunders's paper on the Terns (1. c. pp. 638-672, pL Ixi) is similar
in character to that on the Jager or Skau Gulls, treating mtdnly of no-
menclature and distribution, l)eing, like the other, preliminary to a mono-
graph of the Laridas, The genera recognized are Hydrochdidon, Sterna,
Namiaf Gygisy and Anous, Of the forty-eight species recognized, thirty-
eight are placed under Sterna, The most noteworthy change of names
among the North American species is the substitution of the name
fluviatilus of Naumann for the hitherto almost universally accepted
hirundo of Linnaeus for our Common Tern, which name he considers as
originally embracing both the hirundo and the macrura of recent authors.
The Sterna portlavdica of Ridgway is referred to S. macrura, in accord-
ance with Mr. Brewster's views, and the Least Tern is considered as
specifically distinct from S. superciliaris, of which Dr. Coues deems it to be
merely a variety. In most other cases Mr. Saunders's names as respects
the North American species agree with those recently adopted by Dr.
Coues in his " Birds of the Northwest."

Messrs. Sclater and Salvin's " Revision of the Neotropical Anatidee "
(L c. pp. 358-412, pi. xxxiv) is a most valuable synopsis of the Ducks
and Geese of Middle and Southern Aiiierica, and embraces also a large
proportion of the species of North America, including as it does all that
reach Tropical America in their migrations. The paper includes notices
of sixty-two species, of the greater part of which are given short descrip-
tions, accompanied by pretty full lists of bibliographical references.
Twenty-three of the species are considered as " Nearctic," leaving thirty-
nine as properly " Neotropical." The paper closes with a very convenient
tabular synopsis of the geographical distribution of the genera and
species. — J. A. A.

Vennor's Rapacious Birds op Canada. —With the title " Our Birds df
Prey ; or, The Eagles, Hawks, and Owls of Canada," by Henry G. Vennor,
Messrs. Dawson Brothers have published an elegant royal octavo volume
of one hundred and fifty-four pages, with thirty photographic illustra-
tions. While these illustrations are probably as excellent as the photo-

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graphic art can supply, they cannot be regarded as a very valuable addition
to the work, certainly not in proportion to their, cost. They do not sup-
ply those shades of tinting so essential to the student, and, being neces-
sarily taken from mounted specimens, cannot remedy the inevitable short-
comings of their models. The text, which is largely compiled from the
notes of other writers, gives a fairly digested summary of the individual
history of each species,

Mr. Vennor includes two forms of Gyr-falcons, the candicans and
the lahradora of Audubon, but adds nothing of moment to our knowl-
edge of the history of the former, and does not include, except inferen-
tially, Hierofalco islandicus as among the birds of Canada. He gives, as a
separate form, the dark Gyr-falcon, described by Audubon as Idbradoray
but he is mistaken in several of his statements in regard to this variety.
It is probably not so very rare a bird as has been supposed, although it is
little known in North American collections. The supposition that the
two specimens in the Montreal Museum are the only ones known in all
North America is incorrect Mr. Boardman of St Stephen possesses at
least two very fine specimens, the Boston Museum has a very fine one, and
there is at least one in the National Museum of Washington. Nor is Mr.
Vennor the first to represent, in plate, this species (or variety ?).

In the "Ornithological Miscellany,'* edited by Mr. Geoige Dawson
Rowley, and published by Trubner & Co., of London, Mr. Henry K
Dresser presented a very interesting memoir of this Hawk, accompanied
with a very fine illustration. I am not aware that any copy of this work
is in this country, and the writer can only refer to it from memory. From
this it would appear that for several years past collections of skins received
in Europe from Labrador have always contained skins of this bird. One
of the museums of Germany was especially fortunate in securing a fine
series of this bird, and Mr. Dresser, having learned the source from which
it had been enriched, has himself since procured several very fine specimens.
So far as is known it seems to be confined to Labrador, and its specific
peculiarities, if it has any, are not publicly known. At present we know
too little in regard to it to discuss the question whether it is to be regarded
as a species or a race, or whether it may not be a melanistic form. It is
much more distinct, in its external markings, from any of the three other
forms, ffyrfalcOf islandicus, and candicans than they are from one anolher,
and, so far as is known, there is much less variation in the markings of
individuals. The writer has no doubt that the birds referred to (North
American Birds, VoL III, p. 311), under the supposition that they be-
longed to the Black Rough-legged Hawks, were really of this group.

