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cisdj the same character. Junco inmdar%$ may likewise be com-
pared with the species of CactomU^ in which the bill has be-
come so extremely produced as to have almost lost its fringilline
character.

The three species above-mentioned exhibit the local modifications
to the greatest extent, but the rule may be traced through the
whole series ; and to show the exact extent of these modifications
of form we present the following table of measurements of each of
the Guadalupe species compared with those of the mainland refM'e-
sentative form, the measurements representing the maximum and
minimum of a l/xr^e series of each : —



SPBCIXS.


MAXIMUU.


MINIHUU.


Wing.


TaU.


Bill

from

Nostril.


Tar-
sus.


Middle
Toe.


Wiog.


T»J1.

1.70
1.60
1.80
2.00
2.00
2.20
2.60
2.40
2.80
2.80
8.26
4.00
4.76
6.60
10.60
9.00


Bill

from

Noetril.


Tar-
sus.

.80
.66
.70
.68
.80
.78
.76
.62
.80
.80
1.00
1.06

sio

8.20


Middle
Toe.


Regius obiKurus*

^ ealendula

" bewlcW

« obtolems....
Qtrvodaaa amplvs

" frontaUfl

Jymto insuloris • « • • •


2J20
2.46
1.90
2.38
2.76
8X)0
8.86
8.20
2.86

1^

8.eo

6.26

7.00

16.40

1660


1.96
2.08
1.80
2.70
2.80
2.42
2.90
290
2.60
8.40
2.80
460
6.80
6.00
11.65
10.00


.26
.28

.60

.46

.60

M

.46

.86

.88

.80

.40

.40

1.60

1.26

1.86

1.48


.80

.76

.76

.80

.90

.90

.86

.70

.86

.80

1.06

1.06

1.10

1.20

8.76

8.76


.40
JUS
M
£0
.66
.68
.66
.60
.60
.60
.76
.76
.92
.86
2-10
2.10



2.00
2.20
1.86
2.00
2.60
2.66
8.10
2.86
2.60
8.00
2.90
8.80
6.90
666
16.00
14.60


.22

.20

.46

.88

.66

.60

.40

.80

.86

.28

.86

.86

1.86

1.16

126

1.20


.88
.86
.60
.46
4i0
.66
.68
.60
.56
.65
.60
.70

180
1.90


FipUo consotrimnt

Cotaptetn^fipiUyu WWW

DMldoUllU.. •• ••

Polybonu lutosut

oberiwaj



* The GiuuUlape species are in Italics.

A dose perusal of the above figures leads to the discovery of
some exceptions to the rule of variation in proportions. Thus,
Re^^ulus obscurus, while conforming in other respects, does not have
the tail constantly shorter than B, calendula, although it averages
shorter. There is also no appreciable difference in the absolute
length of the tarsus in the two forms of Thryomanes and Salpinctes,
though the comparative difference in favor of T, brevicauda and S.
chsoletuSy when contrasted with the length of the wings and tail, is
very marked.



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62 * BULLETIN OF THE NUTTALL

These exceptions we are unable to explain, but even unaccounted
for they do not detract from the high importance of the variations
we have noted. It will also be observed that there is no essential
difference in dimensions or proportions between Fdyhorus ItUomts
and F. cheriway, the modifications being almost entirely in the
plumage, which in the former species is so distinct, at all ages,
from that of the other in corresponding stages that it may be re-
garded as one of the most completely differentiated birds of the
whole series.