In this connection it may be mentioned that Mr. Dresser refers the
form of Hierofalco found on Anderson River, not to JET. candicans^ but to
the more common Norway form of H. gyrfalco^ — T. M« B*

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have. again the pleasure of adding another bird new to our Fauna. K
Humming-Bird (male), taken within the limits of Fort Brown, Texas,
August 17, 1876, and forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution for iden-
tification, has just been determined to be Amdzilia cervineiventris. It much
resembles Pyrrhophmta riefferi, and has rusty (instead of white) leg pufis.
— Jahes C. Merrill, Fort Brtywn, Texas, December 4, 1876.

Note on Podiceps dominicus.* — This species was long since attrib-
uted (perhaps erroneously) to " California," by Dr. William Gambel ; it
was included by Baird among Birds of the Mexican Boundary, apparently
on strength of its eggs found at Matamoras, and figured in his " Birds of
North America " (ed. of 1860, not of 1858). It was also formally pre-
sented by me as North American (Birds of the Northwest, p. 736, where
its habitat is given as north of the Rio Grande). — Elliott Coces.

Eastward Range of the Ferruginous Buzzard {Arckihuteo ftrr\k-
giiieus), — During the past summer (1876^ I found this bird to be common
on the prairies of Nebraska and Wyoming, where it might almost be con-
sidered as one of the characteristic species. In 1873 I observed it on the
Pembina Mountains, in Eastern Dakota, near the Red River of the North ;
and in 1874 I found it nesting in Northern Montana, on one of the Two
Forks of Milk River. In years previous I had only seen it in Arizona
and Southern California. I can now record its range still farther east-
wanl, — beyond the Mississippi, as I lately saw one in Illinois; a few miles
from the river. The great size of the binl, its white tail, almost as con-
spicuous as that of the Bald £lagle, and white under parts, render it un-
mistakable at any ordinary distance. Its geographical distribution is
apparently nearly coincident with that of the Lanier Falcon (FcUco polya^
grus Cass.), a bird which I have also found very numerous in Nebraska,
Wyoming, and open portions of Colorado. Both species are prairie Hawkfs
subsisting largely or chiefly upon the small rodent mammals which abound
in such regions. — Elliott Coues, IVashington, D, C, October, 1876.

Occurrence op Leconte's Bunting (CotumictUus lecontei Bon.) in
Iowa. — One of ray correspondents, Mr. E. W. Newton, of Franklin
Grove, 111., writes me that when on a recent collecting trip through Iowa,
he had the good fortune to secure twenty-two specimens of this species in
a small slough situated in Colo, Story County, near the centre of the
State, one of which he kindly sent me for identification. The date of cap-

• See this Bulletin, Vol. I, p. 88, November, 1876.

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tare recorded on the label is October 10, 1876. Although he hunted
carefully over equally desirable situations in other parts of the State, this
was the only place where it was found. This forms its most eastern rec-
ord, excepting the single specimen taken by Mr. E. W. Nelson at River-
dale, 111.* — H. B. Bailey.

Audubon's Warbler in Massachusetts. — While collecting in the
neighborhood of Cambridge, Mass., November 15, 1876, I was fortunate
enough to obtain a fine specimen of Audubon's Warbler (Deiidroeca audxi-
honi). It was a male, and the yellow of the throat was very plainly
marked. Dr. Coues, in his "Birds of the Northwest," gives Laramie Peak
as about the eastern limit of this species. Its occurrence here must, of
course, be regarded as entirely accidental. — A. M. Frazar.