.Not only in proportions, but also in colors, do the modifications
presented by these Guadalupe birds correlate with characteristics
of the Galapagoan forms. A conspicuous character of the latter is
their sombre plumage of black or fuliginous-brown ; now, excepting
only Polyhorus lutMus, precisely the difference in plumage of the
Guadalupe birds from their Continental allies consists in their
darker colors. Carpodactis amplus, although a bird of at least double
the bulk of C. frontalis, is so nearly identical in plumage that
positively the only difference consists in the slightly darker shade
of all the colors ; Junco insularis is darker than J, annectensf but is
otherwise similar in plumage ; Regulus obsatrus is much darker
than B, calendula; Thryomanes brevicanda and Salpinctes guada'
lupensis are likewise darker in colors than T. bevdcki and S, obsoletus,
while Colaptes rufipUeus differs from C, mexicanus in having one
half more black on the under side of the tail, besides being darker
generally. In PipUo consobrinus, however, the black portions of the
plumage are hardly so intense black as in the mainland forms of
F. maculatus, but Uu female is almost if not quite as Hack as the
male,'* while in the others she is more or less conspicuously differ-
ent, being some shade of brown or gray instead of black. As
remarked before, the only real exception to the rule is Folyborus
lutosus, but this has a quite different distribution of colors from
the two Continental species; it may be observed, however, that
while the black markings are replaced by dark brown, the lighter
markings are pale clay-color instead of white; and further, that
there is far less difference between the young and adult stages.

Not the least interesting fact concerning these Guadalupe birds



* The similarity of the sexes in birds having a black plumage is remark-
ably prevalent among the West India birds, as Professor Baird has somewhere
noted.



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ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB. 63

is their anomalous geographical relation to their mainland repre-
sentatives, the latter being the Rocky Mountain or Middle Province
races instead of those from the intervening coast districts I Thus,
Carpodacus amplus agrees with C, frontalis in the restriction of the
red in the male to sharply defined and limited areas, the coast form,
C frontalis rkodocolpus^ having the red " spread," as it were, over
the greater portion of the plumage; Junco insularis is a perfect
repetition of J, annectens so far as plumage is concerned (except
that the shades of color are somewhat darker), and does not at all
resemble J, oregomts of the coast. Thryomanes hrevicauda is colored
more like T. hewicki leucogaster (the Upper Rio Grande form) than
T. bewicki spilunis (the coast form) ; while Salpinctes guadalupensis
differs in the same way from ^S'. ohsoletuSj which, moreover, is not
represented at all in the coast district, except perhaps rarely and
locally in Southern and Lower California.

The peninsula above mentioned also presents in many respects
closer affinities to the middle region than to the coast district, espe-
cially in the fauna found at Cape Saint Lucas ; but on the western
side many of the true Califomian forms replace those of the Middle
Province, Carpodacus rhodocolpiis being a case in point, this species
thus entering as a separating wedge between (7. frontalis and G.
amplus/ Now very similar anomalous cases occur among Galapagos
birds, an entirely parallel instance being afforded by Dendrceca au-
reoloy of which Mr. Salvin (1. c, p. 474) remarks : " The bird from
the Galapagos [meaning the above-named form] is the same as that
from Jamaica,* whereas on the intervening continent two other (so-
called) species occur — namely, D. cestiva as a winter migrant, and
D, vieilloti as a resident — but never, as far as we know, D, petechia,''^
Another quite similar case is afforded by Myiarchus magnirostris
of the Galapagos, since Mr. Salvin says that ** its nearest allies are
perhaps the island races of the Antilles rather than those of the
continent ; and in this respect the affinities of Dendrasca aureola
are, to some extent, repeated ; but in the present case the specific
characters of M» magnirostris are well defined " (1. c, p. 492).

In the paper above referred to, are incorporated notes by the col-
lector, Dr. Habel, on the habits of the species ; and in these refer-

* We do not agree with Mr. Salvin in considering the forms of this species
from the West Indies and the Galapagos absolutely identical^ but recognize in
them well-marked races, differing from each other about as much as the Gua-
dalupe birds do from those of the mainland*



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64 BULLETIN OF TBE NUTTALL

enoe is made to the exceeding tumeness of certain Galapagos birds.
A similar confidence in man was likewise found to be a characteristic
of some of the Guadalupe ^>ecies, as an instance of which we quote
the following from Dr. IPalmer's notes regarding Junco insularis [see
page 189 of our paper, cited at the head of this article] : ''These are
the most abundant birds of the island, and are so tame that thej xjoaj
be killed with a stick or captured in a butterflj-net. WhUe I was
looking for insects under st<Mies and logs, these birds would sometimes
join in the search, and hop almost into mj hands. They gathered
chiefly ants and their e^s. At times thej even enter the houses,
picking up anything edible they can find. Numbers boarded the
schooner as we neared the island, and made themselves perfectly at
home, roaming over every part of the vessel in search of. food." It
seems, howev^, that not all the birds of the island were thus unsus-
picious and familiar, since Dr. Palmer remarks that it is difficult to
secure I7ityamane$ bremoauda, on account of its shyness.

In conclusion, a few words regarding the derivation of these insu-
lar forms may not be out of place. As to those of the Galapagos,
Mr.Salvin expresses the following opinion: ''Considering their purely
volcanic nature, it cannot reasonably be doubted that these islands
have always been islands since they emei^ged from the sea. Such
is Mr. Darwin's view ; and it is fully indorsed by Dr. Hook^ and
others. The birds that are now found, being related to American
birds, must have emigrated thrice and become modified by the dif-
erent circumstances with which they became surrounded. The oldest
immigrants seem to be indicated by their generic difference from their
continental allies, the more modem comers by their merely specific
distinctness, and the most recent by their identity with birds now
found on the adjoining continent. On this view the islands were
first taken possession of by individuals of the parent stock of Cer-
thidea and CcniroBtrufmy Geotpiza and Guiraea, Camarbynokus and
Neorhynchui, Then came perhaps the aneestors of Buteo [^cpa-
geruis] * ; after these fdlowed Mimusy Pyroeephalus, and MjfiarckuSf
Strix and Adoy Zenceda, Zarus and Spkeniicfu. Then those of Dem-
drceca, Frogne, Butartdes, Nycticorcix^ and ParzcmUy and, finally, Doli"
ehanyx cryzivoruSy Ardea herodiasy and the Ducks, Flamingo, Gan-
nets, Plovers, and Sandpipers, though <^ these last a ccHistant stream

* The nearest lOly of the Galapagoan Buteo is B. polio$omu8 of the Patagoniau
regioiu



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OKmTHOLOGICAL CLUB, 65

of immigrants may have been maintained Anom the earliest times.
It must be remembered, however, that no precise order of immigra-
tion can be laid down, even approximately; for one term in the
proposition is an absolutely unknown quantity. We know nothing
of the rate of change that has taken place in any one species.
Outward circumstances may have acted on one species, so as to
leave it little changed in a given time, whilst in the same time an-
other species may have assumed distinctive generic characters.
Viewing the very peculiar physical characters of these islands when
contrasted with the neighboring American shores, it would seem
reasonaUe that the rate of change demanded of an immigrant
species would be high ; consequently the origin of the islands need
not be dated back to a more distant period- than seems indicated by
their volcanic origin,"

Considered in connection with the subject discussed above, the
birds of Guadalupe are of extreme interest, since they apparently
represent a transition stage through which those of the Galapagos
once undoubtedly passed. Nothing, unfortunately, is known to the
writer as to the geological structure of Guadalupe ; the character of
the modifications presented in its birds, however, point strongly to its
volcanic origin, and render it extremely probable that the upheaval
took place at a more recent date than that of the Galapagos. The
earliest immigrants to this island were probably the ancestors of
PolyhoruB lutostUf which has become completely differentiated in
plumage but not perceptibly altered in the details of structure,* and
those of Carpodacus amplrts, whose modifications of external struc-