Occurrence op the Sooty Tern in Massachusetts. — In Mr. Al-
len's " Catalogue of the Birds of Massachusetts '* we find the Sooty Tern
(Sterna fuliginom) given, on the authority of Mr. E. A. Samuels, as a
rare summer visitor to Muskegat Island. But for some reason Dr. Brewer,
in his recent " Catalogue of the Birds of New England," withdraws this
species from the New England list, and challenges its right to be regarded
as in any sense a New England bird. I have the pleasure of replacing
this species by recording the capture of a fine adult male on the Merrimack
River near Lawrence, Mass., on October 29, 1876. I examined the speci-
men at the store of Mr. Charles I. Goodale, taxidermist, who has finely
preserved it, and it is now in the possession of Mr. A. W. Howland of
Lawrence. — Ruthvbn Deane.

The Black Gyr-Falcon (FcUco sacer var. lahradora) in Massachu-
setts, — A fine specimen of this Falcon was shot on Breed's Island during
the latter part of October, 1876. It proved to be a male, in nearly adult
plumage, and is now in the collection of Mr. C. I. Goodale, through whose
kindness I have had the pleasure of examining it. — C. B. Cory.

Notes on Birds new to the Fauna op Maine, etc. — Of the follow-
ing five species, three are here for the first time recorded as birds of Maine,
another as found for the first time so far in the interior, and another as
found for the first time breeding on the New England coast

1. Anunodromus oaudacatus Swain. Sharp-tailed Finch. — I
have found this species, now, I believe, for the first time recoixied as a
bird of Maine, a rare inhabitant of a certain part of the great marsh in

2. Passeroulus princeps Maynard. Ipswich Sparrow. — On the
9th of October, 1876, 1 met with one of these birds on a sandy point on the
northwest shore of Lake Umbagog, in New Hampshire. I should hesitate

♦ See Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological aub, Vol. I, p. 40.

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to record the occurrence of this species in a locality so far removed from
its known haunts, it not having been before observed so far in the interior,
since, from the miss-fire of two cartridges in succession, I failed to capture
my bird, were I not perfectly acquainted with its almost immistakable

3. Striz flammea var. pratinoola Bonap. Barn Owl. — Mr. L. C.
Daniels, of this city (Portland), has in his possession a specimen of this
owl which he shot in Falmouth, June 10, 1866. It was killed while fly-
ing across an open field. It has not, I think, been before recorded as found
in Maine.

' 4. Tringa balrdii Coiies, Baird's Sandpiper. — My brother, Mr.
Philip G. Brown, shot a young male of this species as it was flying along
Scarborough Beach, on September 9, 1875. It was in company with an-
other bird, apparently of the same species, which escaped. This is its first
recorded appearance on the coast of Maine.

5. Thallasaidroma leaohil Bonap. Leach's Petrel. — This Petrel
breeds in large numbers on several of the outer islands of Casco Bay,
southeast of Portland. Although I have often been told by fishermen
and sportsmen of the existence of colonies of these birds on certain of our
islands, I never was able to verify their reports until the middle of last
August, Jwhen I made three visits to two barren rocks known as the
" Green Islands," once in company with Mr. E. N. Atwood of Cape Eliza-
beth. I found about forty nests, half of which at this late date were
empty, the remainder containing squabs in different stages of develop-
ment. — Nathan Clifford Brown, Portland, Me., November 12, 1876.

Northern Range of the Sharp-tailed Finch (Ammodromw cau-
dacfutus). — My friend, Mr. William Stone of Cambridge, has recently
presented me with five specimens of the Sharp-tailed Finch which he
shot at Tignish, Prince Edward's Island, on August 2 and 3, 1876. The
locality where they were taken, as he describes it to me, was exceptional,
— a wide waste of marsh, dry, and at some distance from the sea, grown
up to bushes, with a few scattered dead pine stubs, pemnants of a former
forest. Throughout this tract these birds were abundant, the males singing
on all sides from the tops of the bushes. The individuals examined are
all adults in very pale, worn breeding plumage. Dr. Coues, in his " Birds
of New England " (Proc. Essex Inst., Vol. V, p. 282), gives Amrtwdromus
maritimus as occurring at Rye Beach, New Hampshire, but this record, he
informs me by letter, was a mistake, the bird which he found there being
A. caudacutus. The finding of the Sharp-tailed Finch in numbers at
Tignish, taken in connection with the fact of its recent detection at Scar-
borough, Me., by Mr. N. C. Brown [see above], renders it extremely
probable that it may occur regularly, at suitable localities, all along the
intermediate line of coast — William Brewster.

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Vol. 11. APRIL, 1877. No. 2.



Thb genus itself and all three of its speoies, require names dif-
ferent from those now generally used.

1. Name of thb Genus. — Originally written Shiurus by Swain-
son, who invented the term ; also found under the forms SciuruSy
by ignorance, inadvertence, or typographical blunder, and Sturtis, the
latter being correct. The word is compounded of the Greek <rtmj
'' I wave or brandish,'' and ovpw, '^ tail " ; it is precisely eqmvalent
to the Latin mota-ciUa, French hoche-queue^ English wag-taiL
According to the rule that Greek n becomes long t * in Latin, the
word should be spelled Siurus, as was fii'st done, I think, in the
Ibis for 1859, by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin, and A. and E. Newton,
so nearly simultaneously that I do not know to which of these schol-
ars we owe the corrected orthography. Seiurus has been objected
to on account of its identity in sound, though not in orthography,
etymology, or signification, with Seiurus, " a squirrel," by German
purists, who have proposed to substitute Enicodchla or ffentco-
cichla ; but this is inadmissible : Siunu and Seiurus being^ as differ-
ent as thee, objective case of second personal pronoun, and the,
definite article.t (Lat Seiurus = Gr. amovpos = " shadow-tail.")

* So, also, Melopelia, Cfhamoe^ia, chrytoparia, etc (accent the penult), in-
stead of Melcpeleia, ChaTnoBpeltia, chrysopareit^ etc

t I am not of those rigid constraotionists who require preservation of the
original shape of a name, however faulty. While we cannot of course make
actual substitution of one name for another without other than philological

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2. Name of the Goldbn-orowxbd Thrush. — Originally and
usually written aurocapillus, which should give way to auricapillus.
The word means simply "gold-hair," i. e., " golden- haired." The
point is here : that the ablative of aurum, " gold/' which is auro, is
only to be used when the word with which it is compounded is an
adjective or participial ; otherwise auri is the correct form. If we
were to employ the participial adjective capillatuSf it would be correct
to say aurocaptUatus, i. e., literally and correctly, "haired with
gold," auro being the ahlatiw^ tnstrumetUi, that with or by means
of which the bird is " haired." So we say rightly aurocristatus,
aurostriatuSy auropunctcUus, crested, streaked, or speckled taith gold,
(color understood), but auriceps, auricoUisy Auriparus, etc. So also,
if we were to compound with the adjective aureus^ " golden," we
should say, e. g., aureicauday not aureocaudatus. Either aureicapillus
or auricapillus is correct, but aurocapillus is not.

3. Name of the Small-billed Wateb-Thbush. — It is to be
noted that Motacilla novehoracensis of Gmelin, 1788, is precisely the
same as Motacilla ncevia of Boddaert, 1783, both being based upon
Planche Enlumin^e 752, fig. I, which is the Fauvette tacketSe de la
Louisiane of Bufifon, afterward the I^ew York Warbler of Pennant
and Latham. G. R Gray seems to have observed this fact, but
neither he nor any other author, according to my recollection, has
acted upon the obvious requirement of the case, namely, that we
must say Siurus ncevius (Bodd.), instead of S, novehoracensis (Gm.).
Very curiously, Gmelin in another place made this species out to be
a variety of the Cape May Warbler, Perissoglossa tigrina ; for,
Gmelin's Motacilla tigrina var. fi (and so, also, Latham's Sylvia
tigrina var. /9) is based exclusively upon the Ficedula dominicensis
fusca of Brisson, Omith., iii, 513, which is the Small-billed Water-
Thrush. Vieillot, in 1807, noticed this curious circumstance, which
authors have generally overlooked, and correctly allocated the
synonymy. The name ricevius is unobjectionable, has priority, and
must obtain.