* The case of this species presents a very curions problem. Its origin from
P. cheriway^ the only species now inhabiting Middle America, and even north-
cm South America, can scarcely be doubted ; but the modifications which the
Guadalupe species has undergone tend toward the distinguishing characters of
the South American form (P. tharua). The two continental representatives of
this genus have undoubtedly had a common origin, the differences between them
coming under the scope of ordinary geographical laws of variation in this
family, as at present understood. The differentiation of the Guadalupe form is
of a most remarkable kind, however, being apparently a partial reversion to the
featurefl of the Southern form ; but some of the characters which distinguish
the latter from its Northern analogues are even greatly exaggerated in this North'
em innUar form I In this instance, then, the differentiation has been a kind
of retrocession, with no change in details of structure, while in all the other
forms of the island the differentiation has been of the opposite kind, affecting
the proportions more than the colors.



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66 BULLETIN OF THE NUTTALL

ture have almost^ if not quite, reached generic distinctness, while
the colors have remained essentially unaltered. The same may be
said of Junco insularts, Tktyomanes hrevicaudOy and Colaptes rufi-
pUeus, while the remaining species, Regtdus obKurns, SalpincteB gua-
dalvpendsy and Pipilo cansobrinus are either more recent arrivals or
species in which the process of change has been comparatively
slow.



AN UNDESCRIBED HYBRID BETWEEN TWO NORTH
AMERICAN GROUSK

BT WILLIAM BREWSTER.

In the preparation of the following paper I have hesitated not a
little as to ^he propriety of giving a name to the bird about to be
described. That it is a hybrid between the Pinnated Grouse
(Cupidonia cupido) and the Southern race of the Sharp-tailed
Grouse (Pedicecetes phastandlus var. columhianus) is unquestionable,
and, further, I consider it almost equally certain that offspring
resulting from such unnatural connections are of regular, perhaps
even not uncommon, occurrence wherever the two just mentioned
species are found together. Indeed, I am aware at the time of
writing, of three other similar specimens in private cabinets, and I
have heard of additional ones. Although I have examined but one
besides my own, I understand that they are all in every way nearly
identical, and the fact of their having been procured from different
localities must go far towards proving that their occurrence is by
no means exceptional or unique. Granting this to be a fact, it
seems reasonable that so distinctly specialized a form should bear a
distinguishing name, for though certainly the result of a mesalliance,
and combining in itself characters peculiar to two different species,
it is yet unlike either.
' But I do not claim originality for a system that has been long
established among European authorities. In respect to the name
to be adopted I shall follow the practice of Mr. Robert Collett.
This gentleman, in writing upon the " Rakkelhane," a hybrid be-
tween Tetrao urogallus and T, tettix, says,* it " is a compound and

* Remarks on the Ornithology of Northern Norway by Robert Collett From
the Forhandl. Yidensk. Selsk. Christiania, 1872. (Page 50 of the reprint.)



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ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB. 67

not a simple species, and should, therefore, as such, have a com-
pound and not a simple name." The propriety of this must, I
think, impress every one, but in endeavoring to carry out his plan
in the present instance I have experienced a serious diflBculty.

In naming hybrid forms Mr. Collett makes use of the generic title
of the male parent alone, the ^^ compound** part being made up
from the specific appellations of both parents. Thus he calls the
offspring of the male Ptarmigan {Lagopus albv^), paired with the
female Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), Lagopus tetrici-albus, the numer-
ous recorded facts at his disposal enabling him to deci(}e upon the
respective specific relation of both parents with almost absolute cer-
tainty. But in the present case the entire absence of any facts
bearing upon this part of the problem reduces me to the somewhat
dangerous limits of mere conjecture, or, what is little better, the
relative preponderance of specific resemblance exhibited by the speci-
men before me. Not to weary the reader by a too exhaustive pre-
liminary discussion of detail, I will restrict myself to the simple
statement that after careful examination I believe the hybrid
Grouse about to be described the offspring of a connection between
Cupidonia cupido, male, and Pedicecetes phasianellus var. columbi-
anu8, female, and I accordingly bestow upon it, provisionally, the
compound name Cupidonia cupidini-columbiana.