4. Name of the Laboe-billed Watbb-Thbush. — This is properly
Siurus motcunlla (Vieill.), Bp., for the Turdus motacilla^ accurately
described and recognizably figured by Vieillot in 1807, is unques-

reason, common sense certainly tells us to spell correctly if we can. If we are
always to preserve the original forms of names, we must, for example, say Scopo*
lax instead of Scolcpax — it so stands in Linn. Syst, Nat. i, 1766, p. 242.

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tionably this species. Yieillot knetir the other species, which he
figured and described in the same work. Bonaparte called it
Seiurtis motacilla in 1850, though in 1824 he had called the other
species Turdus motacUlOy and Cabanis, in 1857, HenxcocicMa mo-
tacUla ; but writers have usually adopted Audubon's term ludovici-
anus, proposed in 1832, notwithstanding that this author soon
abandoned his species, under the wrong impression it was not dif-
ferent firom S. ncevius, " Stunts motaciUa " is not a very choice
name, meaning " wagtailed Wagtail," but it is no worse than Mus
musculus, XaiUhocephalus icterocephalus, Columba palumbus, Regulus
satrapa, and a host of other names, the two terms of which mean
the same thing ; nor as bad as Sialta sialisy Cupidonta cupido, the
sense and sound of which agree.

I append the synonymy of the species of this genus, the list of
names here to be given being much more accurate, more extensive,
and more nearly complete than any hitherto collated :

1. Siarus amloaplllus.
Motacilla aurocapilla. Link., Syst. Nat i, 12th ed. 1766, 334, No. 29

(based on Brisson and Edwards, as below cited).
Turdus aurocapillus, Lath., Ind. Om. i, 1790, 328, No. 6.
Sylvia aurocapillay Bonaf., Joum. Philada. Acad, iv, 1824, 35.
Sdunis aurocapUluSy Swains., Philos. Mag. i, 1827, 369 ; ZooL Joum. ill.

1827, 171.
Sciurus aurocapiUus, D'Orbig., Ois. Cuba, 1839, 66.
Siurus aurocapUlus, ScL. & Salv., Ibis, i, 1859, 9. — A. & R Newt., ibid,

EnieociMa aurocapUlOy " Qrat." (Beference not at hand as I write.)
EnicociMa aurocapilluSf Brewer, Free. Bost. Soc. N. H. vii, 1860, 306.
HerUeociehla auroca/pUlus, Caban., Mus. Hein. i, 1850, 16.
Turdus aurieapiUus, LiCHT., " Preis-Verz. Mex. Vog. 1830, 2" ; Joum. f.

Cm. 1863, 67. (Orig. ref, not verified by me.)
Accentor auricapillus, BiCH., Bep. Brit. Assoc, for 1836, 1837, 172.
Seiurus auricapiUus, Bonap., Consp. Av. 1850, 306.
HerUeociehla avricapillay Sclat., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1856, 293.
Siwrus awricapilhUf CouES, Birds Colorado Valley, 187-, (MSS, ined.),
Turdus citreusy ? 1 ? MCller, Syst Nat. SuppL 1776, 141 (very problem-
Motacilla eanadejisiSf Boddaert, Tabl. PL EnL 1783, 24 (in part; the

first ref., to P. R 398, f. 2, and the ref. to Edw. GL 252, are to this sp.,

but the other refe. are to Dendrceca eoronata).
Turdus minimus, Bartr., Trav. Fla., Ist Am. ed. 1791, 290bis (not of

Lafr., nor of authors).

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Twrdui eoTonaius, Yieill., Ois. Am. Sept ii, 1807, 8, pL 64

Aiiihus caronatusy Oebhardt, Naumannia, iii, 1853, 38.

Ficedula permlvanica aurocapilla, Brii^., Orn. iii, 1760, 504, No. 57.

Figuier d teste d^or de pendlvanie, Bbiss., op^ loc. cit

Goldm-crmimed Thrush^ Edw., " Glean. 91, pL 262." (Not verified by me.)

QriveUtte de S, Domingue, Burr., " Hiat. Nat Ois. iii, 317.** (Not verified

by me.)
Petite Grive de St. Domingue, of Planche Enlum. 398, L 2 (see the citation

of Boddaert, above).
Orive couronnA, Vieillot, op.^ loc. cit.
Land Kick-vpy Gobse, B. Jam. 1847, 152.
Golden-croumed Accentor^ Golden-^^rotmed Wagtail, Orange-croumed Accentor^

Oven-bird, of Authors,

2. Biurnfl naBriufl.

MotaciOa nmrna, Bodd., TabL 1783, 47 ; based on H. Enlum. 752, 1 1.
Biwus nemtw, CouES, Birds Colorado Valley, 187-, {MSS. ined.),
MotaciUa noveboraceneisj Gmel., Syst Nat 13th ed. 1788, 958, No. 69

(based primarily on P. R 752, f . 1 = n(Bvia Bodd.).
Sylvia noveboracensis, Lath., Ind. Om. ii, 1790, 518, No. 33.

Turdui navehoracendsy ? — Peabodt, Rep. Om. Mass. 1839, 306.

Turdtu (Seiurue) noveboraceneisy Nutt., Man. Om. orig. ed. i, 1832, 353.

Seinrus noveboracensisy Bonap., Comp. and Geog. List 1838, 21.

Siurus noveboracenns, Sol. & Salv., Ibi8,i, 1859, 10. — A. & R Newt.,

ibid. 142.
Seinnu noveboracensiSy Henshaw, App. LL. Ann. Rep. Chf. Engr. U. S.

Army, for 1875, p. — (p. 59 of sep. paged pamph. List B. Arizona).
EnicodcMa noveboracensi$y " Gkay." (Ret not at hand ; probably Gen.

Henicocichla novebaracensiBy Caban., '^ Schomb. Guiana, iii, 1848, 66 " ;

Mus. Hein. i, 1850, 16.
MotaciUa novceboraceneisy TuRioif, Syst Nat, English mal-veraion, i, 1806,

Tardus (Seiurus) novceboracensiSy Nutt., Man. 2d ed. i, 1840, 402 (in part ;

includes another species).
Seiurus novceboracensis, ? — Prattbk, Tians. Illinois Agric Soc i,

1855, 601.
Seiurus novasboracentisy Putnam^ Ptoc Essex Inst i, 1856, 209.
MotaciUa tigrina var. jS, Gh., Syst Nat 13th ed. i, 1788, 985, No. 153

(= Briss. iii, 513, No. 62, pL 28, f. 5).
MotaciUa tigrinoy 2, Tubton, op. loc cit.
Sylvia tigrina var* ft Lath., Ind. Om. ii, 1790, 537, No. 110 |8 (= Gm.

No. 153 /3).
MotadUafluviatiliSy Babtr., Trav. Fla. 1st Am. ed. 1791, 291.
Turdus agwUicuSy Wils., Am. Om. iii, 1811, 66, pL 23, f. 5.

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Seiurus aquaticus, Sw. and Rich., Fn. Bor. Am. ii, 1831, 229, pL 43.

Turdus oguaHus, Bonap., Joum. Phila. Acad, iv, 1824, 34.

Sylvia anthoides, Vibill., " Nouv. Diet d'Hist. Nat 1817, 208." (Not

verified by me.)
Turdus motaeiUctj Bonap., Journ. Phila. Acad, iv, 1824, 36 (not of Vieill.).
Seiurus tenuirostris, Swains., Philos. Mag. i, 1827, 369.
Sdurus tmuirostriSf Gamb.,^ Proc. Phila. Acad, i, 1843, 261.

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