Distinctive Characters. — Adult male, from a specimen in my col-
lection, obtained in Iowa. Size and general proportions of Pedimcetes
phasianellus var edumhianv^. Tail of sixteen feathers exclusive of two
central prejecting ones. Tarsi feathered as in Cupidonia. Neck-tufts 1.50
inches long. Upper ^tail-coverts coextensive with the rectrices. Above
similar to Cupidonia cupido; wing-coverts (but not the scapulars) white-
spotted, as in Pedicecetes. Breast and sides l)arred transversely, as in
cupido; abdomen whitCy sparsely covered with obtuse V-shaped spots of
brown. Head, neck, and throat-markings precisely as in C. cupido. Neck-
tufts dark brown ; the longer ones not so stiff as those of C. cupido, the
shorter dull yellow. Tail generally similar in shape and color to that of
C, cupido, but with a central pair of elongated feathers "with parallel
edges and truncated ends,'* which project .52 of an inch beyond the next
pair. These projecting feathers are tipped with light brown like the other
rectrices ; subterminally for the space of about an inch they are solidly
block, — anteriorly, with ragged rusty-yellow bars. The outer webs of the
outer pair of rectrices are irregularly white. The measurements, taken
from the dried specimen, are as follows : Wing, 8.57 ; tail, 3.25, — two
central feathers, .52 longer ; bill, depth, .40, length from nostril, .50 ; tar-
us, 2.03 ; middle toe, 2.75.



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68 BULLETIN OF THE NUTTALL

It will appear from the above description that this bird combines in
nearly equal proportions the characters of Pedicecetes and Oupidonia. In
the general pattern of coloration of the plumage it most resembles C. cupidoy
but the abdomen is spotted like the breast of Pedictcetts, and the wing-
coverts are marked precisely as in that species. It 1^ the neck-tufts of
Cupidonia and the pixxjecting tail-feathers of Pedioscetes, both of these
characters, however, slightly modified. A remarkable feature appears in
the extension of the upper tail-coverts nearly to the tips of the rectrices.



^tctnt %ittvutnvt.

Nelson's "Birds op Noktheastern Illinois."* — Under the above
title Mr. E. W. Nelson gives us the results of three years' investigation in.
Cook and Lake Counties in the northeastern comer of Illinois, "a belt
about twenty-five miles wide, bordering Lake Michigan in Illinois,'' in-
cluding the field considered. As he remarks, the locality seems to form
" a kind of four-comers where the avian faunae of four regions intergrade" ;
hence we find a somewhat novel juxtaposition of species. On or near the
lake occur many birds formerly considered as more or less exclusively
maritime. Notably among those of this class found in summer are -4 m-
modromus caudacutus and jEgiulitis melodus ; during the migrations,
Strepnlas interpresy Tringa maritima, T* canut<iy CcUidris arenaria, and
MicropcUama kimantopus ; in winter, Histrioniciis torqtuUuSj Hardda gla-
dalis, SoTnateria moUissima, S, spectabilisy Larus glauctu, and L. leucopterus.
As might be expected, the species properly belonging to the Carolinian
fauna which reach this point are, with a few exceptions, of either uncom-
mon or rare occurrence, and they here seem to touch' the extreme north-
em limit of their range in that longitude. But most interesting are the
records of northern birds breeding so far south, especially Limicoline and
Natatorial species. Thus Mr. Nelson has found nesting in greater or less
abundance, Tringa minutiUa, Totanus melanoleuctis, T. flavipesy T. solita-
rily, Mareca americana, Fulix affinU, F. coUaris^ ErUmatura rubidcty Mer-
gu8 serrator, and some others.

It is not, however, from the simple enumeration of species, that this list
derives its chief value and interest, but from the unusually complete and
satisfactory character of the biographical annotations, which embrace good
descriptions of the habits of many birds previously but little known.

Thus Mr. Nelson describes the songs of Turdus cUidce and Oporomi$

* Birds of Northeastern Illinois. By E. W. Nelson. Bulletin of the Essex
Institute, VoL VIII, 1876, Nos. 9-12, pp. 90-165, April, 1877.



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0R2^tTE0L0GICAL CLUB. 69

agUu, tbe eggs of Totama melanoUucus, and tells us of Night Herons
(NycHardm grisea nivma) breeding in the open marshes of Fox River,
placing their nests among the wild rice. Emphatically there is no luTnber
about this paper. It gives, in clear, concise language, the results of ex-
tended, carefully and intelligently conducted observations in a region
almost wholly unworked, and from its geographical situation and topo-
graphical character and surroundings, most rich in results. As an impor-
tant and valuable faunal contribution to our knowledge of North American
Ornithology, Mr. Nelson's list cannot fail to take first rank. — W. R

Salvik on the PROCELLARiiDiB. — In the fourth part of the '• Ornitho-
logical Miscellany," edited by Mr. G. D. Rowley, Professor Osbert Salvin
has given the first of avaluable series of papers, in which he seeks to
throw all possible light upon this very obscure family. This paper is in
two parts. The first is devoted to an examination of the unpublished
•* Banks* drawings,** and the manuscripts of Dr. Solander, so far as they
relate to the Petrels. These drawings are sixteen in number,, and are pre-
sumed to have been drawn by §ydney Parkinson, one of the artists in the
employ of Sir Joseph Banks, in the " Endeavor," under Captain Cook.
The manuscript notes of Dr. Solander are in the British Museum. As
Bonaparte and Gray have introduced Dr. Solander's names into our orni-
thological nomenclature, even where unaccompanied by descriptions and
unpublished, Mr. Salvin has done the world good service in testing the
vitality of these names.

ProceUaiia oceanica of Solander stands as Oceanites oceanicas of KuhL
It is better known as ThdUiaaidroma wiUoni, Proeellaria ofquorea of Solan-
der, (= P. marina of Latham, and confounded by Kuhl with P. fregatay
a distinct species, in which he was followed by Gray, and for a time by
Coues), stands as Pelagodroma marina. Proeellaria fregata of Solander stands
as Fregata grallaria, Proeellaria turtur (Sol.) = Prion turtur, P. velox
(Sol.) " must continue doubtful." P. gigantea (Sol.) stands as Ossifmga
gigantea, P. fuliginoM Mr. Salvin traces with some diflficulty to Maja*
queus cequinoetialiij but without doubt. P. sandaliata, a " long-lost *' spe-
cies, now reappears in the CEstrelata armingoniana of Giglioli and Salva-
dori (Ibis, 1869), and to their name Mr. Salvin gives the preference, fol-
lowing the Golden Rule in questions of nomenclature.

P. lugens of Solander cannot be placed. Euhl and Gray made it the
same with P. grinea = (Estrelata kiddm^ Coues ^ (E, hrevirostris Lesson,
— the latter being the proper name, and the same as P. tristis Forst.
and P. amauroeoma Coues ; but, according to Mr. Salvin, incorrectly.
P. lugens must thus be left in abeyance. Neetris fuliginosa of Solander
Mr. Salvin is convinced = Pufflniu griseua Finsch. Neetris munda
Solander may apply to P. gavia Forst. (= P. opisthomelas Coues), but
this is regarded as doubtful. Diomedea antaretica (Sol.) is probably =
D. fuliginoaaj and Diomedea profuga possibly = D, chlororhyncha.



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70 BULLETIN OF THE NUTTALL

Mr. Salvin's second paper is a careful examinatioii of the new species
of Petrels obtained hy Dr. H. H. Giglioli during the voyage of the Italian,
corvette "Magenta" round the world, and described in the "Ibis" in
1869. Mr. Salviu examined the type specimens, and accompanies his



Online LibraryNuttall Ornithological ClubBulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club: a quarterly jjournal of ornithology → online text (page 19 of 50)